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Matti Narkia

Meta-analysis of prospective cohort studies evaluating the association of saturated fat... - 2 views

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    Meta-analysis of prospective cohort studies evaluating the association of saturated fat with cardiovascular disease.
    Siri-Tarino PW, Sun Q, Hu FB, Krauss RM.
    Am J Clin Nutr. 2010 Jan 13. [Epub ahead of print]
    PMID: 20071648
    doi:10.3945/ajcn.2009.27725

    Conclusions: A meta-analysis of prospective epidemiologic studies showed that there is no significant evidence for concluding that dietary saturated fat is associated with an increased risk of CHD or CVD. More data are needed to elucidate whether CVD risks are likely to be influenced by the specific nutrients used to replace saturated fat.
Matti Narkia

The hypoglycemic effect of fat and protein is not attenuated by insulin resistance -- L... - 0 views

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    The hypoglycemic effect of fat and protein is not attenuated by insulin resistance.
    Lan-Pidhainy X, Wolever TM.
    Am J Clin Nutr. 2009 Nov 18. [Epub ahead of print]
    PMID: 19923374
    doi:10.3945/ajcn.2009.28125

    Conclusions: The hypoglycemic effect of fat and protein was not blunted by insulin resistance. Protein increased insulin but had no effect on C-peptide or the insulin secretion rate, which suggests decreased hepatic insulin extraction or increased C-peptide clearance.
Matti Narkia

Cardiovascular disease risk of dietary stearic acid compared with trans, other saturate... - 0 views

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    Cardiovascular disease risk of dietary stearic acid compared with trans, other saturated, and unsaturated fatty acids: a systematic review1,3.
    Hunter JE, Zhang J, Kris-Etherton PM.
    Am J Clin Nutr. 2009 Nov 25. [Epub ahead of print]
    PMID: 19939984
    doi:10.3945/ajcn.2009.27661

    Conclusions: TFA intake should be reduced as much as possible because of its adverse effects on lipids and lipoproteins. The replacement of TFA with STA compared with other saturated fatty acids in foods that require solid fats beneficially affects LDL cholesterol, the primary target for CVD risk reduction; unsaturated fats are preferred for liquid fat applications. Research is needed to evaluate the effects of STA on emerging CVD risk markers such as fibrinogen and to understand the responses in different populations.
Matti Narkia

n-3 Fatty acids and cardiovascular disease -- Breslow 83 (6): S1477 -- American Journal... - 0 views

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    n-3 fatty acids and cardiovascular disease.
    Breslow JL.
    Am J Clin Nutr. 2006 Jun;83(6 Suppl):1477S-1482S. Review.
    PMID: 16841857

    The results of prospective cohort studies indicate that consuming fish or fish oil containing the n-3 fatty acids eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) is associated with decreased cardiovascular death, whereas consumption of the vegetable oil-derived n-3 fatty acid {alpha}-linolenic acid is not as effective. Randomized control trials (RCTs) in the context of secondary prevention also indicate that the consumption of EPA plus DHA is protective at doses <1 g />3 g/d, EPA plus DHA can improve cardiovascular disease risk factors, including decreasing plasma triacylglycerols, blood pressure, platelet aggregation, and inflammation, while improving vascular reactivity. Mainly on the basis of the results of RCTs, the American Heart Association recommends that everyone eat oily fish twice per week and that those with coronary heart disease eat 1 g/d of EPA plus DHA from oily fish or supplements. Directions for future research include 1) RCTs to confirm the initial trials showing that EPA plus DHA decreases cardiovascular death and additional studies to determine whether this effect is due to EPA, DHA, or the combination; the dosage of the effective components; and whether the mechanism of action in humans is prevention of fatal arrhythmias. 2) Clinical studies to determine whether the reduction in cardiovascular disease risk factors is due to EPA, DHA, or the combination and the dosage of the effective components. 3) Clinical studies to determine whether vegetable oil-derived {alpha}-linolenic acid added to a diet enriched in n-6 fatty acids can effectively substitute for fish oil-derived EPA plus DHA.
Matti Narkia

n-3 Fatty acids and cardiovascular disease: mechanisms underlying beneficial effects --... - 0 views

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    n-3 Fatty acids and cardiovascular disease: mechanisms underlying beneficial effects.
    Jung UJ, Torrejon C, Tighe AP, Deckelbaum RJ.
    Am J Clin Nutr. 2008 Jun;87(6):2003S-9S.
    PMID: 18541602

    Dietary n-3 fatty acids, particularly eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid, are important nutrients through the life cycle. Evidence from observational, clinical, animal, and in vitro studies indicates a beneficial role of n-3 fatty acids in the prevention and management of cardiovascular disease. Although the precise mechanisms are still unclear, clinical and preclinical studies indicate that the cardioprotective effects of n-3 fatty acids may be attributed to a number of distinct biological effects on lipid and lipoprotein metabolism, blood pressure, platelet function, arterial cholesterol delivery, vascular function, and inflammatory responses.

    Substantial evidence supports n-3 fatty acids as a practical, therapeutic adjuvant for promoting cardiovascular health and preventing and treating disease. n-3 Fatty acids modulate a number of important physiologic responses that can contribute to their cardioprotective effects. The multiple and complex mechanisms through which DHA and EPA exert their action appear to be distinct but also complementary. However, more studies are needed to quantify their protective effects and to define exact mechanisms of action.
Matti Narkia

n-3 Fatty acids and gene expression -- Deckelbaum et al. 83 (6): S1520 -- American Jour... - 0 views

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    n-3 fatty acids and gene expression.
    Deckelbaum RJ, Worgall TS, Seo T.
    Am J Clin Nutr. 2006 Jun;83(6 Suppl):1520S-1525S. Review. Erratum in: Am J Clin Nutr. 2006 Oct;84(4):949.
    PMID: 16841862

    Accumulating evidence in both humans and animal models clearly indicates that a group of very-long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids, the n-3 fatty acids (or omega-3), have distinct and important bioactive properties compared with other groups of fatty acids. n-3 Fatty acids are known to reduce many risk factors associated with several diseases, such as cardiovascular diseases, diabetes, and cancer. The mechanisms whereby n-3 fatty acids affect gene expression are complex and involve multiple processes. As examples, n-3 fatty acids regulate 2 groups of transcription factors, such as sterol-regulatory-element binding proteins and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors, that are critical for modulating the expression of genes controlling both systemic and tissue-specific lipid homeostasis. Modulation of specific genes by n-3 fatty acids and cross-talk between these genes are responsible for many effects of n-3 fatty acids.
Matti Narkia

Fish intake is associated with a reduced progression of coronary artery ather... - 0 views

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    Fish intake is associated with a reduced progression of coronary artery atherosclerosis in postmenopausal women with coronary artery disease.
    Erkkilä AT, Lichtenstein AH, Mozaffarian D, Herrington DM.
    Am J Clin Nutr. 2004 Sep;80(3):626-32.
    PMID: 15321802

    Conclusions: Consumption of fish is associated with a significantly reduced progression of coronary artery atherosclerosis in women with coronary artery disease.
Matti Narkia

Fish consumption and risk of major chronic disease in men -- Virtanen et al. 88 (6): 16... - 0 views

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    Fish consumption and risk of major chronic disease in men.
    Virtanen JK, Mozaffarian D, Chiuve SE, Rimm EB.
    Am J Clin Nutr. 2008 Dec;88(6):1618-25.
    PMID: 19064523
    doi:10.3945/ajcn.2007.25816

    Conclusions: Modest fish consumption was associated with a lower risk of total cardiovascular disease, consistent with cardiac mortality benefits but not with total cancer or overall major chronic disease; n-6 fatty acid consumption did not influence these relations.
Matti Narkia

Effect of soy protein varying in isoflavone content on serum lipids in healthy young me... - 0 views

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    Effect of soy protein varying in isoflavone content on serum lipids in healthy young men.
    McVeigh BL, Dillingham BL, Lampe JW, Duncan AM.
    Am J Clin Nutr. 2006 Feb;83(2):244-51.
    PMID: 16469981

    Conclusion: Soy protein, regardless of isoflavone content, modulates serum lipid ratios in a direction beneficial for cardiovascular disease risk in healthy young men.
Matti Narkia

Decreased bioavailability of vitamin D in obesity -- Wortsman et al. 72 (3): 690 -- Ame... - 0 views

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    Decreased bioavailability of vitamin D in obesity.
    Wortsman J, Matsuoka LY, Chen TC, Lu Z, Holick MF.
    Am J Clin Nutr. 2000 Sep;72(3):690-3. Erratum in: Am J Clin Nutr. 2003 May;77(5):1342.
    PMID: 10966885

    Conclusions: Obesity-associated vitamin D insufficiency is likely due to the decreased bioavailability of vitamin D3 from cutaneous and dietary sources because of its deposition in body fat compartments.
Matti Narkia

Vitamin D in pregnancy and lactation: maternal, fetal, and neonatal outcomes from human... - 0 views

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    Vitamin D in pregnancy and lactation: maternal, fetal, and neonatal outcomes from human and animal studies.
    Kovacs CS.
    Am J Clin Nutr. 2008 Aug;88(2):520S-528S. Review.
    PMID: 18689394

    Dosing recommendations for women during pregnancy and lactation might be best directed toward ensuring that the neonate is vitamin D-sufficient and that this sufficiency is maintained during infancy and beyond. A dose of vitamin D that provides 25(OH)D sufficiency in the mother during pregnancy should provide normal cord blood concentrations of 25(OH)D. Research has shown that during lactation, supplements administered directly to the infant can easily achieve vitamin D sufficiency; the mother needs much higher doses (100 µg or 4000 IU per day) to achieve adult-normal 25(OH)D concentrations in her exclusively breastfed infant. In addition, the relation (if any) of vitamin D insufficiency in the fetus or neonate to long-term nonskeletal outcomes such as type 1 diabetes and other chronic diseases needs to be investigated.
Matti Narkia

How could changes in diet explain changes in coronary heart disease mortality in Spain?... - 0 views

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    How could changes in diet explain changes in coronary heart disease mortality in Spain? The Spanish paradox.
    Serra-Majem L, Ribas L, Tresserras R, Ngo J, Salleras L.
    Am J Clin Nutr. 1995 Jun;61(6 Suppl):1351S-1359S.
    PMID: 7754987

    We review and compare trends in coronary heart disease (CHD) and stroke mortality in Spain from 1966 to 1990 and changes in food consumption at national and regional levels. Since 1976, a decrease in cardiovascular disease (CVD) mortality in males and females has been observed, and standardized CHD mortality rates have fallen. Stroke mortality decreased during the same period. Trends in food consumption show increases in intakes of meat, dairy products, fish, and fruit, but decreases in consumption of olive oil, sugar, and all foods rich in carbohydrates. Although fat and saturated fat intakes increased, these changes were not accompanied by an increase in CHD mortality rates. This paradoxical situation can be explained by expanded access to clinical care, increased consumption of fruit and fish, improved control of hypertension, and a reduction in cigarette smoking. Diet appears to have an important role in this paradox, but it may not be as critical as other factors. Nevertheless, we suggest dietary guidelines for prevention of CHD in Spain.
Matti Narkia

A vitamin D nutritional cornucopia: new insights concerning the serum 25-hydroxyvitamin... - 0 views

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    A vitamin D nutritional cornucopia: new insights concerning the serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D status of the US population.
    Norman AW.
    Am J Clin Nutr. 2008 Dec;88(6):1455-6.
    PMID: 19064502
    doi:10.3945/ajcn.2008.27049

    In summary, the report of Looker et al should be required reading for all nutritionists, clinicians, and vitamin D aficionados who are decision makers with regard to 25(OH)D assays, vitamin D nutritional policy, and the care of patients with vitamin D-related diseases.
Matti Narkia

Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D status of the US population: 1988-1994 compared with 2000-200... - 0 views

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    Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D status of the US population: 1988-1994 compared with 2000-2004.
    Looker AC, Pfeiffer CM, Lacher DA, Schleicher RL, Picciano MF, Yetley EA.
    Am J Clin Nutr. 2008 Dec;88(6):1519-27.
    PMID: 19064511
    doi:10.3945/ajcn.2008.26182

    Conclusions: Overall, mean serum 25(OH)D was lower in 2000-2004 than 1988-1994. Assay changes unrelated to changes in vitamin D status accounted for much of the difference in most population groups. In an adult subgroup, combined changes in BMI, milk intake, and sun protection appeared to contribute to a real decline in vitamin D status.

    In summary, age-standardized mean serum 25(OH)D concentrations based on observed values were significantly lower in 2000-2004 than in 1988-1994 in all groups examined. Adjustment for assay changes noticeably reduced the difference between surveys. However, mean serum 25(OH)D concentrations remained significantly lower in males (except Mexican Americans) in NHANES 2000-2004 than in NHANES III, even after adjustment for assay differences. This remaining difference likely represents a real decline in vitamin D status. Changes in BMI, milk intake, and sun protection appeared to contribute to this decline in a subgroup of non-Hispanic white adults. The possibility that trends in overweight, sun protection, and milk intake may continue supports the need to continue monitoring the serum 25(OH)D status of the population
Matti Narkia

Meat, eggs, dairy products, and risk of breast cancer in the European Prospective Inves... - 0 views

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    Meat, eggs, dairy products, and risk of breast cancer in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) cohort.
    Pala V, Krogh V, Berrino F, Sieri S, Grioni S, Tjønneland A, Olsen A, Jakobsen MU, Overvad K, Clavel-Chapelon F, Boutron-Ruault MC, Romieu I, Linseisen J, Rohrmann S, Boeing H, Steffen A, Trichopoulou A, Benetou V, Naska A, Vineis P, Tumino R, Panico S, Masala G, Agnoli C, Engeset D, Skeie G, Lund E, Ardanaz E, Navarro C, Sánchez MJ, Amiano P, Svatetz CA, Rodriguez L, Wirfält E, Manjer J, Lenner P, Hallmans G, Peeters PH, van Gils CH, Bueno-de-Mesquita HB, van Duijnhoven FJ, Key TJ, Spencer E, Bingham S, Khaw KT, Ferrari P, Byrnes G, Rinaldi S, Norat T, Michaud DS, Riboli E.
    Am J Clin Nutr. 2009 Sep;90(3):602-12. Epub 2009 Jun 2.
    PMID: 19491385
    doi:10.3945/ajcn.2008.27173

    Conclusions: We have not consistently identified intakes of meat, eggs, or dairy products as risk factors for breast cancer. Future studies should investigate the possible role of high-temperature cooking in the relation of red meat intake with breast cancer risk.
Matti Narkia

Egg consumption, serum cholesterol, and cause-specific and all-cause mortality: the Nat... - 0 views

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    Egg consumption, serum cholesterol, and cause-specific and all-cause mortality: the National Integrated Project for Prospective Observation of Non-communicable Disease and Its Trends in the Aged, 1980 (NIPPON DATA80).
    Nakamura Y, Okamura T, Tamaki S, Kadowaki T, Hayakawa T, Kita Y, Okayama A, Ueshima H; NIPPON DATA80 Research Group.
    Am J Clin Nutr. 2004 Jul;80(1):58-63.
    PMID: 15213028

    Results: The subjects were categorized into 5 egg consumption groups on the basis of their responses to a questionnaire (≥2/d, 1/d, 1/2 d, 1-2/wk, and seldom). There were 69, 1396, 1667, 1742, and 315 women in each of the 5 groups, respectively. Age-adjusted total cholesterol (5.21, 5.04, 4.95, 4.91, and 4.92 mmol/L in the 5 egg consumption categories, respectively) was related to egg consumption (P < 0.0001, analysis of covariance). In women, unadjusted IHD mortality and all-cause mortality differed significantly between the groups [IHD mortality: 1.1, 0.5, 0.4, 0.5, and 2.0 per 1000 person-years, respectively (P = 0.008, chi-square test); all-cause mortality: 14.8, 8.0, 7.5, 7.5, and 14.5 per 1000 person-years, respectively (P < 0.0001, chi-square test)]. In men, egg consumption was not related to age-adjusted total cholesterol. Cox analysis found that, in women, all-cause mortality in the 1-2-eggs/wk group was significantly lower than that in the 1-egg/d group, whereas no such relations were noted in men.

    Conclusion: Limiting egg consumption may have some health benefits, at least in women in geographic areas where egg consumption makes a relatively large contribution to total dietary cholesterol intake.
Matti Narkia

Egg consumption in relation to cardiovascular disease and mortality: the Phys... - 0 views

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    Egg consumption in relation to cardiovascular disease and mortality: the Physicians' Health Study.
    Djoussé L, Gaziano JM.
    Am J Clin Nutr. 2008 Apr;87(4):964-9.
    PMID: 18400720

    Results: In an average follow-up of 20 y, 1550 new myocardial infarctions (MIs), 1342 incident strokes, and 5169 deaths occurred. Egg consumption was not associated with incident MI or stroke in a multivariate Cox regression. In contrast, adjusted hazard ratios (95% CI) for mortality were 1.0 (reference), 0.94 (0.87, 1.02), 1.03 (0.95, 1.11), 1.05 (0.93, 1.19), and 1.23 (1.11, 1.36) for the consumption of <1, 1>< 0.0001). This association was stronger among diabetic subjects, in whom the risk of death in a comparison of the highest with the lowest category of egg consumption was twofold (hazard ratio: 2.01; 95% CI: 1.26, 3.20; P for interaction = 0.09).

    Conclusions: Infrequent egg consumption does not seem to influence the risk of CVD in male physicians. In addition, egg consumption was positively related to mortality, more strongly so in diabetic subjects, in the study population.
Matti Narkia

Egg consumption in relation to cardiovascular disease and mortality: the story gets mor... - 0 views

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    Egg consumption in relation to cardiovascular disease and mortality: the story gets more complex.
    Eckel RH.
    Am J Clin Nutr. 2008 Apr;87(4):799-800.
    PMID: 1840069
Matti Narkia

Metabolic effects of conjugated linoleic acid in humans: the Swedish experien... - 0 views

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    Metabolic effects of conjugated linoleic acid in humans: the Swedish
    experience.
    Riserus U, Smedman A, Basu S, Vessby B.
    Am J Clin Nutr. 2004 Jun;79(6 Suppl):1146S-1148S.
    PMID: 15159248

    CONCLUSIONS
    CLA and specifically the isolated isomers are interesting model fatty acids for studies of the effects of (structural differences of) unsaturated fatty acids in humans. Today, there is no clear indication for human use of CLA concentrates. The possible importance of the small reduction of body fat after supplementation with the commercially available CLA products, without evidence of an associated improvement in the metabolic profile, has to be weighed against the apparent reduction of HDL cholesterol and an increased lipid peroxidation. The possible health consequences of prolonged treatment periods are at present unknown. Human supplementation with high doses of the trans-10,cis-12 CLA isomer should be avoided while awaiting further information on possible effects and side effects. However, it cannot be excluded that future studies could point to clinical applications, eg, as a result of antitumorigenic properties or as a tool to prevent weight gain. This possibility certainly requires more research to increase the understanding of the mechanisms behind the effects of CLA and specific CLA isomers on a molecular level. More controlled studies in defined populations are needed, as are controlled studies for comparisons of the effects of different and well-defined (mixtures of) isomers and human studies of longer duration to secure long-term effects and safety.
Matti Narkia

Effects of cis-9,trans-11 conjugated linoleic acid supplementation on insulin... - 0 views

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    Effects of cis-9,trans-11 conjugated linoleic acid supplementation on insulin sensitivity, lipid peroxidation, and proinflammatory markers in obese men.
    Riserus U, Vessby B, Arnlov J, Basu S.
    Am J Clin Nutr. 2004 Aug;80(2):279-83.
    PMID: 15277146

    CONCLUSIONS: A CLA preparation containing the purified c9,t11 CLA isomer increased insulin resistance and lipid peroxidation compared with placebo in obese men. Because c9,t11 CLA occurs in commercial supplements as well as in the diet, the present results should be confirmed in larger studies that also include women.
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