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Matti Narkia

n-3 Fatty acids and cardiovascular disease -- Breslow 83 (6): S1477 -- American Journal... - 0 views

    n-3 fatty acids and cardiovascular disease.
    Breslow JL.
    Am J Clin Nutr. 2006 Jun;83(6 Suppl):1477S-1482S. Review.
    PMID: 16841857

    The results of prospective cohort studies indicate that consuming fish or fish oil containing the n-3 fatty acids eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) is associated with decreased cardiovascular death, whereas consumption of the vegetable oil-derived n-3 fatty acid {alpha}-linolenic acid is not as effective. Randomized control trials (RCTs) in the context of secondary prevention also indicate that the consumption of EPA plus DHA is protective at doses <1 g />3 g/d, EPA plus DHA can improve cardiovascular disease risk factors, including decreasing plasma triacylglycerols, blood pressure, platelet aggregation, and inflammation, while improving vascular reactivity. Mainly on the basis of the results of RCTs, the American Heart Association recommends that everyone eat oily fish twice per week and that those with coronary heart disease eat 1 g/d of EPA plus DHA from oily fish or supplements. Directions for future research include 1) RCTs to confirm the initial trials showing that EPA plus DHA decreases cardiovascular death and additional studies to determine whether this effect is due to EPA, DHA, or the combination; the dosage of the effective components; and whether the mechanism of action in humans is prevention of fatal arrhythmias. 2) Clinical studies to determine whether the reduction in cardiovascular disease risk factors is due to EPA, DHA, or the combination and the dosage of the effective components. 3) Clinical studies to determine whether vegetable oil-derived {alpha}-linolenic acid added to a diet enriched in n-6 fatty acids can effectively substitute for fish oil-derived EPA plus DHA.
Matti Narkia

n-3 Fatty acids and cardiovascular disease: mechanisms underlying beneficial effects --... - 0 views

    n-3 Fatty acids and cardiovascular disease: mechanisms underlying beneficial effects.
    Jung UJ, Torrejon C, Tighe AP, Deckelbaum RJ.
    Am J Clin Nutr. 2008 Jun;87(6):2003S-9S.
    PMID: 18541602

    Dietary n-3 fatty acids, particularly eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid, are important nutrients through the life cycle. Evidence from observational, clinical, animal, and in vitro studies indicates a beneficial role of n-3 fatty acids in the prevention and management of cardiovascular disease. Although the precise mechanisms are still unclear, clinical and preclinical studies indicate that the cardioprotective effects of n-3 fatty acids may be attributed to a number of distinct biological effects on lipid and lipoprotein metabolism, blood pressure, platelet function, arterial cholesterol delivery, vascular function, and inflammatory responses.

    Substantial evidence supports n-3 fatty acids as a practical, therapeutic adjuvant for promoting cardiovascular health and preventing and treating disease. n-3 Fatty acids modulate a number of important physiologic responses that can contribute to their cardioprotective effects. The multiple and complex mechanisms through which DHA and EPA exert their action appear to be distinct but also complementary. However, more studies are needed to quantify their protective effects and to define exact mechanisms of action.
Matti Narkia

Nordic Nutrition Recommendations 2004 - Norden - 0 views

    "The Nordic countries have for several decades collaborated in setting guidelines for dietary composition and recommended intakes of nutrients. This 4th edition, NNR 2004, contains a summary, presented in Chapters 1 and 2, while the subsequent chapters provide the scientific background documentation. Recommendations have been changed only when strong scientific evidence has evolved since the 3rd edition. A Nordic perspective has been accounted for in setting the recommendations."
Matti Narkia

Benefit-risk assessment of vitamin D supplementation. - Osteoporos Int. 2009 Dec 3. - S... - 0 views

    Benefit-risk assessment of vitamin D supplementation.
    Bischoff-Ferrari HA, Shao A, Dawson-Hughes B, Hathcock J, Giovannucci E, Willett WC.
    Osteoporos Int. 2009 Dec 3. [Epub ahead of print]
    PMID: 19957164

    Conclusion Our analysis suggests that mean serum 25(OH)D levels of about 75 to 110 nmol/l provide optimal benefits for all investigated endpoints without increasing health risks. These levels can be best obtained with oral doses in the range of 1,800 to 4,000 IU vitamin D per day; further work is needed, including subject and environment factors, to better define the doses that will achieve optimal blood levels in the large majority of the population.
Matti Narkia

Why governments are selling Vitamin D short - / Reportage - - 0 views

    "So why is Dr Vieth so frustrated? You might think he'd have cause for celebration. But for him and other vitamin D researchers around the world, the good news comes with a bitter aftertaste. They believe they can prove vitamin D could help millions live longer and be healthier and yet they have not been able to convince their own governments.

    In the US and Canada, official vitamin D policy is set by the Institute of Medicine. And in the opinion of Vieth, the current recommendations - 200 International Units per day for people under 50, 400 for people aged 51-70, and 600 for those 71 and older - are outrageously low. Bruce Hollis, professor of paediatrics at the Medical University of South Carolina, calls 400 IU a day "a joke". That's because the best research suggests that to achieve the higher vitamin D blood levels associated with disease prevention, most adults in the US would need to take 1,000-2,000 IU a day: five to 10 times more than the current official recommendation for adult

    In 1999, Reinhold Vieth (pictured right) published a review of vitamin D research in response to the IOM conclusions. In it, he argued that there was no evidence that amounts lower than 20,000 IU a day could be toxic. "Throughout my preparation of this review, I was amazed at the lack of evidence supporting statements about the toxicity of moderate doses of vitamin D," Vieth wrote.

    Studies have since shown 10,000 IU a day of vitamin D to be safe. While any substance will become toxic in excess, vitamin D researchers today accept that the current vitamin D recommendations could be more than quadrupled with no fear of toxicity.!
Matti Narkia

A Review of Scientific Research and Recommendations Regarding Eggs -- Kritchevsky 23 (S... - 0 views

    A review of scientific research and recommendations regarding eggs.
    Kritchevsky SB.
    J Am Coll Nutr. 2004 Dec;23(6 Suppl):596S-600S. Review.
    PMID: 15640512

    For much of the past 40 years, the public has been warned away from eggs because of a concern over coronary heart disease risk. This concern is based on three observations: 1. eggs are a rich source of dietary cholesterol; 2. when fed experimentally, dietary cholesterol increases serum cholesterol and; 3. high serum cholesterol predicts the onset of coronary heart disease. However, data from free-living populations show that egg consumption is not associated with higher cholesterol levels. Furthermore, as a whole, the epidemiologic literature does not support the idea that egg consumption is a risk factor for coronary disease. Within the nutritional community there is a growing appreciation that health derives from an overall pattern of diet rather than from the avoidance of particular foods, and there has been a shift in the tone in recent dietary recommendations away from "avoidance" messages to ones that promote healthy eating patterns. The most recent American Heart Association guidelines no longer include a recommendation to limit egg consumption, but recommend the adoption of eating practices associated with good health. Based on the epidemiologic evidence, there is no reason to think that such a healthy eating pattern could not include eggs.
Matti Narkia

n-3 Fatty acids and cardiovascular disease evidence explained and mechanisms explored. ... - 0 views

    n-3 Fatty acids and cardiovascular disease: evidence explained and mechanisms explored.
    Calder PC.
    Clin Sci (Lond). 2004 Jul;107(1):1-11. Review.
    PMID: 15132735


    It is clear from the forgoing discussion that long-chain n-3 fatty acids have been proven to be effective in secondary prevention of MI, with a particularly marked effect on sudden death. Thus it would be prudent to advise post-MI patients to increase long-chain n-3 PUFA consumption. Epidemiological studies, studies investigating effects on classic and emerging risk factors and mechanistic studies indicate that long-chain n-3 fatty acids also play a key role in primary prevention. This is supported by studies in animal models, including monkeys. Thus long-chain n-3 fatty acid consumption should be promoted for all individuals especially those at risk of developing cardiovascular disease. This is the reason why a number of organizations have now made recommendations relating to the intake of fatty fish (for example [3]) and of long-chain n-3 PUFAs (Table 6). It is clear that there is a wide gap between current intakes of long-chain n-3 PUFAs and many of these recommendations (Table 6). To meet these recommendations strategies other than increased consumption of fatty fish may be required.
Matti Narkia

Doctors debate vitamin D levels - 0 views

    The Standing Committee of European Doctors (CPME) is preparing a vitamin D policy paper it hopes can influence European national associations considering vitamin D medical recommendations.

    PA International Foundation is hosting an event on the topic in Bruges, Belgium, on October 6, its 14th workshop to be held on the matter. The CPME draft paper will be presented at the convention attended by doctors, scientists, patient groups, media representatives and politicians.
Matti Narkia


    Despite inadequacies in information concerning the minimum prophylactic requirement of vitamin D for all age groups beyond infancy, there is no doubt that a total intake of 400 I.U. per day is adequate to prevent vitamin D deficiency in substantially all normal children from birth through adolescence.

    Evidence derived from the study of idiopathic hypercalcemia suggests that certain infants excessively sensitive to the toxic action of vitamin D may, on rare occasions, be adversely affected by daily intakes of 3,000 to 4,000 I.U. and sometimes considerably less. Because of the prevalent practice of food fortification in the United States and Canada, there is now a definite possibility that the individual, even the young infant, may ingest considerably more than the recommended vitamin D allowance, and intakes of 2,000 to 3,500 I.U. per day are possible, particularly beyond infancy. Although there has been no specific evidence that intakes of this order produce deleterious effects beyond infancy, it is pointed out that the long-term consequences of this new nutritional situation on older children or adults are entirely unknown.
Matti Narkia

Towards an adequate intake of vitamin D. An advisory report of the Health Council of th... - 0 views

    Towards an adequate intake of vitamin D. An advisory report of the Health Council of the Netherlands
    R M Weggemans, G Schaafsma and D Kromhout
    Eur J Clin Nutr advance online publication, July 22, 2009; doi:10.1038/ejcn.2009.67
Matti Narkia

Dietary Recommendations for Vitamin D: a Critical Need for Functional End Points to Est... - 0 views

    Dietary recommendations for vitamin D: a critical need for functional end points to establish an estimated average requirement.
    Whiting SJ, Calvo MS.
    J Nutr. 2005 Feb;135(2):304-9. Review.
    PMID: 15671232

    In summary, vitamin D has emerged as a critical nutrient for which there is a compelling health need to establish adequate dietary guidelines in North America and worldwide given the increasing evidence of vitamin D deficiency and insufficient links to risk of chronic disease. We strongly argue that now there are enough data to consider setting an estimated average requirement for vitamin D and to recognize the crucial need for more research to determine the role of vitamin D in noncalciotropic functions and prevention of chronic diseases
Matti Narkia

Calcium, Phosphorus, Magnesium, Vitamin D, and Fluoride : Dietary Guidance : Food and N... - 0 views

    This DRI report presents calcium, phosphorus, magnesium, vitamin D, and fluoride, all of which have key roles in developing and maintaining bone and other calcified tissues in the body. View or download the entire 454 page document or just selected sections below, or find information for obtaining the book version.
    Dietary Reference Intakes for Calcium, Phosphorus, Magnesium, Vitamin D, and Fluoride (1997)
    National Academy of Sciences. Institute of Medicine. Food and Nutrition Board.
Matti Narkia

Vitamin D - Dietary Reference Intakes for Calcium, Phosphorus, Magnesium, Vitamin D, an... - 0 views

    Dietary Reference Intakes for Vitamin D (1997).
    National Academy of Sciences. Institute of Medicine. Food and Nutrition Board.
Matti Narkia

Current micronutrient recommendations in Europe: towards understanding their difference... - 0 views

    Current micronutrient recommendations in Europe: towards understanding their differences and similarities.
    Doets EL, de Wit LS, Dhonukshe-Rutten RA, Cavelaars AE, Raats MM, Timotijevic L, Brzozowska A, Wijnhoven TM, Pavlovic M, Totland TH, Andersen LF, Ruprich J, Pijls LT, Ashwell M, Lambert JP, van 't Veer P, de Groot LC.
    Eur J Nutr. 2008 Apr;47 Suppl 1:17-40.
    PMID: 18427858
    DOI: 10.1007/s00394-008-1003-5

    Full text:
Matti Narkia

Welcome to Eurreca! - 0 views

    As populations become more mobile and multi-national, and more traditional foods become available internationally, harmonised recommendations based on up-to-date science are needed.

    EURRECA is a Network of Excellence whose members are scientists, nutrition societies, consumer organisations, small & medium-sized enterprises and wider stakeholders funded by the European Commission (EC) to work together to address the problem of national variations in micronutrient recommendation
Matti Narkia

Circulating 25-Hydroxyvitamin D Levels Indicative of Vitamin D Sufficiency: Implication... - 0 views

    Using these functional indicators, several studies have more accurately defined vitamin D deficiency as circulating levels of 25(OH)D ≤ 80 nmol or 32 µg/L. Recent studies reveal that current dietary recommendations for adults are not sufficient to maintain circulating 25(OH)D levels at or above this level, especially in pregnancy and lactation.

    Circulating 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels indicative of vitamin D sufficiency: implications for establishing a new effective dietary intake recommendation for vitamin D.
    Hollis BW.
    J Nutr. 2005 Feb;135(2):317-22. Review.
    PMID: 15671234 [
Matti Narkia

Opinion of the Scientific Committee on Food on the Tolerable Upper Intake Level of Vita... - 0 views

    of the Scientific Committee on Food
    the Tolerable Upper Intake Level of Vitamin D
    (expressed on 4 December 2002)
Matti Narkia

Researchers who touted high vitamin D doses shut out of panel - The Globe and Mail - 0 views

    The panel selected to analyze the health claims is being criticized for not including the medical researchers whose work prompted intense scientific interest in the nutrient in the first place.

    "If you were publicly in favour of vitamin D, you were not included, and I find that outrageous," said Reinhold Vieth, a professor in the department of nutritional sciences at the University of Toronto, and one of Canada's leading experts on the nutrient.
Matti Narkia

Demographic Differences and Trends of Vitamin D Insufficiency in the US Population, 198... - 0 views

    Demographic differences and trends of vitamin D insufficiency in the US population, 1988-2004.
    Ginde AA, Liu MC, Camargo CA Jr.
    Arch Intern Med. 2009 Mar 23;169(6):626-32.
    PMID: 19307527

    Conclusions National data demonstrate a marked decrease in serum 25(OH)D levels from the 1988-1994 to the 2001-2004 NHANES data collections. Racial/ethnic differences have persisted and may have important implications for known health disparities. Current recommendations for vitamin D supplementation are inadequate to address the growing epidemic of vitamin D insufficiency.
Matti Narkia

Mean Serum 25(OH)D Levels Decreasing in All Categories of the US Population - 0 views

    March 27, 2009 - A significant decrease in serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25[OH]D) levels has led to an increase in vitamin D insufficiency in the US population, especially in racial and ethnic groups, according to results of a population-based study reported in the March 23 issue of the Archives of Internal Medicine.

    "Vitamin D insufficiency has been associated with increases in cardiovascular disease, cancer, and infection," write Adit A. Ginde, MD, from the Department of Emergency Medicine at the University of Colorado Denver School of Medicine, Aurora, Colorado, and colleagues. "Vitamin D supplementation appears to mitigate the incidence and adverse outcomes of these diseases and may reduce all-cause mortality."


    "These findings have important implications for health disparities and public health," the study authors conclude. "Our data provide additional evidence that current recommendations for vitamin D supplementation (200-600 IU/d) are inadequate to achieve optimal serum 25(OH)D levels in most of the US population." They add that large, randomized controlled trials of higher doses of vitamin D supplementation are needed to evaluate their effect on general health and mortality.
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