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Matti Narkia

Boswellic acid - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia - 0 views

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    Boswellic acids are a series of pentacyclic triterpene molecules which are produced by plants in the genus Boswellia. Like many other terpenes, boswellic acids appear in the resin of the plant which exudes them; it is estimated that they make up 30% of the resin of Boswellia serrata
Matti Narkia

Artemisinin - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia - 0 views

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    Artemisinin (pronounced /ɑːtə'misinən/) is a drug used to treat multi-drug resistant strains of falciparum malaria. The compound (a sesquiterpene lactone) is isolated from the plant Artemisia annua. Not all plants of this species contain artemisinin. Apparently it is only produced when the plant is subjected to certain conditions, most likely biotic or abiotic stress. It can be synthesized from artemisinic acid.[1] The drug is derived from a herb used in Chinese traditional medicine, though it is usually chemically modified and combined with other medications.

    Artemisinin is under early research and testing for treatment of cancer, primarily by researchers at the University of Washington.[7][8] Artemisinin has a peroxide lactone group in its structure. It is thought that when the peroxide comes into contact with high iron concentrations (common in cancerous cells), the molecule becomes unstable and releases reactive oxygen species. It has been shown to reduce angiogenesis and the expression of vascular endothelial growth factor in some tissue cultures.
Matti Narkia

Apigenin - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia - 0 views

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    Apigenin is a flavone that is the aglycone of several glycosides. It is a yellow crystalline solid that has been used to dye wool.

    Apigenin is a potent inhibitor of CYP2C9,[2] an enzyme responsible for the metabolism of many pharmaceutical drugs in the body.
Matti Narkia

Plant-based flavonoid may cut ovarian cancer risk | Reuters - 0 views

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    "NEW YORK (Reuters Health) - Women who eat greater amounts of plant-based foods and drinks with the naturally occurring flavonoid, apigenin, may have a decreased risk for ovarian cancer, study findings suggest.

    Apigenin, found in celery, parsley, red wine, tomato sauce, and other plant-based foods may be "particularly beneficial," said Dr. Margaret A. Gates, of Brigham and Women's Hospital and Harvard Medical School, in Boston, Massachusetts.

    Flavanoids are compounds with antioxidant properties that protect cells against damage by oxygen molecules. In a study that compared flavonoid intake among women with and without ovarian cancer, women reporting the highest apigenin intake had a "borderline significant decrease" in ovarian cancer risk over women reporting the lowest apigenin intake, Gates and her associates report in the International Journal of Cancer."
Matti Narkia

Goldenseal - umm.edu - 0 views

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    "Today, goldenseal is marketed as a tonic to aid digestion, sooth upset stomach, and as an antibacterial and antiviral agent. It is considered a natural antibiotic and is most often combined with echinacea in preparations designed to strengthen the immune system. Many professional herbalists recommend goldenseal in herbal remedies for hay fever (also called allergic rhinitis), colds, and the flu. Goldenseal is considered a useful antiseptic (which is why some herbalists use it topically to disinfect cuts and scrapes) and astringent. It is commonly used to treat severak skin, eye, and mucous membrane inflammatory and infectious conditions (such as sinusitis, conjunctivitis, and urinary tract infections). It is also available in mouthwashes for sore throats and canker sores.

    Goldenseal has not been thoroughly investigated in scientific studies, but some trials have looked at berberine, one of the active compounds in goldenseal. Berberine is a substance widely used in Traditional Chinese Medicine to treat dysentery and infectious diarrhea. Berberine may be effective in humans for malaria, heart failure, and various types of infections, including upper respiratory problems."
Matti Narkia

BERBERINE: Uses, Side Effects, Interactions and Warnings - WebMD - 0 views

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    Some medications are changed and broken down by the liver.
    Berberine might decrease how quickly the liver breaks down some medications. Taking berberine along with some medications that are broken down by the liver can increase the effects and side effects of some medications. Before taking berberine, talk to your healthcare provider if you are taking any medications that are changed by the liver.
    Some medications changed by the liver include cyclosporin (Neoral, Sandimmune), lovastatin (Mevacor), clarithromycin (Biaxin), indinavir (Crixivan), sildenafil (Viagra), triazolam (Halcion), and many others."
Matti Narkia

Goldenseal, Berberine : Safety - 0 views

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    "Possible effects of berberine, a chemical found in small amounts in goldenseal, include headache, slow heart rate, nausea, vomiting, abdominal bloating, and low white blood cell count. It is not clear if the amount of berberine in goldenseal products is enough to cause these reactions. Toxic doses of berberine may cause seizures or irritation of the esophagus and stomach when taken by mouth. Berberine used intravenously (through the veins) may cause abnormal heart rhythms. Based on laboratory and animal studies, berberine may increase blood concentrations of bilirubin. Berberine theoretically may cause low blood pressure, although a different chemical in goldenseal, hydrastine, may actually cause increased blood pressure. There is limited study of the blood pressure effects of these agents in humans.

    Based on laboratory and animal studies, the use of goldenseal or berberine could increase the risk of bleeding. However, there are no reliable published reports of bleeding in humans. Caution is advised in patients with bleeding disorders or taking drugs that may increase the risk of bleeding. Dosing adjustments may be necessary.

    Based on an initial report, goldenseal or berberine may cause increased sun sensitivity, although this is not a commonly reported symptom.

    Based on laboratory studies, berberine may lower blood sugar. Caution is advised in patients with diabetes or hypoglycemia, and in those taking drugs, herbs, or supplements that affect blood sugar. Serum glucose levels may need to be monitored by a healthcare provider, and medication adjustments may be necessary. "
Matti Narkia

Huanglian - Sloan-Kettering - 0 views

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    "Derived from the root of the plant. This supplement is used in traditional Chinese medicine primarily for gastrointestinal complaints, diarrhea, hypertension, bacterial and viral infections. Berberine and berberine-like alkaloids are thought responsible for its activity (1). Laboratory studies indicate that berberine induces morphological changes and internucleosomal DNA fragmentation in hepatoma cancer cells (3). Preliminary data support the hypothesis that huanglian suppresses cyclin B1 protein and causes cell cycle arrest at G2 (5). Huanglian has potent antiangiogenesis activity (6). It also interacts with acetylcholine and muscarinic receptors and inhibits cholinesterase. Possible adverse effects include nausea and vomiting (1). Theoretically huanglian may have additive hypotensive effects with antihypertensive agents. A phase I dose escalation study of huanglian in solid tumors is currently underway at Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center based on"
Matti Narkia

Apigenin flavonoid benefit and research studies : by Ray Sahelian, M.D. - 0 views

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    "Apigenin is one of the flavonoids - more precisely one of the citrus bioflavonoids. Apigenin, just like most flavonoids, has antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and anti-tumor properties. Perhaps apigenin can even block the formation of uric acid leading to beneficial effects in gout.

    Apigenin is found in high amounts in several herbs including parsley, thyme, and peppermint. It is is also found in a number of other herbs, including chamomile herb, Horsetail herb, lemon balm herb, perilla herb, vervain herb, and yarrow.

    Benefits of apigenin
    As with many flavonoids, apigenin has potential to reduce the risk of cancer since it has anti-tumor activity. Apigenin also could potentially be useful in allergy conditions since it can have anti-inflammatory properties.
Matti Narkia

Comprehensive Nutrient Review: Apigenin Overview -lef.org - 0 views

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    "Apigenin is described as a nonmutagenic bioflavonoid which is presented in leafy plants and vegetables (e.g., parsley, artichoke, basil, celery) and has significant chemopreventive activity against UV-radiation. Current research trials indicate that it may reduce DNA oxidative damage; inhibit the growth of human leukemia cells and induced these cells to differentiate; inhibit cancer cell signal transduction and induce apoptosis; act as an anti-inflammatory; and as an anti-spasmodic or spasmolytic. "
Matti Narkia

Berberine is a novel cholesterol-lowering drug working through a unique mechanism disti... - 0 views

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    Berberine is a novel cholesterol-lowering drug working through a unique mechanism distinct from statins.
    Kong W, Wei J, Abidi P, Lin M, Inaba S, Li C, Wang Y, Wang Z, Si S, Pan H, Wang S, Wu J, Wang Y, Li Z, Liu J, Jiang JD.
    Nat Med. 2004 Dec;10(12):1344-51. Epub 2004 Nov 7.
    PMID: 15531889
    doi:10.1038/nm1135

    We identify berberine (BBR), a compound isolated from a Chinese herb, as a new cholesterol-lowering drug. Oral administration of BBR in 32 hypercholesterolemic patients for 3 months reduced serum cholesterol by 29%, triglycerides by 35% and LDL-cholesterol by 25%. Treatment of hyperlipidemic hamsters with BBR reduced serum cholesterol by 40% and LDL-cholesterol by 42%, with a 3.5-fold increase in hepatic LDLR mRNA and a 2.6-fold increase in hepatic LDLR protein. Using human hepatoma cells, we show that BBR upregulates LDLR expression independent of sterol regulatory element binding proteins, but dependent on ERK activation. BBR elevates LDLR expression through a post-transcriptional mechanism that stabilizes the mRNA. Using a heterologous system with luciferase as a reporter, we further identify the 5' proximal section of the LDLR mRNA 3' untranslated region responsible for the regulatory effect of BBR. These findings show BBR as a new hypolipidemic drug with a mechanism of action different from that of statin drugs.
Matti Narkia

Treatment of Type 2 Diabetes and Dyslipidemia with the Natural Plant Alkaloid Berberine... - 0 views

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    Treatment of type 2 diabetes and dyslipidemia with the natural plant alkaloid berberine.
    Zhang Y, Li X, Zou D, Liu W, Yang J, Zhu N, Huo L, Wang M, Hong J, Wu P, Ren G, Ning G.
    J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2008 Jul;93(7):2559-65. Epub 2008 Apr 8.
    PMID: 18397984
    doi:10.1210/jc.2007-2404

    Conclusions: Berberine is effective and safe in the treatment of type 2 diabetes and dyslipidemia.
Matti Narkia

Berberine - wellness.com - 0 views

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    "Berberine is a bitter-tasting, yellow, plant alkaloid with a long history of medicinal use in Chinese and Ayurvedic medicine. Berberine is present in the roots, rhizomes and stem bark of various plants including Hydrastis canadensis (goldenseal), Coptis chinensis (coptis or goldenthread), Berberis aquifolium (Oregon grape), Berberis vulgaris (barberry), and Berberis aristata (tree turmeric). Berberine has also been used historically as a dye, due to its yellow color.
    Clinical trials have been conducted using berberine. There is some evidence to support its use in the treatment of trachomas (eye infections), bacterial diarrhea, and leishmaniasis (parasitic disease). Berberine has also shown antimicrobial activity against bacteria, viruses, fungi, protozoans, helminths (worms), and chlamydia (STD). Future clinical research is warranted in these areas, as well as cardiovascular disease, skin disorders, and liver disorders.
    Berberine has been shown to be safe in the majority of clinical trials. However, there is a potential for interaction between berberine and many prescription medications, and berberine should not be used by pregnant or breastfeeding women, due to potential for adverse effects in the newborn."
Matti Narkia

Berberine, dosing and safety - wellness.com - 0 views

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    Side Effects and Warnings
    Berberine has been reported to cause nausea, vomiting, hypertension (high blood pressure), respiratory failure and paresthesias (abnormal sensations such as numbness or tingling); however, clinical evidence of such adverse effects is not prominent in the literature. Rare adverse effects including headache, skin irritation, facial flushing, headache, bradycardia (slowed heart rate) have also been reported with the use of berberine. Use cautiously when taking berberine for longer than eight weeks due to theoretical changes in bacterial gut flora.
    Use cautiously in individuals with diabetes, as both human and animal studies indicate that berberine may decrease blood sugar levels. Also use cautiously in individuals with hypotension (low blood pressure), as berberine may have antihypertensive effects.
    Patients with cardiovascular disease should also use caution as berberine has been associated with the development of ventricular arrhythmias in subjects with congestive heart failure.
    Although not well studied in humans, berberine may also theoretically cause delays in small intestinal transit time or increase the risk of bleeding.
    Berberine may cause abortion, eye or kidney irritation, nephritis (inflamed kidneys), dyspnea (difficulty breathing), flu-like symptoms, giddiness, lethargy, or liver toxicity.
    Patients with leukopenia (abnormally low white blood cell count) should use cautiously due to the potential for development of leukopenia symptoms.
    When injected under the skin, berberine may cause hyperpigmentation in the arm. Use berberine cautiously in individuals with high exposure to sunlight or artificial light due to potential for adverse phototoxic reactions.
    Avoid in newborns due to potential for increase in free bilirubin, jaundice, and development of kernicterus (brain damage caused by severe newborn jaundice). Use berberine cautiously in children due to a lack of safety information.
    Pregnancy and Breastfeeding
    Berberine is not recomme
Matti Narkia

Developmental toxicity evaluation of berberine in rats and mice. Gloria D. Jahnke. 2006... - 0 views

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    Developmental toxicity evaluation of berberine in rats and mice.
    Jahnke GD, Price CJ, Marr MC, Myers CB, George JD.
    Birth Defects Res B Dev Reprod Toxicol. 2006 Jun;77(3):195-206.
    PMID: 16634078
    DOI: 10.1002/bdrb.20075

    BACKGROUND: Berberine, a plant alkaloid, is found in some herbal teas and health-related products. It is a component of goldenseal, an herbal supplement. Berberine chloride dihydrate (BCD) was evaluated for developmental toxicity in rats and mice.
    METHODS: Berberine chloride dihydrate was administered in the feed to timed-mated Sprague-Dawley (CD) rats (0, 3625, 7250, or 14,500 ppm; on gestational days [GD] 6-20), and Swiss Albino (CD-1) mice (0, 3500, 5250, or 7000 ppm; on GD 6-17). Ingested doses were 0, 282, 531, and 1313 mg/kg/day (rats) and 0, 569, 841, and 1155 mg/kg/day (mice).
    RESULTS:There were no maternal deaths. The rat maternal lowest observed adverse effect level (LOAEL), based on reduced maternal weight gain, was 7250 ppm. The rat developmental toxicity LOAEL, based on reduced fetal body weight per litter, was 14,500 ppm. In the mouse study, equivocal maternal and developmental toxicity LOAELs were 5250 ppm. Due to scattering of feed in the high dose groups, a gavage study at 1000 mg/kg/day was conducted in both species.
    CONCLUSIONS: In rats, maternal, but not fetal adverse effects were noted. The maternal toxicity LOAEL remained at 7250 ppm (531 mg/kg/day) based on the feed study and the developmental toxicity NOAEL was raised to 1000 mg/kg/day BCD based on the gavage study. In the mouse, 33% of the treated females died. Surviving animals had increased relative water intake, and average fetal body weight per litter decreased 5-6% with no change in live litter size. The maternal toxicity LOAEL remained at 5250 ppm (841 mg/kg/day) BCD, based on increased water consumption. The developmental toxicity LOAEL was raised to 1000 mg/kg/day BCD based on decreased fetal body weight.
Matti Narkia

Mechanisms of Berberine (Natural Yellow 18)-Induced Mitochondrial Dysfunction: Interact... - 0 views

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    Mechanisms of berberine (natural yellow 18)-induced mitochondrial dysfunction: interaction with the adenine nucleotide translocator.
    Pereira CV, Machado NG, Oliveira PJ.
    Toxicol Sci. 2008 Oct;105(2):408-17. Epub 2008 Jul 3.
    PMID: 18599498
    doi: 10.1124/jpet.107.128017

    The data from the present work appear to show that berberine also presents some degree of toxicity to "nontumor" systems, which should be carefully understood. ANT inhibition in nontumor cells by berberine would be responsible for a decrease in energy production and could also result in MPT induction. To the best of our knowledge, no full toxicity assessment exists for berberine in humans, although its use in several commercially available supplements suggests that the compound may present a relatively wide safety interval. In fact, a study with patients with congestive heart failure treated with 1.2 g/day of oral berberine revealed low toxicity and resulted into an average plasma concentration of 0.11 mg/l which would translate into 0.3µM (Zeng and Zeng, 1999Go). Repeated cumulative treatments, alternative forms of formulation (e.g., topical application vs. injection) or more importantly, active mitochondrial accumulation due to its positive charge would be expected to increase its concentration in cells into the range of concentrations used in this study.

    Empirical data from nontraditional medicines plus the use of extensive clinical assays would allow the use of berberine as a promising antimelanoma agent while maintaining its safety for humans. In radial/vertical forms of melanoma, a possible topical application of berberine would also be possible, thus minimizing side effects on other organs.

    In conclusion, the present work identifies the ANT as an important target for berberine, with clear relevance for its proposed antitumor effects.
Matti Narkia

Mitochondrially Targeted Effects of Berberine [Natural Yellow 18, 5,6-dihydro-9,10-dime... - 0 views

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    Mitochondrially targeted effects of berberine [Natural Yellow 18, 5,6-dihydro-9,10-dimethoxybenzo(g)-1,3-benzodioxolo(5,6-a) quinolizinium] on K1735-M2 mouse melanoma cells: comparison with direct effects on isolated mitochondrial fractions.
    Pereira GC, Branco AF, Matos JA, Pereira SL, Parke D, Perkins EL, Serafim TL, Sardão VA, Santos MS, Moreno AJ, Holy J, Oliveira PJ.
    J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 2007 Nov;323(2):636-49. Epub 2007 Aug 17.
    PMID: 17704354
    doi: 10.1124/jpet.107.128017

    The present work shows that berberine is accumulated by mitochondria of a mouse melanoma cell line, leading to mitochondrial fragmentation and dysfunction, accompanied by decreased cellular energy charge. When the effect was compared with the results obtained on isolated mitochondrial fractions, it is observed that regardless of the system used, berberine is toxic for mitochondria. One major limitation of the present study (as in many others) is the lack of knowledge of the real concentration of berberine that reaches mitochondria in intact cells. Although we do not possess data regarding this aspect, it is wise to speculate that mitochondrial berberine concentrations will be much higher than in the bulk cytosol due to electrophoretic accumulation. We believe that the range of berberine concentrations accumulated by mitochondria in intact cells is within the range of concentrations used on isolated mitochondrial fractions in the present study. The present work not only provides insights on the mechanism by which berberine interferes with tumor cell proliferation, demonstrating previously unknown effects on mitochondrial physiology, but also raises a note of caution on the use of berberine as a nontoxic "natural" over-the-counter medication.
Matti Narkia

Berberine Inhibits Metastasis of Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma 5-8F Cells by Targeting Rho K... - 0 views

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    Berberine inhibits metastasis of nasopharyngeal carcinoma 5-8F cells by targeting Rho kinase-mediated Ezrin phosphorylation at threonine 567.
    Tang F, Wang D, Duan C, Huang D, Wu Y, Chen Y, Wang W, Xie C, Meng J, Wang L, Wu B, Liu S, Tian D, Zhu F, He Z, Deng F, Cao Y.
    J Biol Chem. 2009 Oct 2;284(40):27456-66. Epub 2009 Aug 3.
    PMID: 19651779
Matti Narkia

Berberine, a natural product, induces G1-phase cell cycle arrest and caspase-3-dependen... - 0 views

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    Berberine, a natural product, induces G1-phase cell cycle arrest and caspase-3-dependent apoptosis in human prostate carcinoma cells.
    Mantena SK, Sharma SD, Katiyar SK.
    Mol Cancer Ther. 2006 Feb;5(2):296-308.
    PMID: 16505103
    doi: 10.1158/1535-7163.MCT-05-0448

    The effectiveness of berberine in checking the growth of androgen-insensitive, as well as androgen-sensitive, prostate cancer cells without affecting the growth of normal prostate epithelial cells indicates that it may be a promising candidate for prostate cancer therapy.

    The evaluation of ancient herbal medicines may indicate novel strategies for the treatment of prostate cancer, which remains the leading cause of cancer-related deaths in American men (1). In our present investigation, we show that a naturally occurring isoquinoline alkaloid, berberine, significantly inhibits the proliferation and reduces the viability of DU145 and PC-3 as well as LNCaP cells (Fig. 1), which suggests that berberine may be an effective chemotherapeutic agent against both androgen-sensitive and androgen-insensitive prostate cancer cells. Importantly, we found that berberine did not exhibit toxicity to nonneoplastic human prostate epithelial cells under the conditions used, except for a moderate reduction in cell viability at higher concentrations when cells were treated in vitro for an extended period of time.

    In conclusion, the results of the present study indicate that berberine inhibits proliferation and induces G1-phase arrest and apoptosis in human prostate cancer cells but not in normal human prostate epithelial cells. In addition, we provide mechanistic evidence that berberine-induced apoptosis in prostate carcinoma cells, particularly hormone-refractory prostate carcinoma cells, is mediated through enhanced expression of Bax, disruption of the mitochondrial membrane potential, and activation of caspase-3.
Matti Narkia

Jonathan Treasure's Herblog » Berberine and cancer - recent research. - 0 views

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    "Berberine, the yellow alkaloid ingredient of several traditional anticancer herbs such as Oregon grape root has an expanding literature confirming its anticancer properties. Here are a few recent studies…Oregon grape root was an ingredient of the controversial Hoxseys formula, and berberine herbs were included in Eclectic anticancer formula. Click Links for PubMed"
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