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Matti Narkia

A Review of Scientific Research and Recommendations Regarding Eggs -- Kritchevsky 23 (S... - 0 views

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    A review of scientific research and recommendations regarding eggs.
    Kritchevsky SB.
    J Am Coll Nutr. 2004 Dec;23(6 Suppl):596S-600S. Review.
    PMID: 15640512

    For much of the past 40 years, the public has been warned away from eggs because of a concern over coronary heart disease risk. This concern is based on three observations: 1. eggs are a rich source of dietary cholesterol; 2. when fed experimentally, dietary cholesterol increases serum cholesterol and; 3. high serum cholesterol predicts the onset of coronary heart disease. However, data from free-living populations show that egg consumption is not associated with higher cholesterol levels. Furthermore, as a whole, the epidemiologic literature does not support the idea that egg consumption is a risk factor for coronary disease. Within the nutritional community there is a growing appreciation that health derives from an overall pattern of diet rather than from the avoidance of particular foods, and there has been a shift in the tone in recent dietary recommendations away from "avoidance" messages to ones that promote healthy eating patterns. The most recent American Heart Association guidelines no longer include a recommendation to limit egg consumption, but recommend the adoption of eating practices associated with good health. Based on the epidemiologic evidence, there is no reason to think that such a healthy eating pattern could not include eggs.
Matti Narkia

Nutritional Contribution of Eggs to American Diets -- Song and Kerver 19 (Supplement 5)... - 0 views

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    Nutritional contribution of eggs to American diets.
    Song WO, Kerver JM.
    J Am Coll Nutr. 2000 Oct;19(5 Suppl):556S-562S.
    PMID: 11023007

    Conclusions: In this cross-sectional and population-based study, egg consumption made important nutritional contributions to the American diet and was not associated with high serum cholesterol concentrations.
Matti Narkia

Introduction: Nutritional and Functional Roles of Eggs in the Diet -- Applegate 19 (Sup... - 0 views

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    Introduction: nutritional and functional roles of eggs in the diet.
    Applegate E.
    J Am Coll Nutr. 2000 Oct;19(5 Suppl):495S-498S. Review.
    PMID: 11022998

    For years, eggs have been held up as a powerhouse of nutrition. This reputation has been due to eggs' exceptional nutrition profile as a nutrient-dense food containing high quality protein and a substantial amount of many essential vitamins and minerals. Unfortunately their position on the nutrition pedestal fell with the discovery that they are also a source of dietary cholesterol. The most recent scientific research not only returns eggs to their golden past, but elevates their position as a functional food and ultimately provides more reasons than ever to consume eggs.

    In February 2000, scientists convened at a conference in Amelia Island, Florida, to discuss the latest research about the role of eggs in disease prevention and the promotion of health. This supplement of the Journal of the American College of Nutrition (JACN) presents compelling scientific evidence about eggs' functional food attributes, reaffirms that eggs have a minimal effect on blood cholesterol levels and presents new research on the contribution of eggs to the American diet. For health professionals, this issue provides a new scientifically based viewpoint on eggs and their role in health and nutrition, a viewpoint that should be imparted to all consumers in an effort to ensure optimal health and well-being.
Matti Narkia

Types of Dietary Fat and Risk of Coronary Heart Disease: A Critical Review -- Hu et al.... - 0 views

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    Types of dietary fat and risk of coronary heart disease: a critical review.
    Hu FB, Manson JE, Willett WC.
    J Am Coll Nutr. 2001 Feb;20(1):5-19. Review.
    PMID: 11293467
Matti Narkia

Egg consumption and endothelial function: a randomized controlled crossover trial - 0 views

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    Egg consumption and endothelial function: a randomized controlled crossover trial.
    Katz DL, Evans MA, Nawaz H, Njike VY, Chan W, Comerford BP, Hoxley ML.
    Int J Cardiol. 2005 Mar 10;99(1):65-70.
    PMID: 15721501

    Conclusion: Short-term egg consumption does not adversely affect endothelial function in healthy adults, supporting the view that dietary cholesterol may be less detrimental to cardiovascular health than previously thought
Matti Narkia

Eggs modulate the inflammatory response to carbohydrate restricted diets in overweight ... - 0 views

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    Eggs modulate the inflammatory response to carbohydrate restricted diets in overweight men.
    Ratliff JC, Mutungi G, Puglisi MJ, Volek JS, Fernandez ML.
    Nutr Metab (Lond). 2008 Feb 20;5:6.
    PMID: 18289377

    Carbohydrate restricted diets (CRD) consistently lower glucose and insulin levels and improve atherogenic dyslipidemia [decreasing triglycerides and increasing HDL cholesterol (HDL-C)]. We have previously shown that male subjects following a CRD experienced significant increases in HDL-C only if they were consuming a higher intake of cholesterol provided by eggs compared to those individuals who were taking lower concentrations of dietary cholesterol. Here, as a follow up of our previous study, we examined the effects of eggs (a source of both dietary cholesterol and lutein) on adiponectin, a marker of insulin sensitivity, and on inflammatory markers in the context of a CRD.

    Conclusion
    A CRD with daily intake of eggs decreased plasma CRP and increased plasma adiponectin compared to a CRD without eggs. These findings indicate that eggs make a significant contribution to the anti-inflammatory effects of CRD, possibly due to the presence of cholesterol, which increases HDL-C and to the antioxidant lutein which modulates certain inflammatory responses.
Matti Narkia

Egg breakfast enhances weight loss - Int J Obes (Lond). 2008 Oct;32(10):1545-51. - 0 views

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    Egg breakfast enhances weight loss.
    Vander Wal JS, Gupta A, Khosla P, Dhurandhar NV.
    Int J Obes (Lond). 2008 Oct;32(10):1545-51. Epub 2008 Aug 5.
    PMID: 18679412
    doi: 10.1038/ijo.2008.130

    Conclusions
    The egg breakfast enhances weight loss, when combined with an energy-deficit diet, but does not induce weight loss in a free-living condition. The inclusion of eggs in a weight management program may offer a nutritious supplement to enhance weight loss.
Matti Narkia

Biochemical effects of consumption of eggs containing omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty aci... - 0 views

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    Biochemical effects of consumption of eggs containing omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids.
    Ohman M, Akerfeldt T, Nilsson I, Rosen C, Hansson LO, Carlsson M, Larsson A.
    Ups J Med Sci. 2008;113(3):315-23.P
    MID: 18991244

    Today, eggs with an increased content of -3 fatty acids are available but there are few publications on the effects of consumption of such eggs on the lipoproteins and acute phase markers in humans. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effects of consumption of standard eggs and -3 enriched eggs on lipoproteins, glucose and inflammation markers. Nineteen healthy volunteers consumed one extra egg per day of either standard eggs or omega-3 enriched eggs in a double-blind, cross-over study. The duration of each period was 1 month. The effects of the different egg diets on apolipoprotein A1 and B (Apo A1 and B), lipoprotein (a), creatinine, cystatin C, C-reactive protein, serum amyloid protein A, interleukin 6, triglycerides, glucose, total-, high-density lipoprotein and low-density lipo-protein cholesterol concentrations were analyzed. Addition of one regular egg per day to the normal diet had no negative impact on blood lipids or inflammation markers. Consumption of omega-3 enriched eggs resulted in higher levels of ApoA1, lower ApoB/ApoA1 ratio and lower plasma glucose. These effects have been associated in previous studies with a reduced risk for cardiovascular mortality and diabetes.
Matti Narkia

A comparison of egg consumption with other modifiable coronary heart disease lifestyle ... - 0 views

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    A comparison of egg consumption with other modifiable coronary heart disease lifestyle risk factors: a relative risk apportionment study.
    Barraj L, Tran N, Mink P.
    Risk Anal. 2009 Mar;29(3):401-15. Epub 2008 Nov 4.
    PMID: 19000074
    DOI: 10.1111/j.1539-6924.2008.01149.x

    Guidelines from the American Heart Association (AHA) recommend that healthy adults limit their intake of dietary cholesterol to less than 300 mg per day. Since a large egg contains about 71% of that amount, the AHA recommends restricting egg consumption unless dietary cholesterol intakes from other sources are limited. We applied a risk apportionment approach to estimate the contribution of egg consumption and other modifiable lifestyle risk factors (e.g., smoking, poor diet, minimal exercise, and alcohol intake) to coronary heart disease (CHD) risk at the population level. Specifically, we categorized the U.S. adult population ages 25+ into distinct risk groups based on the prevalence of modifiable lifestyle risk factors and applied an apportionment model, typically used to assess risk contribution at the individual level, to estimate the contribution of egg intake to CHD risk. Our analysis shows that the combination of modifiable lifestyle risk factors accounts for less than 40% of the population CHD mortality. For the majority of U.S. adults age 25+, consuming one egg a day accounts for <1% of CHD risk. Hence, focusing on decreasing egg intake as an approach to modify CHD risk would be expected to yield minimal results relative to changing other behaviors such as smoking and other dietary habits.
Matti Narkia

Egg yolk proteins suppress azoxymethane-induced aberrant crypt foci formation and cell ... - 0 views

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    Egg yolk proteins suppress azoxymethane-induced aberrant crypt foci formation and cell proliferation in the colon of rats.
    Ishikawa S, Asano T, Takenoshita S, Nozawa Y, Arihara K, Itoh M.
    Nutr Res. 2009 Jan;29(1):64-9.
    PMID: 19185779

    These results indicate that dietary egg yolk proteins have a preventive effect on AOM-induced large bowel carcinogenesis in rats; it exerts this effect by altering cell proliferation through SCFA production. This study suggests that the consumption of egg yolk proteins might be protective against colon carcinogenesis.
Matti Narkia

Single food focus dietary guidance: lessons learned from an economic analysis of egg co... - 0 views

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    Single food focus dietary guidance: lessons learned from an economic analysis of egg consumption.
    Schmier JK, Barraj LM, Tran NL.
    Cost Eff Resour Alloc. 2009 Apr 14;7:7.
    PMID: 19366457

    Methods
    A risk apportionment model estimated the increased risk for coronary heart disease (CHD) attributable to egg cholesterol content, the decreased risk for other conditions (age-related macular degeneration (AMD), cataract, neural tube defects, and sarcopenia) associated with egg consumption, and a literature search identified the cost of illness of each condition. The base 795 case scenario calculated the costs or savings of each condition attributable to egg cholesterol or nutrient content.

    Results
    Given the costs associated with CHD and the benefits associated with the other conditions, the most likely scenario associated with eating an egg a day is savings of $2.82 billion annually with uncertainty ranging from a net cost of $756 million to net savings up to $8.50 billion.

    Conclusion
    This study evaluating the economic impact of egg consumption suggests that public health campaigns promoting limiting egg consumption as a means to reduce CHD risk would not be cost-effective from a societal perspective when other benefits are considered. Public health intervention that focuses on a single dietary constituent, and foods that are high in that constituent, may lead to unintended consequences of removing other beneficial constituents and the net effect may not be in its totality a desirable public health outcome. As newer data become available, the model should be updated.
Matti Narkia

Eggs distinctly modulate plasma carotenoid and lipoprotein subclasses in adult men foll... - 0 views

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    Eggs distinctly modulate plasma carotenoid and lipoprotein subclasses in adult men following a carbohydrate-restricted diet.
    Mutungi G, Waters D, Ratliff J, Puglisi M, Clark RM, Volek JS, Fernandez ML.
    J Nutr Biochem. 2009 Apr 13. [Epub ahead of print]
    PMID: 19369056

    We previously reported that carbohydrate restriction (CR) (10-15% en) during a weight loss intervention lowered plasma triglycerides (TG) by 45% in male subjects (P<.001). however><.0001) the consuming than lower amounts individuals><.001), low-density while small lipoprotein><.001). observations agreement in with these><.01) observed was><.0001). observed of larger although subclass the ldl increase was subjects all for an><.05). of group egg the number presented hdl higher large a also particles><.01) sub group the compared to><.001). contrast in><.05). However, only those subjects from the EGG group presented higher concentrations of these two carotenoids in plasma, which were correlated with the higher concentra
Matti Narkia

Meat, eggs, dairy products, and risk of breast cancer in the European Prospective Inves... - 0 views

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    Meat, eggs, dairy products, and risk of breast cancer in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) cohort.
    Pala V, Krogh V, Berrino F, Sieri S, Grioni S, Tjønneland A, Olsen A, Jakobsen MU, Overvad K, Clavel-Chapelon F, Boutron-Ruault MC, Romieu I, Linseisen J, Rohrmann S, Boeing H, Steffen A, Trichopoulou A, Benetou V, Naska A, Vineis P, Tumino R, Panico S, Masala G, Agnoli C, Engeset D, Skeie G, Lund E, Ardanaz E, Navarro C, Sánchez MJ, Amiano P, Svatetz CA, Rodriguez L, Wirfält E, Manjer J, Lenner P, Hallmans G, Peeters PH, van Gils CH, Bueno-de-Mesquita HB, van Duijnhoven FJ, Key TJ, Spencer E, Bingham S, Khaw KT, Ferrari P, Byrnes G, Rinaldi S, Norat T, Michaud DS, Riboli E.
    Am J Clin Nutr. 2009 Sep;90(3):602-12. Epub 2009 Jun 2.
    PMID: 19491385
    doi:10.3945/ajcn.2008.27173

    Conclusions: We have not consistently identified intakes of meat, eggs, or dairy products as risk factors for breast cancer. Future studies should investigate the possible role of high-temperature cooking in the relation of red meat intake with breast cancer risk.
Matti Narkia

Meat and egg consumption and risk of breast cancer among Chinese women. - Cancer Causes... - 0 views

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    Meat and egg consumption and risk of breast cancer among Chinese women.
    Zhang CX, Ho SC, Chen YM, Lin FY, Fu JH, Cheng SZ.
    Cancer Causes Control. 2009 Jun 17. [Epub ahead of print]
    PMID: 19533390

    Conclusions This study suggested that processed meat intake was associated with a possible increased risk of breast cancer. There was no significant association between consumption of total and red meat, poultry, fish, or egg with breast cancer risk
Matti Narkia

Dietary cholesterol and the risk of cardiovascular disease in patients: a review of the... - 0 views

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    Dietary cholesterol and the risk of cardiovascular disease in patients: a review of the Harvard Egg Study and other data.
    Jones PJ.
    Int J Clin Pract Suppl. 2009 Oct;(163):1-8, 28-36. English, French.
    PMID: 19751443

    For many years, both the medical community and the general public have incorrectly associated eggs with high serum cholesterol and being deleterious to health, even though cholesterol is an essential component of cells and organisms. It is now acknowledged that the original studies purporting to show a linear relation between cholesterol intake and coronary heart disease (CHD) may have contained fundamental study design flaws, including conflated cholesterol and saturated fat consumption rates and inaccurately assessed actual dietary intake of fats by study subjects. Newer and more accurate trials, such as that conducted by Frank B. Hu of the Harvard School of Public Health (1999), have shown that consumption of up to seven eggs per week is harmonious with a healthful diet, except in male patients with diabetes for whom an association in higher egg intake and CHD was shown. The degree to which serum cholesterol is increased by dietary cholesterol depends upon whether the individual's cholesterol synthesis is stimulated or down-regulated by such increased intake, and the extent to which each of these phenomena occurs varies from person to person. Several recent studies have shed additional light on the specific interplay between dietary cholesterol and cardiovascular health risk. It is evident that the dynamics of cholesterol homeostasis, and of development of CHD, are extremely complex and multifactorial. In summary, the earlier purported adverse relationship between dietary cholesterol and heart disease risk was likely largely over-exaggerated.
Matti Narkia

Consumption of 2 and 4 egg yolks/d for 5 wk increases macular pigment concentrations in... - 0 views

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    Consumption of 2 and 4 egg yolks/d for 5 wk increases macular pigment concentrations in older adults with low macular pigment taking cholesterol-lowering statins.
    Vishwanathan R, Goodrow-Kotyla EF, Wooten BR, Wilson TA, Nicolosi RJ.
    Am J Clin Nutr. 2009 Nov;90(5):1272-9. Epub 2009 Sep 16.
    PMID: 19759170

    Conclusions: Consumption of 4 egg yolks/d, and possibly of 2 egg yolks/d, for 5 wk benefited macular health in older adults with low MPOD. Serum HDL cholesterol increased without an increase in LDL cholesterol in this study population, most of whom were taking cholesterol-lowering statins.
Matti Narkia

Egg consumption, serum cholesterol, and cause-specific and all-cause mortality: the Nat... - 0 views

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    Egg consumption, serum cholesterol, and cause-specific and all-cause mortality: the National Integrated Project for Prospective Observation of Non-communicable Disease and Its Trends in the Aged, 1980 (NIPPON DATA80).
    Nakamura Y, Okamura T, Tamaki S, Kadowaki T, Hayakawa T, Kita Y, Okayama A, Ueshima H; NIPPON DATA80 Research Group.
    Am J Clin Nutr. 2004 Jul;80(1):58-63.
    PMID: 15213028

    Results: The subjects were categorized into 5 egg consumption groups on the basis of their responses to a questionnaire (≥2/d, 1/d, 1/2 d, 1-2/wk, and seldom). There were 69, 1396, 1667, 1742, and 315 women in each of the 5 groups, respectively. Age-adjusted total cholesterol (5.21, 5.04, 4.95, 4.91, and 4.92 mmol/L in the 5 egg consumption categories, respectively) was related to egg consumption (P < 0.0001, analysis of covariance). In women, unadjusted IHD mortality and all-cause mortality differed significantly between the groups [IHD mortality: 1.1, 0.5, 0.4, 0.5, and 2.0 per 1000 person-years, respectively (P = 0.008, chi-square test); all-cause mortality: 14.8, 8.0, 7.5, 7.5, and 14.5 per 1000 person-years, respectively (P < 0.0001, chi-square test)]. In men, egg consumption was not related to age-adjusted total cholesterol. Cox analysis found that, in women, all-cause mortality in the 1-2-eggs/wk group was significantly lower than that in the 1-egg/d group, whereas no such relations were noted in men.

    Conclusion: Limiting egg consumption may have some health benefits, at least in women in geographic areas where egg consumption makes a relatively large contribution to total dietary cholesterol intake.
Matti Narkia

Egg consumption in relation to cardiovascular disease and mortality: the Phys... - 0 views

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    Egg consumption in relation to cardiovascular disease and mortality: the Physicians' Health Study.
    Djoussé L, Gaziano JM.
    Am J Clin Nutr. 2008 Apr;87(4):964-9.
    PMID: 18400720

    Results: In an average follow-up of 20 y, 1550 new myocardial infarctions (MIs), 1342 incident strokes, and 5169 deaths occurred. Egg consumption was not associated with incident MI or stroke in a multivariate Cox regression. In contrast, adjusted hazard ratios (95% CI) for mortality were 1.0 (reference), 0.94 (0.87, 1.02), 1.03 (0.95, 1.11), 1.05 (0.93, 1.19), and 1.23 (1.11, 1.36) for the consumption of <1, 1>< 0.0001). This association was stronger among diabetic subjects, in whom the risk of death in a comparison of the highest with the lowest category of egg consumption was twofold (hazard ratio: 2.01; 95% CI: 1.26, 3.20; P for interaction = 0.09).

    Conclusions: Infrequent egg consumption does not seem to influence the risk of CVD in male physicians. In addition, egg consumption was positively related to mortality, more strongly so in diabetic subjects, in the study population.
Matti Narkia

Egg consumption in relation to cardiovascular disease and mortality: the story gets mor... - 0 views

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    Egg consumption in relation to cardiovascular disease and mortality: the story gets more complex.
    Eckel RH.
    Am J Clin Nutr. 2008 Apr;87(4):799-800.
    PMID: 1840069
Matti Narkia

Egg Consumption and Risk of Type 2 Diabetes in Men and Women - Diabetes Care - 0 views

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    Egg consumption and risk of type 2 diabetes in men and women.
    Djoussé L, Gaziano JM, Buring JE, Lee IM.
    Diabetes Care. 2009 Feb;32(2):295-300. Epub 2008 Nov 18.
    PMID: 1901777
    doi: 10.2337/dc08-1271

    RESULTS-During mean follow-up of 20.0 years in men and 11.7 years in women, 1,921 men and 2,112 women developed type 2 diabetes. Compared with no egg consumption, multivariable adjusted hazard ratios for type 2 diabetes were 1.09 (95% CI 0.87-1.37), 1.09 (0.88-1.34), 1.18 (0.95-1.45), 1.46 (1.14-1.86), and 1.58 (1.25-2.01) for consumption of <1, 1><0.0001). hazard multivariable women ratios 1 were for corresponding><0.0001).

    CONCLUSIONS-These data suggest that high levels of egg consumption (daily) are associated with an increased risk of type 2 diabetes in men and women. Confirmation of these findings in other populations is warranted.
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