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Matti Narkia

The Bioavailability of Vitamin D from Fortified Cheeses and Supplements Is Equivalent i... - 0 views

    The bioavailability of vitamin D from fortified cheeses and supplements is equivalent in adults.
    Wagner D, Sidhom G, Whiting SJ, Rousseau D, Vieth R.
    J Nutr. 2008 Jul;138(7):1365-71.
    PMID: 18567762

    Compared with baseline, serum parathyroid hormone decreased with both fortification (P = 0.003) and supplementation (P = 0.012). These data demonstrate that vitamin D is equally bioavailable from fortified hard cheeses and supplements, making cheese suitable for vitamin D fortification.
Matti Narkia

Acute Ingestion of Long-Chain (n-3) Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids Decreases Fibrinolysis ... - 0 views

    Acute Ingestion of Long-Chain (n-3) Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids Decreases Fibrinolysis in Men with Metabolic Syndrome.
    Montegaard C, Tulk HM, Lauritzen L, Tholstrup T, Robinson LE.
    J Nutr. 2009 Nov 4. [Epub ahead of print]
    PMID: 19889809

    Individuals with metabolic syndrome (MetS) often have elevated plasma plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) and tissue plasminogen activator (t-PA), contributing to an increased risk of cardiovascular disease. PAI-1 and t-PA may be affected by chronic (n-3) long-chain PUFA [(n-3)LCPUFA] supplementation; however, the acute impact of fat ingestion on these risk factors has not been established. Our objective was to investigate the acute effect of (n-3)LCPUFA on plasma PAI-1, t-PA, and platelet aggregation. We conducted a randomized crossover study in which men (n = 8, ≥45 y) with MetS consumed water or a high-saturated fat beverage (1 g fat/kg body weight) with either a high or low content of (n-3)LCPUFA. Blood samples were collected over 8 h to measure triacylglycerol (TAG), PAI-1, t-PA, and platelet aggregation. Both fat loads resulted in a significant increase in whole blood TAG concentration, plasma PAI-1 and t-PA concentrations, and PAI-1 activity, as well as a significant decrease in t-PA activity during the postprandial period. Interestingly, PAI-1 concentration and activity increased more following the high (n-3)LCPUFA compared with the low (n-3)LCPUFA beverage (P < 0.05). Furthermore, the high (n-3)LCPUFA beverage resulted in a lower t-PA activity (P < 0.05), whereas the effects of the 2 fat loads on the plasma t-PA concentration and platelet aggregation did not differ. Overall, acute intake of a high (n-3)LCPUFA beverage shifted the balance between plasma PAI-1 and t-PA, which might indicate a lower capacity for fibrinolysis
Matti Narkia

Fish Consumption Shifts Lipoprotein Subfractions to a Less Atherogenic Pattern in Human... - 0 views

    Fish consumption shifts lipoprotein subfractions to a less atherogenic pattern in humans.
    Li Z, Lamon-Fava S, Otvos J, Lichtenstein AH, Velez-Carrasco W, McNamara JR, Ordovas JM, Schaefer EJ.
    J Nutr. 2004 Jul;134(7):1724-8.
    PMID: 15226460

    The effect of fish consumption on plasma lipoprotein subfraction concentrations was studied in 22 men and women (age > 40 y). Subjects were provided an average American diet (AAD, 35% of energy as fat, 14% as saturated fat, and 35 mg cholesterol/MJ) for 6 wk before being assigned to a National Cholesterol Education Program (NCEP) Step 2 high-fish diet (n = 11, 26% of energy as fat, 4.5% as saturated fat, and 15 mg cholesterol/MJ) or a NCEP Step 2 low-fish diet (n = 11, 26% of energy as fat, 4.0% as saturated fat, and 11 mg cholesterol/MJ) for 24 wk. All food and drink were provided to study participants. Consumption of the high-fish NCEP Step 2 diet was associated with a significant reduction in medium and small VLDL, compared with the AAD diet, whereas the low-fish diet did not affect VLDL subfractions. Both diets significantly reduced LDL cholesterol concentrations, without modifying LDL subfractions. Both diets also lowered HDL cholesterol concentrations. However, the high-fish diet significantly lowered only the HDL fraction containing both apolipoprotein (apo) AI and AII (LpAI:AII) and did not change HDL subfractions assessed by NMR, whereas the low-fish diet significantly lowered the HDL fraction containing only apo AI (LpAI) and the large NMR HDL fractions, resulting in a significant reduction in HDL particle size. Neither diet affected VLDL and LDL particle size. Our data indicate that within the context of a diet restricted in fat and cholesterol, a higher fish content favorably affects VLDL and HDL subspecies
Matti Narkia

Quantitative Analysis of the Benefits and Risks of Consuming Farmed and Wild Salmon -- ... - 0 views

    Quantitative analysis of the benefits and risks of consuming farmed and wild salmon.
    Foran JA, Good DH, Carpenter DO, Hamilton MC, Knuth BA, Schwager SJ.
    J Nutr. 2005 Nov;135(11):2639-43.
    PMID: 16251623

    Contaminants in farmed Atlantic and wild Pacific salmon raise important questions about the competing health benefits and risks of fish consumption. A benefit-risk analysis was conducted to compare quantitatively the cancer and noncancer risks of exposure to organic contaminants in salmon with the (n-3) fatty acid-associated health benefits of salmon consumption. Recommended levels of (n-3) fatty acid intake, as eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), may be achieved by consuming farmed or wild salmon while maintaining an acceptable level of noncarcinogenic risk. However, the recommended level of EPA+DHA intake cannot be achieved solely from farmed or wild salmon while maintaining an acceptable level of carcinogenic risk. Although the benefit-risk ratio for carcinogens and noncarcinogens is significantly greater for wild Pacific salmon than for farmed Atlantic salmon as a group, the ratio for some subgroups of farmed salmon is on par with the ratio for wild salmon. This analysis suggests that risk of exposure to contaminants in farmed and wild salmon is partially offset by the fatty acid-associated health benefits. However, young children, women of child-bearing age, pregnant women, and nursing mothers not at significant risk for sudden cardiac death associated with CHD but concerned with health impairments such as reduction in IQ and other cognitive and behavioral effects, can minimize contaminant exposure by choosing the least contaminated wild salmon or by selecting other sources of (n-3) fatty acids.
Matti Narkia

A Diet Rich in Coconut Oil Reduces Diurnal Postprandial Variations in Circula... - 0 views

    A diet rich in coconut oil reduces diurnal postprandial variations in circulating tissue plasminogen activator antigen and fasting lipoprotein (a) compared with a diet rich in unsaturated fat in women.
    Müller H, Lindman AS, Blomfeldt A, Seljeflot I, Pedersen JI.
    J Nutr. 2003 Nov;133(11):3422-7.
    PMID: 14608053

    In conclusion, our results indicate that a coconut oil-based diet (HSAFA-diet) lowers postprandial t-PA antigen concentration, and this may favorably affect the fibrinolytic system and the Lp(a) concentration compared with the HUFA-diet. The proportions of dietary saturated fatty acids more than the percentage of saturated fat energy seem to have a beneficial influence on Lp(a) levels.

    The connection between Lp(a) and atherosclerosis is not entirely understood. Different studies have provided strong evidence that Lp(a) level is an independent risk factor for developing coronary artery disease in men (47,48), but the question of causality continues to be debated. Recent data suggest that Lp(a) might be atherogenic (49), in particular when combined with other risk factors. High levels of Lp(a) combined with other risk factors such as the ratio of plasma total/HDL cholesterol have been shown to increase the risk for coronary heart diseases (50). It has also been reported that when substantial LDL cholesterol reductions were obtained in men with coronary heart disease, persistent elevations of Lp(a) were no longer atherogenic or clinically threatening (51).

    In conclusion, the present results show that the HSAFA-diet lowered postprandial t-PA antigen and thus potentially improved fibrinolysis compared with the HUFA-diet. Diets with either high or low levels of saturated fatty acids from coconut oil beneficially decrease Lp(a) compared with a HUFA-diet. The proportions of dietary saturated fatty acids more than the percentage of saturated fat energy may be of importance if the goal is to decrease Lp(a).
Matti Narkia

Tissue Phylloquinone and Menaquinones in Rats Are Affected by Age and Gender -- Huber e... - 0 views

    Tissue phylloquinone and menaquinones in rats are affected by age and gender.
    Huber AM, Davidson KW, O'Brien-Morse ME, Sadowski JA.
    J Nutr. 1999 May;129(5):1039-44.
    PMID: 10222397

    The results suggest that in extrahepatic tissues, certain menaquinones may be the predominant form of vitamin K. The specific tissue distribution and the general decline of MK-4 and MK-6 in extrahepatic tissues during aging suggest a vitamin K tissue dynamic that is affected not only by diet, but also by gender, age and the specific roles of phylloquinone, MK-4 and MK-6 in metabolism. All of these factors must be taken into account in establishing the nutrient requirement for vitamin K.
Matti Narkia

Age and Dietary Form of Vitamin K Affect Menaquinone-4 Concentrations in Male Fischer 3... - 0 views

    Age and dietary form of vitamin K affect menaquinone-4 concentrations in male Fischer 344 rats.
    Booth SL, Peterson JW, Smith D, Shea MK, Chamberland J, Crivello N.
    J Nutr. 2008 Mar;138(3):492-6.
    PMID: 18287355

    These data suggest that dihydrophylloquinone, which differs from phylloquinone in its side phytyl chain, is absorbed but its intake results in less MK-4 in certain tissues. Dihydrophylloquinone may be used in models for the study of tissue-specific vitamin K deficiency
Matti Narkia

Conversion of Dietary Phylloquinone to Tissue Menaquinone-4 in Rats is Not Dependent on... - 0 views

    Conversion of dietary phylloquinone to tissue menaquinone-4 in rats is not dependent on gut bacteria.
    Davidson RT, Foley AL, Engelke JA, Suttie JW.
    J Nutr. 1998 Feb;128(2):220-3.
    PMID: 9446847

    These data offer conclusive proof that the tissue-specific formation of MK-4 from K is a metabolic transformation that does not require bacterial transformation to menadione as an intermediate in the process
Matti Narkia

Dietary Cod Protein Reduces Plasma C-Reactive Protein in Insulin-Resistant Men and Wome... - 0 views

    Dietary cod protein reduces plasma C-reactive protein in insulin-resistant men and women.
    Ouellet V, Weisnagel SJ, Marois J, Bergeron J, Julien P, Gougeon R, Tchernof A, Holub BJ, Jacques H.
    J Nutr. 2008 Dec;138(12):2386-91.
    PMID: 19022962

    Therefore, these results show that CP can lower hsCRP, a marker of inflammation associated with insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes.
Matti Narkia

Fish Oil-Fed Mice Have Impaired Resistance to Influenza Infection -- Schwerbrock et al.... - 0 views

    Fish oil-fed mice have impaired resistance to influenza infection.
    Schwerbrock NM, Karlsson EA, Shi Q, Sheridan PA, Beck MA.
    J Nutr. 2009 Aug;139(8):1588-94. Epub 2009 Jun 23.
    PMID: 19549756

    These results suggest that the antiinflammatory properties of fish oil feeding can alter the immune response to influenza infection, resulting in increased morbidity and mortality.
Matti Narkia

Dietary Mono- and Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids Similarly Affect LDL Size in Healthy Men ... - 0 views

    Dietary mono- and polyunsaturated fatty acids similarly affect LDL size in healthy men and women.
    Kratz M, Gülbahçe E, von Eckardstein A, Cullen P, Cignarella A, Assmann G, Wahrburg U.
    J Nutr. 2002 Apr;132(4):715-8.
    PMID: 11925466

    In conclusion, our data indicate that dietary unsaturated fat similarly reduces LDL size relative to saturated fat. However, the small magnitude of this reduction also suggests that the composition of dietary fat is not a major factor affecting LDL size.
Matti Narkia

The Serum LDL/HDL Cholesterol Ratio Is Influenced More Favorably by Exchangin... - 1 views

    The serum LDL/HDL cholesterol ratio is influenced more favorably by exchanging saturated with unsaturated fat than by reducing saturated fat in the diet of women.
    Müller H, Lindman AS, Brantsaeter AL, Pedersen JI.
    J Nutr. 2003 Jan;133(1):78-83.
    PMID: 12514271

    We conclude that, to influence the LDL/HDL cholesterol ratio, changing the proportions of dietary fatty acids may be more important than restricting the percentage of total or saturated fat energy, at least when derived mainly from lauric and myristic acids, both of which increase HDL cholesterol.
Matti Narkia

Strategies to Improve Vitamin D Status in Northern European Children: Exploring the Mer... - 0 views

    Strategies to improve vitamin D status in northern European children: exploring the merits of vitamin D fortification and supplementation.
    Tylavsky FA, Cheng S, Lyytikäinen A, Viljakainen H, Lamberg-Allardt C.
    J Nutr. 2006 Apr;136(4):1130-4.
    PMID: 16549494
Matti Narkia

Improved Cholecalciferol Nutrition in Rats Is Noncalcemic, Suppresses Parathyroid Hormo... - 0 views

    Improved cholecalciferol nutrition in rats is noncalcemic, suppresses parathyroid hormone and increases responsiveness to 1, 25-dihydroxycholecalciferol.
    Vieth R, Milojevic S, Peltekova V.
    J Nutr. 2000 Mar;130(3):578-84.
    PMID: 10702588

    We conclude suppression of 1,25(OH)(2)D and PTH, and higher renal VDR mRNA and 24-hydroxylase did not involve higher free 1,25(OH)(2)D concentration or a first pass effect at the gut. Thus, 25(OH)D or a metabolite other than 1,25(OH)(2)D is a physiological, transcriptionally and biochemically active, noncalcemic vitamin D metabolite.

    When viewed from a perspective that starts with higher vitamin D nutrition, the results indicate that low vitamin D nutrition may bring about a form of resistance to 1,25(OH)2D. This situation would explain why, in humans, nutritional rickets and osteomalacia are commonly associated with normal or increased levels of 1,25(OH)2D (Chesney et al. 1981Citation , Eastwood et al. 1979Citation , Garabedian et al. 1983Citation ,Rasmussen et al. 1980Citation )-these are not like the low hormone levels associated with any other endocrine-deficiency disorder. A connection between lower vitamin D nutrition and vitamin D resistance helps to explain why the supposedly inactive compound 25(OH)D is more relevant in diagnosing nutritional rickets than is the active hormone 1,25(OH)2D.

    If the features of improved vitamin D nutrition shown here were demonstrated for any newly synthesized compound, the compound would be classified as a noncalcemic 1,25(OH)2D analogue (Brown et al. 1989Citation , Finch et al. 1999Citation , Goff et al. 1993Citation , Koshizuka et al. 1999Citation ). Thus, we contend that 25(OH)D or a metabolite of it other than 1,25(OH)2D exists as a physiological and biologically-active noncalcemic vitamin D metabolite whose effects require further examination, particularly in relationship to studies involving the synthetic analogs of 1,25(OH)2D.
Matti Narkia

Quantifying Human Calcium Absorption Using Pharmacokinetic Methods -- Heaney 133 (4): 1... - 0 views

    Quantifying human calcium absorption using pharmacokinetic methods.
    Heaney RP.
    J Nutr. 2003 Apr;133(4):1224-6.
    PMID: 12672947
Matti Narkia

The Balance of Bone Health: Tipping the Scales in Favor of Potassium-Rich, Bicarbonate-... - 0 views

    The balance of bone health: tipping the scales in favor of potassium-rich, bicarbonate-rich foods.
    Lanham-New SA.
    J Nutr. 2008 Jan;138(1):172S-177S. Review.
    PMID: 18156420
Matti Narkia

The Importance of Calcium, Potassium, and Acid-Base Homeostasis in Bone Health and Oste... - 0 views

    The importance of calcium, potassium, and acid-base homeostasis in bone health and osteoporosis prevention.
    Tylavsky FA, Spence LA, Harkness L.
    J Nutr. 2008 Jan;138(1):164S-165S.
    PMID: 18156418

    In concert with the acid-base literature, protein intake is considered to be a net acid-producing substance and thus a net negative risk factor for bone dissolution. However, substantial literature supports the beneficial effects on skeletal metabolism when higher protein levels are consumed in concert with adequate calcium, potassium, and other minerals, regardless of the source of protein (24-26). The Dietary Approaches to Stopping Hypertension (DASH) diet (27) is a calcium-rich diet that emphasizes fruits, vegetables, and low-fat dairy products. This diet underscores the importance of consuming a complement of foods from meats, grains, dairy, fruits, and vegetables as prudent for promoting optimal bone health. In the following articles, Rafferty and Lanham-New carefully review the evidence on the interaction of specific diet components that impact bone health and conclude that a balanced diet with recommended servings of dairy products and a variety of fruits and vegetables is prudent for optimal bone health. Additionally, they comment on future research directions for consideration by the scientific community.
Matti Narkia

A Positive Association of Lumbar Spine Bone Mineral Density with Dietary Protein Is Sup... - 0 views

    A positive association of lumbar spine bone mineral density with dietary protein is suppressed by a negative association with protein sulfur.
    Thorpe M, Mojtahedi MC, Chapman-Novakofski K, McAuley E, Evans EM.
    J Nutr. 2008 Jan;138(1):80-5.
    PMID: 18156408

    Results suggest that protein intake is positively associated with aBMD, but benefit at the LS is offset by a negative impact of the protein sulfur acid load. If validated experimentally, these findings harmonize conflicting theories on the role of dietary protein in bone health.
Matti Narkia

Dietary Recommendations for Vitamin D: a Critical Need for Functional End Points to Est... - 0 views

    Dietary recommendations for vitamin D: a critical need for functional end points to establish an estimated average requirement.
    Whiting SJ, Calvo MS.
    J Nutr. 2005 Feb;135(2):304-9. Review.
    PMID: 15671232

    In summary, vitamin D has emerged as a critical nutrient for which there is a compelling health need to establish adequate dietary guidelines in North America and worldwide given the increasing evidence of vitamin D deficiency and insufficient links to risk of chronic disease. We strongly argue that now there are enough data to consider setting an estimated average requirement for vitamin D and to recognize the crucial need for more research to determine the role of vitamin D in noncalciotropic functions and prevention of chronic diseases
Matti Narkia

Nutrients, Endpoints, and the Problem of Proof -- Heaney 138 (9): 1591 -- Journal of Nu... - 0 views

    Nutrients, endpoints, and the problem of proof.
    Heaney RP.
    2008 W. O. Atwater Memorial Lecture
    J Nutr. 2008 Sep;138(9):1591-5.
    PMID: 18716155

    To sum up, I think that there would be general agreement to the effect that nutrition is important, despite the fact that the still growing number of failed trials of individual nutrients might suggest that no nutrient actually made much of a difference, a conclusion that is absurd on its face and ought to have alerted us to the possibility that there was something wrong with how we were investigating the matter. To provide the proof needed to sustain revised intake recommendations, we shall have to find a design better suited to nutrients than the randomized controlled trial as currently implemented, and we need to develop a series of global indices, nutrient by nutrient, which better capture the polyvalent nature of most nutrients. Perhaps it would be useful for the ASN, in collaboration with concerned governmental entities such as the USDA, to convene a workshop to address these structural issues. Such deliberation may well be arduous and frustrating, but it is terribly important and, in my view, well worth the effort.
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