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Matti Narkia

Quantitative Analysis of the Benefits and Risks of Consuming Farmed and Wild Salmon -- ... - 0 views

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    Quantitative analysis of the benefits and risks of consuming farmed and wild salmon.
    Foran JA, Good DH, Carpenter DO, Hamilton MC, Knuth BA, Schwager SJ.
    J Nutr. 2005 Nov;135(11):2639-43.
    PMID: 16251623

    Contaminants in farmed Atlantic and wild Pacific salmon raise important questions about the competing health benefits and risks of fish consumption. A benefit-risk analysis was conducted to compare quantitatively the cancer and noncancer risks of exposure to organic contaminants in salmon with the (n-3) fatty acid-associated health benefits of salmon consumption. Recommended levels of (n-3) fatty acid intake, as eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), may be achieved by consuming farmed or wild salmon while maintaining an acceptable level of noncarcinogenic risk. However, the recommended level of EPA+DHA intake cannot be achieved solely from farmed or wild salmon while maintaining an acceptable level of carcinogenic risk. Although the benefit-risk ratio for carcinogens and noncarcinogens is significantly greater for wild Pacific salmon than for farmed Atlantic salmon as a group, the ratio for some subgroups of farmed salmon is on par with the ratio for wild salmon. This analysis suggests that risk of exposure to contaminants in farmed and wild salmon is partially offset by the fatty acid-associated health benefits. However, young children, women of child-bearing age, pregnant women, and nursing mothers not at significant risk for sudden cardiac death associated with CHD but concerned with health impairments such as reduction in IQ and other cognitive and behavioral effects, can minimize contaminant exposure by choosing the least contaminated wild salmon or by selecting other sources of (n-3) fatty acids.
Matti Narkia

Plant-animal subsistence ratios and macronutrient energy estimations in worldwide hunte... - 0 views

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    Plant-animal subsistence ratios and macronutrient energy estimations in worldwide hunter-gatherer diets.
    Cordain L, Miller JB, Eaton SB, Mann N, Holt SH, Speth JD.
    Am J Clin Nutr. 2000 Mar;71(3):682-92.
    PMID: 10702160

    Our analysis showed that whenever and wherever it was ecologically possible, hunter-gatherers consumed high amounts (45-65% of energy) of animal food. Most (73%) of the worldwide hunter-gatherer societies derived >50% (> or =56-65% of energy) of their subsistence from animal foods, whereas only 14% of these societies derived >50% (> or =56-65% of energy) of their subsistence from gathered plant foods. This high reliance on animal-based foods coupled with the relatively low carbohydrate content of wild plant foods produces universally characteristic macronutrient consumption ratios in which protein is elevated (19-35% of energy) at the expense of carbohydrates (22-40% of energy).
Matti Narkia

Factors that Influence the Cutaneous Synthesis and Dietary Sources of Vitamin D - 0 views

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    Factors that influence the cutaneous synthesis and dietary sources of vitamin D.
    Chen TC, Chimeh F, Lu Z, Mathieu J, Person KS, Zhang A, Kohn N, Martinello S, Berkowitz R, Holick MF.
    Arch Biochem Biophys. 2007 Apr 15;460(2):213-7. Epub 2007 Jan 8.
    PMID: 17254541
    doi: 10.1016/j.abb.2006.12.017

    Vitamin D is rare in food. Among the vitamin D-rich food, oily fish are considered to be one of the best sources. Therefore, we analyzed the vitamin D content in several commonly consumed oily and non-oily fish. The data showed that farmed salmon had a mean content of vitamin D that was ~25% of the mean content found in wild caught salmon from Alaska, and that vitamin D2 was found in farmed salmon, but not in wild caught salmon. The results provide useful global guidelines for obtaining sufficient vitamin D3 by cutaneous synthesis and from dietary intake to prevent vitamin D deficiency and its health consequences.ensuing illness, especially, bone fractures in the elderly.
Matti Narkia

An Evaluation of the Vitamin D3 Content in Fish: Is the Vitamin D Content Adequate to S... - 0 views

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    An evaluation of the vitamin D3 content in fish: Is the vitamin D content adequate to satisfy the dietary requirement for vitamin D?
    Lu Z, Chen TC, Zhang A, Persons KS, Kohn N, Berkowitz R, Martinello S, Holick MF.
    J Steroid Biochem Mol Biol. 2007 Mar;103(3-5):642-4. Epub 2007 Jan 30.
    PMID: 17267210
    doi: 10.1016/j.jsbmb.2006.12.010

    Surprisingly, farmed salmon had approximately 25% of the vitamin D content as wild salmon had. The vitamin D content in fish varied widely even within species. These data suggest that the tables that list the vitamin D content are out-of-date and need to be re-evaluated.

    Little is known about the effect of cooking on the vitamin D content in fish. When farm salmon was baked, almost all of the vitamin D content, i.e. 240 IU of vitamin D3 was recovered from 3.5 oz. of salmon. The initial concentration in the uncooked salmon was 245 IU of vitamin D3. However, when the salmon was fried in vegetable oil, approximately 50% (123 IU of vitamin D3 was recovered.)
    We also evaluated the vitamin D content in mackerel which is traditionally considered to be an excellent source of vitamin D3 because of its oily content. However, in the one sample that we tested, we only observed 24 IU of vitamin D3 in 3.5 oz.
Matti Narkia

Vitamin D and skin physiology: a D-lightful story - JBMR Online - Journal of Bone and M... - 0 views

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    Vitamin D and skin physiology: a D-lightful story.
    Holick MF, Chen TC, Lu Z, Sauter E.
    J Bone Miner Res. 2007 Dec;22 Suppl 2:V28-33.
    PMID: 18290718
    doi: 10.1359/jbmr.07s211

    Very few foods naturally contain vitamin D, and those that do have a very variable vitamin D content. Recently it was observed that wild caught salmon had between 75% and 90% more vitamin D(3) compared with farmed salmon. The associations regarding increased risk of common deadly cancers, autoimmune diseases, infectious diseases, and cardiovascular disease with living at higher latitudes and being prone to vitamin D deficiency should alert all health care professionals about the importance of vitamin D for overall health and well being.

    Humans have depended on sunlight for their vitamin D requirement. The impact of season, time of day, and latitude on vitamin D synthesis is well documented.(2,3) We now report that altitude also has a dramatic influence on vitamin D3 production and that living at altitudes above 3500 m permits previtamin D3 production at a time when very little is produced at latitudes below 3400 m. It was surprising that, at 27° N in Agra (169 M), little previtamin D3 production was observed. However, there was significant air pollution that caused a haze over the city. It is likely the ozone and other UVB-absorbing pollutants in the air prevented the solar UVB photons from reaching the earth's surface to produce previtamin D3.
Matti Narkia

Factors that influence the cutaneous synthesis and dietary sources of vitamin D. - Scie... - 0 views

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    Factors that influence the cutaneous synthesis and dietary sources of vitamin D.\nChen TC, Chimeh F, Lu Z, Mathieu J, Person KS, Zhang A, Kohn N, Martinello S, Berkowitz R, Holick MF.\nArch Biochem Biophys. 2007 Apr 15;460(2):213-7. Epub 2007 Jan 8.\nPMID: 17254541\ndoi:10.1016/j.abb.2006.12.017\n
Matti Narkia

An evaluation of the vitamin D3 content in fish: Is the vitamin D content adequate to s... - 0 views

  •  
    An evaluation of the vitamin D3 content in fish: Is the vitamin D content adequate to satisfy the dietary requirement for vitamin D?\nLu Z, Chen TC, Zhang A, Persons KS, Kohn N, Berkowitz R, Martinello S, Holick MF.\nJ Steroid Biochem Mol Biol. 2007 Mar;103(3-5):642-4. Epub 2007 Jan 30.\nPMID: 17267210 \ndoi:10.1016/j.jsbmb.2006.12.010 \n
Matti Narkia

Vitamin D and skin physiology: a D-lightful story. - JBMR Online - Journal of Bone and... - 0 views

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    Vitamin D and skin physiology: a D-lightful story.\nHolick MF, Chen TC, Lu Z, Sauter E.\nJ Bone Miner Res. 2007 Dec;22 Suppl 2:V28-33.\nPMID: 18290718 \ndoi: 10.1359/jbmr.07s211\n
Matti Narkia

An evaluation of the vitamin D3 content in fish: Is the vitamin D content adequate to s... - 0 views

  •  
    Lu Z, Chen TC, Zhang A, Persons KS, Kohn N, Berkowitz R, Martinello S, Holick MF.
    An evaluation of the vitamin D3 content in fish: Is the vitamin D content adequate to satisfy the dietary requirement for vitamin D?
    J Steroid Biochem Mol Biol. 2007 Mar;
Matti Narkia

Factors that influence the cutaneous synthesis and dietary sources of vitamin D - Scien... - 0 views

  •  
    Chen TC, Chimeh F, Lu Z, Mathieu J, Person KS, Zhang A, Kohn N, Martinello S, Berkowitz R, Holick MF.
    Factors that influence the cutaneous synthesis and dietary sources of vitamin D.
    Arch Biochem Biophys. 2007 Apr 15;460(2):213-7. Epub 2007 Jan 8.
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