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Nathan Goodyear

The Androgen 5α-Dihydrotestosterone and Its Metabolite 5α-Androstan-3β, 17β-D... - 0 views

  • Sex steroid hormones are primarily responsible for sex difference in adult HPA function; androgens inhibit whereas estrogens enhance HPA axis activation after a stressor
  • the PVN contains relatively high levels of AR (Bingaman et al., 1994; Zhou et al., 1994) and ERβ (Alves et al., 1998; Hrabovszky et al., 1998; Somponpun and Sladek, 2003) but is essentially devoid of ERα
  • the nonaromatizable androgen DHT and the nonselective ER ligand E2 influence HPA reactivity by acting on neurons within or surrounding the PVN
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  • inhibitory action of DHT is detectable at both the level of hormone secretion as well as PVN c-fos mRNA expression
  • the inhibition can be mimicked by the DHT metabolite 3β-diol and by the subtype selective ERβ agonist DPN
  • E2 acts to enhance HPA reactivity
  • the ability of the ER antagonist tamoxifen, but not the AR antagonist flutamide, to block the inhibitory actions of DHT, speaks to the intracellular mechanism by which this inhibitory signal might be transduced.
    • Nathan Goodyear
      that is because the interaction with the DHT metabolite is not with the AR, but with the ER-beta.
  • the DHT metabolite 3β-diol and the ERβ-subtype-selective agonist DPN suppressed ACTH, corticosterone, and c-fos mRNA responses to restraint stress in a manner similar to DHT
  • metabolism of DHT to 3β-diol and subsequent binding to ERβ can be inhibitory to HPA reactivity, and this is one possible mechanism for the action of DHT.
  • Our data also suggest that E2 enhances the reactivity of the HPA axis to stress by acting on or near neurons of the PVN
  • the actions of E2 appear to be through an ERα-dependent mechanism
  • these studies suggest that ERβ, within the male hypothalamus, acts to inhibit the HPA axis and that the inhibitory effects of DHT may be, at least in part, via its intracellular conversion to 3β-diol and subsequent binding to ERβ
    DHT metabolites: particularly 3beta-androstanediol inhibit HPA axis through ER-beta.
Nathan Goodyear

Does Cortisol Inhibit Pulsatile Luteinizing Hormone Secretion at the Hypothalamic or Pi... - 0 views

    Cortisol inhbits LH secretion at the level of the Pituitary.  The result is a decreased pulse amplitude as a result of decreased pituitary response to GNRH.
Nathan Goodyear

LPS-Induced Inflammation Potentiates the IL-1-Mediated Reduction of LH Secretion from t... - 0 views

    IL-1beta reduced GNRH and LH production at the level of the Hypothalamus and the Pituitary respectively. What is interesting in this animal model is that greater LH suppression at the pituitary was found to occur in those animals with prior LPS exposure--priming??
Nathan Goodyear - 0 views

    everything one wants to know on hypothalamus
Nathan Goodyear

Membrane Estrogen Receptors Stimulate Intracellular Calcium Release and Progesterone Sy... - 0 views

    Estradiol stimulates hypothalamic progesterone synthesis in astrocytes in rat model.  This occurs through activation of calcium channels and influx of calcium.  ER alpha appears to be the prominent ER involved.
Nathan Goodyear - 0 views

    Good discussion of the HPA response to major surgery.  
Nathan Goodyear

Inflammatory cause of metabolic syndrome via brain stress and NF-κB - 0 views

  • Mechanistic studies further showed that such metabolic inflammation is related to the induction of various intracellular stresses such as mitochondrial oxidative stress, endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress, and autophagy defect under prolonged nutritional excess
  • intracellular stress-inflammation process for metabolic syndrome has been established in the central nervous system (CNS) and particularly in the hypothalamus
  • the CNS and the comprised hypothalamus are known to govern various metabolic activities of the body including appetite control, energy expenditure, carbohydrate and lipid metabolism, and blood pressure homeostasis
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  • Reactive oxygen species (ROS) refer to a class of radical or non-radical oxygen-containing molecules that have high oxidative reactivity with lipids, proteins, and nucleic acids
  • a large measure of intracellular ROS comes from the leakage of mitochondrial electron transport chain (ETC)
  • Another major source of intracellular ROS is the intentional generation of superoxides by nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) oxidase
  • there are other ROS-producing enzymes such as cyclooxygenases, lipoxygenases, xanthine oxidase, and cytochrome p450 enzymes, which are involved with specific metabolic processes
  • To counteract the toxic effects of molecular oxidation by ROS, cells are equipped with a battery of antioxidant enzymes such as superoxide dismutases, catalase, peroxiredoxins, sulfiredoxin, and aldehyde dehydrogenases
  • intracellular oxidative stress has been indicated to contribute to metabolic syndrome and related diseases, including T2D [72; 73], CVDs [74-76], neurodegenerative diseases [69; 77-80], and cancers
  • intracellular oxidative stress is highly associated with the development of neurodegenerative diseases [69] and brain aging
  • dietary obesity was found to induce NADPH oxidase-associated oxidative stress in rat brain
  • mitochondrial dysfunction in hypothalamic proopiomelanocortin (POMC) neurons causes central glucose sensing impairment
  • Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is the cellular organelle responsible for protein synthesis, maturation, and trafficking to secretory pathways
  • unfolded protein response (UPR) machinery
  • ER stress has been associated to obesity, insulin resistance, T2D, CVDs, cancers, and neurodegenerative diseases
  • brain ER stress underlies neurodegenerative diseases
  • under environmental stress such as nutrient deprivation or hypoxia, autophagy is strongly induced to breakdown macromolecules into reusable amino acids and fatty acids for survival
  • intact autophagy function is required for the hypothalamus to properly control metabolic and energy homeostasis, while hypothalamic autophagy defect leads to the development of metabolic syndrome such as obesity and insulin resistance
  • prolonged oxidative stress or ER stress has been shown to impair autophagy function in disease milieu of cancer or aging
  • TLRs are an important class of membrane-bound pattern recognition receptors in classical innate immune defense
  • Most hypothalamic cell types including neurons and glia cells express TLRs
  • overnutrition constitutes an environmental stimulus that can activate TLR pathways to mediate the development of metabolic syndrome related disorders such as obesity, insulin resistance, T2D, and atherosclerotic CVDs
  • Isoforms TLR1, 2, 4, and 6 may be particularly pertinent to pathogenic signaling induced by lipid overnutrition
  • hypothalamic TLR4 and downstream inflammatory signaling are activated in response to central lipid excess via direct intra-brain lipid administration or HFD-feeding
  • overnutrition-induced metabolic derangements such as central leptin resistance, systemic insulin resistance, and weight gain
  • these evidences based on brain TLR signaling further support the notion that CNS is the primary site for overnutrition to cause the development of metabolic syndrome.
  • circulating cytokines can limitedly travel to the hypothalamus through the leaky blood-brain barrier around the mediobasal hypothalamus to activate hypothalamic cytokine receptors
  • significant evidences have been recently documented demonstrating the role of cytokine receptor pathways in the development of metabolic syndrome components
  • entral administration of TNF-α at low doses faithfully replicated the effects of central metabolic inflammation in enhancing eating, decreasing energy expenditure [158;159], and causing obesity-related hypertension
  • Resistin, an adipocyte-derived proinflammatory cytokine, has been found to promote hepatic insulin resistance through its central actions
  • both TLR pathways and cytokine receptor pathways are involved in central inflammatory mechanism of metabolic syndrome and related diseases.
  • In quiescent state, NF-κB resides in the cytoplasm in an inactive form due to inhibitory binding by IκBα protein
  • IKKβ activation via receptor-mediated pathway, leading to IκBα phosphorylation and degradation and subsequent release of NF-κB activity
  • Research in the past decade has found that activation of IKKβ/NF-κB proinflammatory pathway in metabolic tissues is a prominent feature of various metabolic disorders related to overnutrition
  • it happens in metabolic tissues, it is mainly associated with overnutrition-induced metabolic derangements, and most importantly, it is relatively low-grade and chronic
  • this paradigm of IKKβ/NF-κB-mediated metabolic inflammation has been identified in the CNS – particularly the comprised hypothalamus, which primarily accounts for to the development of overnutrition-induced metabolic syndrome and related disorders such as obesity, insulin resistance, T2D, and obesity-related hypertension
  • evidences have pointed to intracellular oxidative stress and mitochondrial dysfunction as upstream events that mediate hypothalamic NF-κB activation in a receptor-independent manner under overnutrition
  • In the context of metabolic syndrome, oxidative stress-related NF-κB activation in metabolic tissues or vascular systems has been implicated in a broad range of metabolic syndrome-related diseases, such as diabetes, atherosclerosis, cardiac infarct, stroke, cancer, and aging
  • intracellular oxidative stress seems to be a likely pathogenic link that bridges overnutrition with NF-κB activation leading to central metabolic dysregulation
  • overnutrition is an environmental inducer for intracellular oxidative stress regardless of tissues involved
  • excessive nutrients, when transported into cells, directly increase mitochondrial oxidative workload, which causes increased production of ROS by mitochondrial ETC
  • oxidative stress has been shown to activate NF-κB pathway in neurons or glial cells in several types of metabolic syndrome-related neural diseases, such as stroke [185], neurodegenerative diseases [186-188], and brain aging
  • central nutrient excess (e.g., glucose or lipids) has been shown to activate NF-κB in the hypothalamus [34-37] to account for overnutrition-induced central metabolic dysregulations
  • overnutrition can present the cell with a metabolic overload that exceeds the physiological adaptive range of UPR, resulting in the development of ER stress and systemic metabolic disorders
  • chronic ER stress in peripheral metabolic tissues such as adipocytes, liver, muscle, and pancreatic cells is a salient feature of overnutrition-related diseases
  • recent literature supports a model that brain ER stress and NF-κB activation reciprocally promote each other in the development of central metabolic dysregulations
  • when intracellular stresses remain unresolved, prolonged autophagy upregulation progresses into autophagy defect
  • autophagy defect can induce NF-κB-mediated inflammation in association with the development of cancer or inflammatory diseases (e.g., Crohn's disease)
  • The connection between autophagy defect and proinflammatory activation of NF-κB pathway can also be inferred in metabolic syndrome, since both autophagy defect [126-133;200] and NF-κB activation [20-33] are implicated in the development of overnutrition-related metabolic diseases
  • Both TLR pathway and cytokine receptor pathways are closely related to IKKβ/NF-κB signaling in the central pathogenesis of metabolic syndrome
  • Overnutrition, especially in the form of HFD feeding, was shown to activate TLR4 signaling and downstream IKKβ/NF-κB pathway
  • TLR4 activation leads to MyD88-dependent NF-κB activation in early phase and MyD88-indepdnent MAPK/JNK pathway in late phase
  • these studies point to NF-κB as an immediate signaling effector for TLR4 activation in central inflammatory response
  • TLR4 activation has been shown to induce intracellular ER stress to indirectly cause metabolic inflammation in the hypothalamus
  • central TLR4-NF-κB pathway may represent one of the early receptor-mediated events in overnutrition-induced central inflammation.
  • cytokines and their receptors are both upstream activating components and downstream transcriptional targets of NF-κB activation
  • central administration of TNF-α at low dose can mimic the effect of obesity-related inflammatory milieu to activate IKKβ/NF-κB proinflammatory pathways, furthering the development of overeating, energy expenditure decrease, and weight gain
  • the physiological effects of IKKβ/NF-κB activation seem to be cell type-dependent, i.e., IKKβ/NF-κB activation in hypothalamic agouti-related protein (AGRP) neurons primarily leads to the development of energy imbalance and obesity [34]; while in hypothalamic POMC neurons, it primarily results in the development of hypertension and glucose intolerance
  • the hypothalamus, is the central regulator of energy and body weight balance [
    Great article chronicles the biochemistry of "over nutrition" and inflammation through NF-kappaB activation and its impact on the brain.
Nathan Goodyear

Changes in androgen receptor, estrogen receptor a... [Horm Behav. 2010] - PubMed - NCBI - 0 views

    ER alpha and AR play role in response of hypothalamus to exogenous testosterone therapy.  It is not just the message, but how the message is interpreted.  Low T symptoms cannot be explained by "low T" alone, but how the tissue receives the message and interprets the message.
Nathan Goodyear

Minireview: Inflammation and Obesity Pathogenesis: The Hypothalamus Heats Up - 0 views

  • Leptin, secreted by adipocytes in proportion to body fat mass
  • The saturated fatty acid palmitate (16:0) induces NF-κB signaling through a TLR4-dependent mechanism
  • 18:0 (stearic) and longer saturated fatty acids as well as linolenic acid (18:3) increased proinflammatory cytokines, ER stress markers, and TLR4 activation
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  • (SOCS)-3. A member of a protein family originally characterized as negative feedback regulators of inflammation (13, 37), SOCS3 inhibits insulin and leptin signaling
  • IKKβ signaling in discrete neuronal subsets appears to be required for both hypothalamic inflammation and excess weight gain to occur during HF feeding
  • the paradoxical observation that hyperphagia and weight gain occur when hypothalamic inflammation is induced by HF feeding, yet when it occurs in response to systemic or local inflammatory processes (e.g. administration of endotoxin), anorexia and weight loss are the rule
  • , serves as a circulating signal of energy stores in part by providing feedback inhibition of hypothalamic orexigenic pathways [e.g. neurons that express neuropeptide Y and agouti-related peptide (AgRP)]
  • and stimulating anorexigenic neurons
  • signals from Toll-like receptors (TLRs), evolutionarily conserved pattern recognition molecules critical for detecting pathogens, amplified through signaling intermediates such as MyD88 activate the inhibitor of κB-kinase-β (IKKβ)/nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB), c-Jun N-terminal kinase (Jnk) and other intracellular inflammatory signals in response to stimulation by circulating saturated fatty acids
    great read on the current understanding of how obesity and resultant inflammation disrupts hypothalamic function.
Nathan Goodyear

Effect of vasopressin 1b receptor blockade on the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal respon... - 0 views

    repeated stress results in down regulation of central stress response ie. blunted CRH response.
Nathan Goodyear

Neuroendocrine disorders after... [J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry. 2008] - PubMed - NCBI - 0 views

    The majority of people with PTHP after TBI remain undiagnosed.  The current thought, is that 25% of those with TBI have at least one pituitary hormone deficiency.  It does not have to be total pituitary failure.  Deficiencies can be isolated.
Nathan Goodyear

Hypopituitarism after traumatic brain injury - 0 views

  • PTHP is observed in about 40% of patients with a history of TBI
    post-traumatic hypopituitarism is found in 40% of those with TBI.  The severity does correlate with the increased likelihood of developing PTHP.  Isolated deficiencies have been found in PTHP.
Nathan Goodyear

Aromatase Inhibition in the Human Male Reveals a Hypothalamic Site of Estrogen Feedback - 0 views

    estrogen shown to have two sites of negative feedback in men. First in the hypothalamus and second in the pituitary.  In many men, aromatase inhibition can restore the HPA by eliminating the negative feedback of estrogen on the hypothalamus and the pituitary.
Nathan Goodyear

Aromatase Inhibition in the Human Male Reveals a Hypothalamic Site of Estrogen Feedback - 0 views

    estrogen shown to inhibit testosterone production at both the hypothalamus and pituitary through negative feedback.
Nathan Goodyear

Cortisol awakening response and nighttime salivary... [Yonsei Med J. 2011] - PubMed result - 0 views

    salivary cortisol useful in evaluating hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal axis system
Nathan Goodyear

Hypothalamic IKKbeta/NF-kappaB and ER stress link ... [Cell. 2008] - PubMed result - 0 views

  • Our results show that the hypothalamic IKKbeta/NF-kappaB program is a general neural mechanism for energy imbalance underlying obesity and suggest that suppressing hypothalamic IKKbeta/NF-kappaB may represent a strategy to combat obesity and related diseases
    INflammation of hypothalamus through NF-KappaB leads to obesity and related diseases
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