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Nathan Goodyear

Plasma prolactin and breast cancer risk: a meta- analysis | Scientific Reports - 0 views

    prolactin associated wtih ER+/PR+
Nathan Goodyear

The role of prolactin in human breast cancer | Biochemia Medica - 0 views

    prolactin and breast cancer
Nathan Goodyear

Breast carcinoma associated with prolactinoma: A case report - 0 views

    prolactin and breast cancer
Nathan Goodyear

Prolactin and cancer: Has the orphan finally found a home? - 0 views

    Good review on prolactin and cancer.
Nathan Goodyear

The current state and future perspectives of cannabinoids in cancer biology - 0 views

  • The activation of each of them leads to an inhibition of adenylyl cyclase via G proteins (Gi/o), which in turn activates many metabolic pathways such as mitogen‐activated protein kinase pathway (MAPK), phosphoinositide 3‐kinase pathway (PI3K), cyclooxygenase‐2 pathway (COX‐2), accumulation of ceramide, modulation of protein kinase B (Akt), and ion channels
  • phytocannabinoids, endocannabinoids, and synthetic cannabinoids
  • Action of THC in human organism relies on mimicking endogenous agonists of CB receptors—endocannabinoids
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  • The upregulated expression of CB receptors and the elevated levels of endocannabinoids have been observed in a variety of cancer cells (skin, prostate, and colon cancer, hepatocellular carcinoma, endometrial sarcoma, glioblastoma multiforme, meningioma and pituitary adenoma, Hodgkin lymphoma, chemically induced hepatocarcinoma, mantel cell lymphoma)
  • concentration of endocannabinoids, expression level of their receptors, and the enzymes involved in their metabolism frequently are associated with an aggressiveness of cancer
  • CB2 receptor contributes to human epidermal growth factor receptor (HER2) pro‐oncogenic signaling and an overexpression of CB2 increases susceptibility for leukemia development after leukemia viral infection
  • endocannabinoid‐degrading enzymes are upregulated in cancer cell lines and in human tumors
  • Many cannabinoids, ranging from phytocannabinoids (THC, CBD), endocannabinoids (2‐arachidonoylglycerol, anandamide), to synthetic cannabinoids (JWH‐133, WIN‐55,212‐2), have shown ability to inhibit proliferation, metastasis, and angiogenesis in a variety of models of cancer
  • Despite some inconsistent data, the main effect of cannabinoids in a tumor is the inhibition of cancer cells’ proliferation and induction of cancer cell death by apoptosis
  • CB1 and CB2 receptor agonists stimulate apoptotic cell death in glioma cells by induction of de novo synthesis of ceramide, sphingolipid with proapoptotic activity
  • process of autophagy is upstream of apoptosis in mechanism of cell death induced by cannabinoids
Nathan Goodyear

Proapoptotic effect of endocannabinoids in prostate cancer cells - 0 views

    endocannabinoids are beneficial in the treatment of prostate cancer.
Nathan Goodyear

Anticancer mechanisms of cannabinoids - 0 views

  • modulating key cell signalling pathways involved in the control of cancer cell proliferation and survival
  • cannabinoids inhibit angiogenesis and decrease metastasis in various tumour types in laboratory animals
  • Cannabis sativa L. (marijuana)
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  • of the approximately 108 cannabinoids produced by C. sativa, Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (thc) is the most relevant because of its high potency and abundance in plant preparations
  • Tetrahydrocannabinol exerts a wide variety of biologic effects by mimicking endogenous substances—the endocannabinoids anandamide and 2-arachidonoylglycerol,—that engage specific cell-surface cannabinoid receptors
  • two major cannabinoid-specific receptors—cb1 and cb2
  • transient receptor potential cation channel subfamily V, member 1
  • orphan G protein–coupled receptor 55
  • Most of the effects produced by cannabinoids in the nervous system and in non-neural tissues rely on cb1 receptor activation
  • the cb2 receptor was initially described to be present in the immune system, but was more recently shown to also be expressed in cells from other origins
  • cardiovascular tone, energy metabolism, immunity, and reproduction
  • cannabinoids are well known to exert palliative effects in cancer patients
  • best-established use is the inhibition of chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting
  • thc and other cannabinoids exhibit antitumour effects in a wide array of animal models of cancer
  • cannabinoid receptors and their endogenous ligands are both generally upregulated in tumour tissue compared with non-tumour tissue
  • cb2 promotes her2 (human epidermal growth factor receptor 2) pro-oncogenic signalling in breast cancer
  • pharmacologic activation of cannabinoid receptors decreases tumour growth
  • endocannabinoid signalling can also have a tumour-suppressive role
  • pharmacologic stimulation of cb receptors is, in most cases, antitumourigenic. Nonetheless, a few reports have proposed a tumour-promoting effect of cannabinoids
  • most prevalent effect is the induction of cancer cell death by apoptosis and the inhibition of cancer cell proliferation
  • impair tumour angiogenesis and block invasion and metastasis
  • thc and other cannabinoids induce the apoptotic death of glioma cells by cb1- and cb2-dependent stimulation
  • Autophagy is primarily a cytoprotective mechanism, although its activation can also lead to cell death
  • autophagy is important for cannabinoid antineoplastic activity
  • autophagy is upstream of apoptosis in the mechanism of cannabinoid-induced cell death
  • the effect of cannabinoids in hormone- dependent tumours might rely, at least in part, on the ability to interfere with the activation of growth factor receptors
  • glioma cells), pharmacologic blockade of either cb1 or cb2 prevents cannabinoid-induced cell death with similar efficacy
  • other types of cancer cells (pancreatic, breast, or hepatic carcinoma cells, for example), antagonists of cb2 but not of cb1 inhibit cannabinoid antitumour actions
  • thc promotes cancer cell death in a cb1- or cb2-dependent manner (or both) at lower concentrations
  • cannabidiol (cbd), a phytocannabinoid with a low affinity for cannabinoid receptors, and other marijuana-derived cannabinoids have also been proposed to promote the apoptotic death of cancer cells acting independently of the cb1 and cb2 receptors
  • In cancer cells, cannabinoids block the activation of the vascular endothelial growth factor (vegf) pathway, an inducer of angiogenesi
  • In vascular endothelial cells, cannabinoid receptor activation inhibits proliferation and migration, and induces apoptosis
  • cb1 or cb2 receptor agonists (or both) reduce the formation of distant tumour masses in animal models of both induced and spontaneous metastasis, and inhibit adhesion, migration, and invasiveness of glioma, breast,, lung,, and cervical cancer cells in culture
  • the ceramide/p8–regulated pathway plays a general role in the antitumour activity of cannabinoids targeting cb1 and cb2
  • cbd, by acting independently of the cb1 and cb2 receptors, produces a remarkable anti-tumour effect—including reduction of invasiveness and metastasis
  • cannabinoids can also enhance immune system–mediated tumour surveillance in some contexts
  • ability of thc to reduce inflammation,, an effect that might prevent certain types of cancer
  • recent observations suggest that the combined administration of cannabinoids with other anticancer drugs acts synergistically to reduce tumour growth
  • combined administration of gemcitabine (the benchmark agent for the treatment of pancreatic cancer) and various cannabinoid agonists synergistically reduced the viability of pancreatic cancer cells
  • Other reports indicated that anandamide and HU-210 might also enhance the anticancer activity of paclitaxel and 5-fluorouracil respectively
  • Combined administration of thc and cbd enhances the anticancer activity of thc and reduces the dose of thc needed to induce its tumour growth-inhibiting activity
  • Preclinical animal models have yielded data indicating that systemic (oral or intraperitoneal) administration of cannabinoids effectively decreases tumour growth
  • Combinations of cannabinoids with classical chemotherapeutic drugs such as the alkylating agent temozolomide (the benchmark agent for the management of glioblastoma,) have been shown to produce a strong anticancer action in animal models
  • pharmacologic inhibition of egfr, erk, or akt enhances the cell-death-promoting action of thc in glioma cultures (unpublished observations by the authors), which suggests that targeting egfr and the akt and erk pathways could enhance the antitumour effect of cannabinoids
    Good review of the anticancer effects of cananbinoids.
Nathan Goodyear

New clinical criteria for septic shock: serum lactate level as new emerging vital sign - 0 views

    serum lactate to evaluate septic shock.
Nathan Goodyear

Antiangiogenic activity of the endocannabinoid anandamide: Correlation to its... - 0 views

    endocannabinoids inhibit angiogenesis as well as cancer cell growth, invasion, and metastasis.
Nathan Goodyear

Inhibition of tumor angiogenesis by cannabinoids | The FASEB Journal - 0 views

    cannabinioids inhibit tumor angiogenesis in vivo via direct inhibition of vascular endothelial cell migration and survival and suppression of various proangiogenic factos such as MMP.  Great diagram in figure 3.
Nathan Goodyear

Role of cannabinoid receptor CB2 in HER2 pro-oncogenic signaling in breast cancer. - Pu... - 0 views

    CB2 overexpression found to upregulate HER2 expression in breast cancer.  This has prognostic and therapeutic value.
Nathan Goodyear

Cristina Sanchez | Complutense University of Madrid, Madrid | UCM | Department of Bioch... - 0 views

    Cristin sanchez publications in the use of cannabinoids in cancer.
Nathan Goodyear

A Combined Preclinical Therapy of Cannabinoids and Temozolomide against Glioma | Molecu... - 0 views

  • Δ9-Tetrahydrocannabinol (THC; Supplementary Fig. 1), the main active component of the hemp plant Cannabis sativa
  • CB1, abundantly expressed in the brain and at many peripheral sites
  • CB2, expressed in the immune system and also present in some neuron subpopulations and glioma cells
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  • antitumoral agents
  • Aside from THC, C. sativa produces approximately 70 other cannabinoids, although, unlike THC, many of them exhibit little affinity for CB receptors (10, 20). Of interest, at least one of these components, namely, cannabinol (CBD; Supplementary Fig. 1), has been shown to reduce the growth of different types of tumor xenografts including gliomas
  • the combined administration of THC and CBD is being therapeutically explored (10, 20, 26), although its effects on the proliferation and survival of cancer cells have only been analyzed in vitro
    THC found to augment chemotherapy in the glioblastoma cell culture study.
Nathan Goodyear

Delta9-tetrahydrocannabinol induces apoptosis in C6 glioma cells. - PubMed - NCBI - 0 views

    THC induces apoptosis of glioblastoma cells via CB1 receptor signaling.
Nathan Goodyear

Cannabinoid receptors and pain. - PubMed - NCBI - 0 views

    Cannabinoids, cannabinoid receptors and pain control.
Nathan Goodyear

Current Status of Percutaneous Transhepatic Biliary Drainage in Palliation of Malignant... - 0 views

    Good review of transbiliary drainage in treatment of malgnancy.
Nathan Goodyear

Multicenter Phase II Study of Sequential Brentuximab Vedotin and Doxorubicin, Vinblasti... - 0 views

    monoclonal Ab used in sequence with AVD found to have event-free survival, progression-free survival, and overal survival rates of 80%, 84%, and 93% respectively in older adults with Hodgkin's lymphoma.
Nathan Goodyear

Axillary dissection versus no axillary dissection in patients with breast cancer and se... - 0 views

    study finds no disease free survival difference in those women with breast cancer and sentinel node metastasis for axillary lymph node dissection versus no disecction; no difference in overall survival at 10 years also observed.
Nathan Goodyear - 1 views

    IgM levels > 60 g/l found to predict need for plasmapheresis due to hyperviscosity syndrome.
Nathan Goodyear

Hypercalcemia of malignancy and new treatment options - 0 views

  • Hypercalcemia of malignancy occurs as the result of direct bone metastasis and via humoral mechanisms such as parathyroid hormone-related protein (PTHrP) or 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D mediated pathways
  • ectopic secretion of parathyroid hormone (PTH) has been implicated
  • Hypercalcemia due to osteolytic bone lesions is common in multiple myeloma, leukemia, and breast cancer
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  • Humoral hypercalcemia is predominant in squamous cell, renal cell and ovarian cancers, and lymphomas are associated with 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D mediated hypercalcemia
  • 20% of cases of hypercalcemia of malignancy and is frequently encountered in multiple myeloma, metastatic breast cancer, and to a lesser extent in leukemia and lymphoma
  • Physiologic bone turnover requires the complementary activity of osteoblasts – mesenchymal stem cell-derived bone-forming cells – and bone-resorbing cells of monocyte and macrophage lineage known as osteoclasts
  • In local osteolytic hypercalcemia, the RANKL/RANK interaction results in excessive osteoclast activation leading to enhanced bone resorption and thus hypercalcemia
  • In addition, osteoclast activation is also mediated by malignancy secreted cytokines, including interleukin-1, initially termed “osteoclast stimulating factor”
  • Macrophage inflammation protein 1-alpha (MIP 1-alpha)
  • hypercalcemia is through extra-renal 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D (calcitriol) production
  • 1% of cases
  • increased production of 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D occurs nearly exclusively in Hodgkin and non-Hodgkin lymphoma with case reports of the same in ovarian dysgerminoma
  • 1-α-hydroxylase in the kidney, a process regulated by PTH
  • in 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D induced hypercalcemia, malignant cells likely recruit and induce adjacent macrophages to express 1-α-hydroxylase, converting endogenous calcidiol into calcitriol. Calcitriol then binds to receptors in the intestine leading to heightened enteric calcium reabsorption with resultant hypercalcemia
  • this mechanism of disease is best conceptualized as an absorptive form of hypercalcemia
  • Ectopic production of PTH by malignant cells has been described in a handful of cases involving cancer of the ovary and lung, as well as neuroendocrine tumors and sarcoma
  • primary hyperparathyroidism and malignancy comprising nearly 90% of cases of hypercalcemia
  • an initial panel consisting of PTH, PTHrP, phosphorus, 25-hydroxyvitamin D, and 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D should be obtained
  • Lymphoma, a hypercalcemia due to 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D mediated pathways, is implied by elevations in 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D without concomitant elevations in 25-hydroxyvitamin D. In such cases, PTH is low and PTHrP undetectable
  • Treatment of hypercalcemia of malignancy is aimed at lowering the serum calcium concentration by targeting the underlying disease, specifically by inhibiting bone resorption, increasing urinary calcium excretion, and to a lesser extent by decreasing intestinal calcium absorption
  • mildly symptomatic disease
  • marked symptoms
  • hydration with isotonic fluid (if admitted), avoidance of thiazide diuretics, and a low-calcium diet
  • denosumab
  • Denosumab is an RANKL antibody that inhibits osteoclast maturation, activation, and function
    hypercalcemia in cancer and treatments.
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