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Nathan Goodyear

ApoB but not LDL-cholesterol is reduced by exercise training in overweight healthy men.... - 0 views

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    exercise in overweight, otherwise healthy men reduced ApoB.
Nathan Goodyear

Apolipoprotein B and Cardiovascular Disease Risk: Position Statement from the AACC Lipo... - 0 views

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    ApoB is a better measure of risk than LDL.
Nathan Goodyear

Cross-kingdom inhibition of breast cancer growth by plant miR159 - 0 views

  • MicroRNAs (miRNAs), a major family of small RNAs, are ∼23 nt-long single strands of RNA that bind to mRNA transcripts to inhibit their translation
  • A recent study by Zhang et al. reported that plant-derived miRNAs can be found in human serum.
  • The group demonstrates that the plant miRNA miR168 may be taken up through dietary intake to inhibit the expression of its target low-density lipoprotein receptor 1 in the liver, providing the first evidence that miRNA in food may influence gene expression in mammalian organs.
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  • A more recent finding by the same group shows that a plant miRNA from honeysuckle is able to inhibit Influenza A replication, indicating that plant miRNAs may be useful for treating human diseases.
  • We found that plant miR159 could be detected in human sera and its levels were inversely correlated with BC incidence and progression.
  • We further identified TCF7 as a mammalian target for miR159 and showed the anti-proliferative function of miR159 in BC cells using in vitro and in vivo models, demonstrating for the first time that a plant miRNA is able to influence BC cell growth.
  • certain dietary miRNAs from plants and other species may serve as highly affordable and powerful means of treatment with minimal inconvenience to patients.
  • miR159 which (using a synthetic mimic) targets TCF7 to inhibit the proliferation of cells whose growth is dependent on TCF7 such as the BC cells MDA-MB-231
  • our study using a BC model clearly indicates the anti-tumor effect of orally administered synthetic miR159 in its naturally existing form with the plant-specific 2'-O-methylation, suggesting the feasibility of using synthetic forms of plant miRNAs as dietary supplements in the treatment of human cancers, including those outside of the GI track
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    Plant microRNA found to exist in human serum from gut absorption to then alter genetic expression in in-vitro and in vivo studies.
Nathan Goodyear

Plant miRNAs found in human circulating system provide evidences of cross kingdom RNAi - 0 views

  • Plant miRNA miR168a was found to present in the sera of mammals including human and regulate human gene LDLRAP1
  • plant miRNAs can present within human circulating system through dietary intake and regulate human gene expression emerged. Broccoli sourced miR159 was found in human sera and proved to inhibit breast cancer growth through targeting the gene TCF7
  • This miRNA, with same 6mer and 7mer-A1 target seed sequence as hsa-miR-4259 and hsa-miR-4715-5p, was predicted to target human JAK-STAT signaling pathway gene SPRY4 and transcription regulation genes through miRTar
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  • plant miRNAs present in human circulating system were proven to be able to target human genes
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    Plant microRNA found in human serum.  Previous studies have shown that these plant microRNA's can interact with the human genome.
Nathan Goodyear

Primary care-led weight management for remission of type 2 diabetes (DiRECT): an open-l... - 0 views

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    study finds very low calorie diet reversed diabetes. The greatest weight loss was associated with greatest remission of diabetes at 86% with >15 kg weight loss.
Nathan Goodyear

Metabolic profiles characterizing different phenotypes of polycystic ovary syndrome: pl... - 0 views

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    Study found that PCOS was associated with increased glycolysis, reduced kreb's cycle activity, and decreased gluconeogenesis.  Also found a decrease in the BCAA/AAA ratio.
Nathan Goodyear

Thieme E-Journals - Hormone and Metabolic Research / Abstract - 0 views

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    Short study found that Selenium improved pregnancy rate compared to placebo, reduced DHEA, hirsutism, CRP and MDA
Nathan Goodyear

Effects of Quercetin on Adiponectin-Mediated Insulin Sensitivity in Polycystic Ovary Sy... - 0 views

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    Quercetin found to increase adiponectin levels within women with PCOS with insulin resistance. Adiponectin has been shown to be inversly associated with insulin and insulin resistance.  
Nathan Goodyear

Apolipoprotein E and Alzheimer disease: risk, mechanisms, and therapy - 0 views

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    Great review on APOE and its contribution to Alzheimer's disease risk.
Nathan Goodyear

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC431183/pdf/pnas00040-0366.pdf - 0 views

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    Some of the early research by Linus Pauling that showed that IV vitamin C is safe and increases survival time of patients with advanced cancer.  
Nathan Goodyear

Oncotarget | NADH autofluorescence, a new metabolic biomarker for cancer stem cells: Id... - 0 views

  • Vitamin C was ~10 times more potent than 2-DG for the targeting of CSCs
  • Cancer stem-like cells (CSCs) are thought to be the root cause of chemotherapy-resistance and radio-resistance
  • ultimately leading to treatment failure in patients with advanced disease [1-3]. They have been directly implicated mechanistically in tumor recurrence and metastasis, resulting in poor patient survival
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  • mitochondrial biogenesis may be a key driver of the CSC phenotype
  • Our results indicate that increased mitochondrial oxidative stress and high NADH levels are both key characteristics of the CSC metabolic phenotype
  • high levels of NAD(P)H auto-fluorescence are known to be a surrogate marker for mitochondrial “power”, high OXPHOS capacity and increased ATP production
  • CSCs may be strictly dependent on NAD(P)H to maintain their enhanced mitochondrial function
  • an intact NAD+ salvage pathway is strictly required for mammosphere formation, supporting our results using NAD(P)H auto-fluorescence, which enriched CSC activity by more than 5-fold.
  • Since glycolysis is especially critical for maintaining the TCA cycle, OXPHOS and overall mitochondrial function, we next assessed the effects of known glycolytic inhibitors
  • we show that two other natural products that function as effective glycolysis inhibitors, also inhibited mammosphere formation. More specifically, vitamin C (ascorbic acid), which induces oxidative stress and inhibits the activity of GAPDH (a key glycolytic enzyme) [17], also inhibited mammosphere formation, with an IC-50 of 1 mM (Figure 7B). Therefore, vitamin C was ~10 times more potent than 2-DG at targeting CSC propagation
  • silibinin (the major active constituent of silymarin, an extract of milk thistle seeds) [18], which specifically functions as an inhibitor of glucose uptake, blocked mammosphere formation, with an IC-50 between 200 and 400 µM
  • caffeic acid phenyl ester (CAPE), a key component of honey-bee propolis, has potent anti-cancer properties
  • Propolis has a strong history of medicinal use, dating back more than 2,000 years
  • Because of it aromatic ring structure (Figure 8), we speculated that CAPE might function as a potent inhibitor of oxidative mitochondrial metabolism
  • CAPE quantitatively inhibits the mitochondrial oxygen consumption rate (OCR) and, in turn, induces the onset of aerobic glycolysis (ECAR)
  • CAPE shows a clear selectivity for targeting CSCs and adherent cancer cells, relative to normal fibroblasts.
  • CAPE functions as a “natural” mitochondrial OXPHOS inhibitor, that preferentially targets the CSC sub-population. This could explain CAPE’s known anti-cancer properties
  • Our data directly shows that a small fraction of the total cell population, characterized by increased PGC1α activity, high mitochondrial ROS/H2O2 and high NADH levels, has the ability to survive and grow under anchorage-independent conditions, driving mammosphere formation
  • We highlight the utility of certain natural products, such as Silibinin, Vitamin C and CAPE, that could be used to therapeutically target CSCs. Silibinin is the major active component of silymarin, which is an extract prepared from milk thistle seeds.
  • high NADH is a property that is conserved between normal and cancerous stem cells
  • Previous studies have also shown that when non-CSCs and CSCs are both fed mitochondrial fuels (such as L-lactate or ketone bodies), that CSCs quantitatively produce more NADH in response to this stimulus
  • CSCs may be strictly dependent on NADH to maintain their enhanced mitochondrial function
  • The Noble Prize winner, Linus Pauling, was among the first to describe and clinically test the efficacy of Vitamin C, as a relatively non-toxic anti-cancer agent
  • Vitamin C has two mechanisms of action. First, it is a potent pro-oxidant, that actively depletes the reduced glutathione pool, leading to cellular oxidative stress and apoptosis in cancer cells. Moreover, it also behaves as an inhibitor of glycolysis, by targeting the activity of GAPDH, a key glycolytic enzyme.
  • Here, we show that Vitamin C can also be used to target the CSC population, as it is an inhibitor of energy metabolism that feeds into the mitochondrial TCA cycle and OXPHOS
  • Vitamin C may prove to be promising agent for new clinical trials, aimed at testing its ability to reduce CSC activity in cancer patients, as an add-on to more conventional therapies, to prevent tumor recurrence, further disease progression and metastasis
  • Interestingly, a breast cancer based clinical study has already shown that the use of Vitamin C, concurrent with or within 6 months of chemotherapy, significantly reduces both tumor recurrence and patient mortality
  • CAPE quantitatively reduces mitochondrial oxygen consumption (OCR), while inducing a reactive increase in glycolysis (ECAR). As such, it potently inhibits mammosphere formation with an IC-50 of ~2.5 µM. Similarly, it also significantly inhibits cell migration
  • we also demonstrate that 7 different inhibitors of key energetic pathways can be used to effectively block CSC propagation, including three natural products (silibinin, ascorbic acid and CAPE). Future studies will be necessary to test their potential for clinical benefit in cancer patients.
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    The future of cancer therapy is cancer stem cells.  Study finds that Vitamin C, silymarin, and bee propolis blocks mitochondrial energy pathways in cancer stem cells.  Vitamin C is a known glycolytic inhbitor. Vitamin C was found to inhibit glycolysis via GAPDH targeting to inhibit the energy pathways of the mitochondria in CSCs.  The authors propse that Vitamin C can be used as add on therapies for conventional therapies to specifically attack the CSCs and their contribution to recrurence, treatment resistance, and metastasis potential all in addition to the ability of vitamin C to reduce the side effects of chemotherapy.
Nathan Goodyear

Vitamin C Mitigates Oxidative Stress and Tumor Necrosis Factor-Alpha in Severe Communit... - 0 views

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    Cell culture study found that vitamin C inhibited LPS mediated increase in ROS, TNF-alpha, IL-6... The cells were taken from adults with pneumonia
Nathan Goodyear

Lipid Peroxidation: Production, Metabolism, and Signaling Mechanisms of Malondialdehyde... - 0 views

  • Hydroxyl radicals cause oxidative damage to cells because they unspecifically attack biomolecules [22] located less than a few nanometres from its site of generation and are involved in cellular disorders such as neurodegeneration [23, 24], cardiovascular disease [25], and cancer [26, 27].
  • It is generally assumed that in biological systems is formed through redox cycling by Fenton reaction, where free iron (Fe2+) reacts with hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and the Haber-Weiss reaction that results in the production of Fe2+ when superoxide reacts with ferric iron (Fe3+)
  • other transition-metal including Cu, Ni, Co, and V can be responsible for formation in living cells
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  • The hydroperoxyl radical () plays an important role in the chemistry of lipid peroxidation
  • The is a much stronger oxidant than superoxide anion-radical
  • Lipid peroxidation can be described generally as a process under which oxidants such as free radicals or nonradical species attack lipids containing carbon-carbon double bond(s), especially polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) that involve hydrogen abstraction from a carbon, with oxygen insertion resulting in lipid peroxyl radicals and hydroperoxides as described previously
  • under medium or high lipid peroxidation rates (toxic conditions) the extent of oxidative damage overwhelms repair capacity, and the cells induce apoptosis or necrosis programmed cell death
  • The overall process of lipid peroxidation consists of three steps: initiation, propagation, and termination
  • Once lipid peroxidation is initiated, a propagation of chain reactions will take place until termination products are produced.
  • The main primary products of lipid peroxidation are lipid hydroperoxides (LOOH)
  • Among the many different aldehydes which can be formed as secondary products during lipid peroxidation, malondialdehyde (MDA), propanal, hexanal, and 4-hydroxynonenal (4-HNE) have been extensively studied
  • MDA has been widely used for many years as a convenient biomarker for lipid peroxidation of omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acids because of its facile reaction with thiobarbituric acid (TBA)
  • MDA is one of the most popular and reliable markers that determine oxidative stress in clinical situations [53], and due to MDA’s high reactivity and toxicity underlying the fact that this molecule is very relevant to biomedical research community
  • 4-HNE is considered as “second toxic messengers of free radicals,” and also as “one of the most physiologically active lipid peroxides,” “one of major generators of oxidative stress,” “a chemotactic aldehydic end-product of lipid peroxidation,” and a “major lipid peroxidation product”
  • MDA is an end-product generated by decomposition of arachidonic acid and larger PUFAs
  • Identifying in vivo MDA production and its role in biology is important as indicated by the extensive literature on the compound (over 15 800 articles in the PubMed database using the keyword “malondialdehyde lipid peroxidation” in December 2013)
  • MDA reactivity is pH-dependent
  • When pH decreases MDA exists as beta-hydroxyacrolein and its reactivity increases
  • MAA adducts are shown to be highly immunogenic [177181]. MDA adducts are biologically important because they can participate in secondary deleterious reactions (e.g., crosslinking) by promoting intramolecular or intermolecular protein/DNA crosslinking that may induce profound alteration in the biochemical properties of biomolecules and accumulate during aging and in chronic diseases
  • MDA is an important contributor to DNA damage and mutation
  • This MDA-induced DNA alteration may contribute significantly to cancer and other genetic diseases.
  • Dietary intake of certain antioxidants such as vitamins was associated with reduced levels of markers of DNA oxidation (M1dG and 8-oxodG) measured in peripheral white blood cells of healthy subjects, which could contribute to the protective role of vitamins on cancer risk
  • 4-HNE is an extraordinarily reactive compound
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    Great review of lipid peroxidation
Nathan Goodyear

[Malondialdehyde (MDA) as a lipid peroxidation marker]. - PubMed - NCBI - 0 views

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    Only abstract her and it is an older article.  Malondialdehyde (MDA) is a great marker of oxidative stress.  Specifically, MDA is an end product of polyunsaturated fat peroxidation.
Nathan Goodyear

Nutrigenomics of extra-virgin olive oil: A review - Piroddi - 2016 - BioFactors - Wiley... - 0 views

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    Great review on the nutrigenomics of Olive oil.
Nathan Goodyear

Epigenetic effects of the pregnancy Mediterranean diet adherence on the offspring metab... - 0 views

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    Review article finds evidenc that Mediterranean diet alters epigenetic expression of child during pregnancy to reduce metabolic syndrome risk.
Nathan Goodyear

The Single Nucleotide Polymorphism Gly482Ser in the PGC-1α Gene Impairs Exerc... - 0 views

  • Oxidative slow-twitch type I fibres (henceforth briefly called ‘slow fibres’) contain MHC-Iβ. They use oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) to generate ATP and are thus highly fatigue resistant and preferentially activated during endurance exercise. Slow fibres comprise high amounts of mitochondria, myoglobin and lipid droplets, and are well supplied by capillaries
  • there are three types of fast-twitch fibres (types IIA, IID/X, IIB, with the corresponding MHC isoforms IIa, IId/x, IIb) which are all used for rapid high-force generation. Oxidative-glycolytic fast-twitch type IIA fibres have intermediate amounts of mitochondria, lipid droplets and capillaries, and are intermediately resistant to fatigue (as compared to type I and types IIB and IID/X). Glycolytic fast-twitch type IID/X fibres are poor in mitochondria, lipids and capillaries and more susceptible to fatique than type IIA. Glycolytic fast-twitch type IIB fibres have the lowest amounts of mitochondria, lipid droplets and capillaries, but generate the highest contraction velocities
  • Several studies have shown that PGC-1α is upregulated after endurance training
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  • upregulation of PGC-1α expression enhances and/or maintains mitochondrial biogenesis, eventually leading to an increased mitochondrial content of the muscle fibres.
  • PGC-1α also plays an important role in the pathogenesis of insulin resistance and T2D
  • carriers of the Gly482Ser SNP have a reduced cardiorespiratory fitness and a higher risk for metabolic syndrome and T2D
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    Those that carry the risk SNP for Gly482Ser for the PGC-1alpha gene dont' transform type II to type I and thus decrease the effectiveness of aeorbic exercise training, decreased oxidative phosphorylation, decreased lipid oxidation, increased lipid accumulaiton in muscle, and increased risk of IR, obesity, and diabetes.
Nathan Goodyear

Frontiers | The Beneficial Effects of Physical Activity on Impaired Adult Neurogenesis ... - 0 views

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    Neurogenesis and neuroplasticity are under epigenetic control.  Stress and aging downregulate adult neurogenesis; whereas physical activity, environment enrichment and learning/memory increase.  Check out figure 1.  Exercise increases BDNF and hence neuroplasticity.  This was a synRas mouse study.
Nathan Goodyear

http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/store/10.1113/jphysiol.2012.240952/asset/tjp5465.pdf;jse... - 0 views

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    Study finds sprint interval training increases PLIN 2 and PLIN 5 as in endurance training.  PLIN2/5 are increased and play role in intramuscluar triglyceride breakdown.  Increased IMTG is found in IR.  This aids insulin resistance.  Other studies have found that SIT increased PLIN5 > ET.  Exercise impacts muscle and fat through epigenetics.
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