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Home/ Dr. Goodyear/ Contents contributed and discussions participated by Nathan Goodyear

Contents contributed and discussions participated by Nathan Goodyear

Nathan Goodyear

Development of PD-1/PD-L1 Pathway in Tumor Immune Microenvironment and Treatment for No... - 0 views

    PD-1 to read.
Nathan Goodyear

Update on Programmed Death-1 and Programmed Death-Ligand 1 Inhibition in the Treatment ... - 0 views

  • Cytotoxic T-lymphocyte-associated protein 4 (CTLA-4), the first immune checkpoint receptor to be clinically targeted, is exclusively expressed on the surface of CD4+ and CD8+ T cells in lymphatic tissue and is involved in T-cell regulation, proliferation, and tolerance
  • programmed death-1 (PD-1) immune checkpoint inhibitor antibodies, which restores T-cell effector function and augments the host anti-tumor response by blocking the binding of either programmed death-ligand 1 (PD-L1) and/or PD-L2 to PD-1 receptors
  • lung cancer is the first and second cause of cancer mortality in men and women
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  • Eighty-five percent of lung cancers are non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC)
    To read update article on PD-1 and immunotherapy.
Nathan Goodyear

Coffee and cancer risk: a summary overview - 0 views

    2017 meta-analysis finds no increase relative risk (RR) of cancer with coffee consumption.  First, this must consider all the "other" junk put in coffee these days.  Second, and most important, this study looked at RR which tells us nothing about risk.  Studies like this don't do much more than confuse the general public, doctors, and judges--recent judge ruling in California that coffee needs a carcinogenic lable.  Third, epigenetis will tell us about individual risk.  I am growing more concerned that the majority of studies published today are merely statistical dances to ensure publication.  Is it good that no RR was found? yes, does that give any indication of absolute risk?  No.  Take home: enjoy your morning cup of joe as nature prescribed--no additives.
Nathan Goodyear

Immune responses to malignancies - 0 views

    Another great review of the immune system during different stages of carcinogenesis; how the cancer manipulates the immue system to cloak itself from the immune system.
Nathan Goodyear

Does the Immune System Naturally Protect Against Cancer? - 0 views

    Great read on the innate and humoral immune systems and the cancer immunosurveillance hypothesis.
Nathan Goodyear

Role of IL-2 in cancer immunotherapy: OncoImmunology: Vol 5, No 6 - 0 views

  • IL-2 is one of the key cytokines with pleiotropic effects on the immune system
  • IL-2 as “T-cell growth factor”
  • approved for the treatment of metastatic renal cell carcinoma (1992) and later for metastatic melanoma (1998) by FDA
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  • It is produced predominately by antigen-simulated CD4+ T cells, while it can also be produced by CD8+ cells, natural killer (NK) cells, and activated dendritic cells (DC)
  • IL-2 is an important factor for the maintenance of CD4+ regulatory T cells
  • plays a critical role in the differentiation of CD4+ T cells into a variety of subsets
  • It can promote CD8+ T-cell and NK cell cytotoxicity activity, and modulate T-cell differentiation programs in response to antigen, promoting naive CD4+ T-cell differentiation into T helper-1 (Th1) and T helper-2 (Th2) cells while inhibiting T helper-17 (Th17) differentiation
  • Of note, Tregs, which act to dampen the immune response, constitutively express high levels of α chain
  • IL-2Rα is unique to IL-2 and is expressed by a number of immune cells including T regulatory cells (Treg), activated CD4+ and CD8+T cells, B cells, mature DCs, endothelial cells
  • some investigators evaluated the efficacy of regimens containing low-dose IL-2
  • IL-2 can promote the activation and cell growth of T and NK cells
  • Unfortunately, not all of patients would benefit from targeted therapy and nearly all patients who initially respond to targeted inhibitors inevitably develop acquired resistance to the treatment
  • IL-2 also stimulates T-regulatory cells that constitutively express CTLA-4 and can suppress immune reactions. Hence, IL-2 might enhance antitumor reactivity in the presence of CTLA-4 blockade
  • both HD and low-dose IL-2 therapy preferentially induce the expansion of CD4+CD25+Foxp3+ Treg and the Treg level remains elevated after each cycle of HD IL-2 therapy
  • Due to rapid elimination and metabolism via the kidney, IL-2 has a short serum half-life of several minutes
  • HD IL-2-induced severe toxicities including vascular leak syndrome (VLS), pulmonary edema, hypotension, and heart toxicities
    Great historical and functional role of IL-2 in the fight against cancer.
Nathan Goodyear

IL-2: The First Effective Immunotherapy for Human Cancer | The Journal of Immunology - 0 views

  • IL-2 is a 15.5-kDa cytokine secreted predominately by Ag-simulated CD4+ T cells, but it can also be produced by CD8+ cells, NK cells, and activated dendritic cells
  • IL-2 is the predominant factor responsible for the maintenance of CD4+ regulatory T cells
  • A generalized capillary leak syndrome was induced by IL-2 in vivo that resulted in interstitial pulmonary infiltrates and substantial weight gain in patients
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  • The side effects were transient and returned to baseline following treatment
  • Tumors do not express IL-2 receptors and thus the antitumor activity was the result of IL-2 stimulation of immune cell
  • Patients with metastatic melanoma or metastatic renal cell cancer were uniquely responsive to high-dose IL-2 administration, and except for patients with advanced non-Hodgkin’s lymphomas (35) only rare responses were seen in patients with other tumor types
  • The underlying toxicity of IL-2 results from a capillary leak that leads to fluid extravasation into visceral organs that can compromise their function
    Great review of the history of IL-2 in the treatment of cancer.  IL-2 stimulates the immune system to attack cancer.  Don't reinvent the wheel; use what is already present and available.
Nathan Goodyear

Safety, tolerability, and pharmacokinetics of escalating high doses of ivermectin in he... - 0 views

    Ivermectin safe without significant side effects, including CNS toxicity, in doses 10x 200 mcg/kg (highest FDA approved dose).
Nathan Goodyear

Ivermectin distribution in the plasma and tissues of patients infected with Onchocerca ... - 0 views

    Ivermectin at 150 mcg/kg showns fat depot retention.
Nathan Goodyear

Cancers | Free Full-Text | A Second WNT for Old Drugs: Drug Repositioning against WNT-D... - 0 views

  • To date nearly half of known human tumors show a dysregulation of the WNT signaling pathway
  • It should be also noted that the WNT pathway is not exclusively employed during development or overactivated in cancer. In adults many healthy tissues rely on it for renewal and homeostasis maintenance, most notably the intestine, haematopoietic system, hair, bones and skin. Therefore one might expect adverse reactions in all these organ systems, which has indeed been observed for many WNT-targeting compounds upon attempts to push them into the clinics
  • The intestine seems to be the most vulnerable in this regard
    review article highlights older medications that have anti-Wnt pathway effects in cancer.  Roughly, 50% of cancer involve upregulated Wnt pathway activity. Other drugs of note: metformin
Nathan Goodyear - 0 views

    Safety profile of niclosamide.
Nathan Goodyear

Oncotarget | Preclinical evaluation of a nanoformulated antihelminthic, niclosamide, in... - 0 views

  • Ovarian cancer is the most lethal gynecologic malignancy in the world
  • paclitaxel represents a breakthrough in the treatment of ovarian cancer, the overall 5-year survival rate of patients with stage III disease is still approximately 40%
  • Targeting cancer stem cells is an emerging concept in cancer therapy
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  • Ovarian cancer stem cells play an important role in chemoresistance and cancer recurrence
  • Furthermore, recent studies indicate that niclosamide exhibits anticancer effects against various human cancer cells by acting on multiple cell signaling pathways and inducing mitochondrial uncoupling [1621]
  • has low systemic bioavailability (~10%) when administered orally, which is beneficial for treating local parasitic infections of the intestines while minimizing systemic exposure
  • The nano-NI demonstrated significantly higher inhibitory effects on sphere formation than the original niclosamide did
  • the nano-NI formulation decreased the metabolic activity of ovarian cancer cells and caused a metabolic shift from oxidative phosphorylation to glycolysis
  • This toxicity evaluation showed that oral nano-NI had no toxic effect on either group of mice in terms of weight, plasma albumin levels, and blood cell counts, and revealed no adverse effects on vital organ function in the rodents, which suggests that nano-NI is safe for animals
  • niclosamide inhibits tumor cell growth by interrupting multiple pathways (Wnt, Notch, STAT3, NF-κB, and mTORc1) and the generation of reactive oxygen species in several cancer cells
  • The current standard therapy for ovarian cancer includes taxanes and platinum-based chemotherapy after cytoreductive surgery. Among treated patients, nearly 70 to 80% will experience disease recurrence
    nano-Niclosamide more effective than traditional Niclosamide in in vitro and in vivo ovarian cancer.
Nathan Goodyear

Anticancer Effects of Niclosamide in Human Glioblastoma | Clinical Cancer Research - 0 views

  • glioblastoma remains a fatal disease with a median overall survival time of only 15 months
  • inter- and intrapatient tumor heterogeneity
  • cellular and genetic diversity that characterizes glioblastoma
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  • This broad effect could be a result of niclosamide's pleiotropic activity, similarly affecting signaling pathways that are known to be overly active in human malignant cells (i.e., mTOR, NOTCH, WNT/CTNNB1; refs. 44–46)
  • It is a salicylanilide that was introduced as a molluscide in 1959
  • Studies in animals suggested no mutagenic, oncogenic, or embryotoxic activity and no cumulative effects
  • its rate of absorption from the intestinal tract was estimated at only 33%
  • the potential mechanism of synergy between temozolomide and niclosamide as a “natural inducer” of NFKBIA
    Niclosamide pilot animal study useful in the treatment of Glioblastoma.  Found to inhibit NOTCH, mTOR, and WNT and cancer signaling. Also found to reduce the malignant potential through cytostatic, cytotoxic and antimigratory effects of niclosamide on GBM
Nathan Goodyear

Growth Inhibition of Ovarian Tumor-Initiating Cells by Niclosamide | Molecular Cancer T... - 0 views

  • Ovarian cancer is the most lethal gynecologic malignancy and the fifth-most cause of overall cancer death of women in developed countries
  • An increasingly accepted cancer stem cell hypothesis regards tumors as caricatures of normal organs, possessing a hierarchy of cell types, at various stages of aberrant differentiation, descended from precursor tumor-initiating cells (TIC) cells that are highly resistant to conventional cytotoxics
  • Significant changes of gene expression in 2,928 genes were identified after niclosamide treatment for different time periods
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  • uncoupling of mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation is believed to be its anti-helminthic mechanism of action
  • we hypothesized that niclosamides antagonistic effects on OTICs could, in part, be due to its disruption of metabolism
  • Our results showed that genes participating in protein complexes of oxidative phosphorylation were downregulated
  • niclosamide treatment resulted in a more than 20% increase in reactive oxygen species (ROS) in cultured OTICs
  • niclosamide, which has proved to be safe and effective for the past 2 decades against numerous parasites, inhibited OTIC growth both in vitro and in vivo
  • niclosamide represses metabolic enzymes responsible for bioenergetics, biosynthesis, and redox regulation specifically in OTICs, presumably leading to mitochondrial intrinsic apoptosis pathways, loss of tumor stemness, and growth inhibition
  • Niclosamide is believed to inhibit mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation
  • Niclosamide was reported to inactivate NF-κB, causing mitochondrial damage and the generation of ROS, leading to apoptosis of leukemic stem cells
  • niclosamide were identified in a screen for mTOR-signaling inhibitors
  • mTOR was reported to maintain stemness properties of HSCs by inhibiting mitochondrial biogenesis and ROS levels (39), implying that mTOR inhibitors (such as niclosamide) may interfere with mitochondria and various metabolic pathways in TICs via disruption of antioxidant responses
  • We observed Wnt hyperactivity in OTICs, in agreement with previous hypotheses of Wnt inhibitor effectiveness as an ovarian cancer therapy
  • niclosamide has now been independently identified in screens for Wnt inhibitors
  • downregulation of the Wnt/β-catenin target oncogenes survivin and c-Myc
  • ovarian carcinogenesis, the cell-to-cell signaling pathway Notch (8), were also suppressed by niclosamide (data not shown). These results agree with another recent niclosamide study in leukemia (49), and it has been widely hypothesized that disruption of Notch signaling may represent a highly effective therapy for ovarian and other solid tumors, via its essentiality to maintaining TIC stemness
    Niclosamide, common anti-parasitic medication, inhibits cellular metabolism and increases ROS; both of which provide powerful anti-proliferative, anti-cancer treatment mechanism in TICs. Powerful target therapy for cancer stem cells. Also shown to inhibit Wnt stimulated oncogenes survivin and c-Myc, disrupts Notch signaling, inactivates NF-kappaBeta, and inhibits mTOR-signaling.  This has been found in in vitro and in vivo studies.
Nathan Goodyear

Niclosamide, an old antihelminthic agent, demonstrates antitumor activity by blocking m... - 0 views

  • Accumulating evidence suggests that niclosamide targets multiple signaling pathways such as nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-kB), Wnt/β-catenin, and Notch, most of which are closely involved with cancer stem cell proliferation
  • The transcription factor NF-κB has been demonstrated to promote cancer growth, angiogenesis, escape from apoptosis, and tumorigenesis
  • NF-κB is sequestered in the cytosol of resting cells through binding the inhibitory subunit IκBα
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  • Niclosamide blocked TNFα-induced IκBα phosphorylation, translocation of p65, and the expression of NF-κB-regulated genes
  • Niclosamide also inhibited the DNA binding of NF-κB to the promoter of its target genes
  • niclosamide has two independent effects: NF-kB activation and ROS elevation
  • The Wnt signaling pathway plays fundamental roles in directing tissue patterning in embryonic development, in maintaining tissue homeostasis in differentiated tissue, and in tumorigenesis
  • niclosamide is a potent inhibitor of the Wnt/β-catenin pathway
  • The Notch signaling pathway plays important roles in a variety of cellular processes such as proliferation, differentiation, apoptosis, cell fate decisions, and maintenance of stem cells
  • niclosamide potently suppresses the luciferase activity of a CBF-1-dependent reporter gene in both a dose-dependent and a time-dependent manners in K562 leukemia cells
  • niclosamide treatment abrogated the epidermal growth factor (EGF)-stimulated dimerization and nuclear translocation and transcriptional activity of Stat3, and induced cell growth inhibition and apoptosis in several types of cancer cells (e.g. Du145, Hela, A549) that exhibit relatively higher levels of Stat3 constitutive activation
  • niclosamide can rapidly increase autophagosome formation
  • niclosamide induced autophagy and inhibited mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1)
  • Niclosamide has low toxicity in mammals (oral median lethal dose in rats >5000 mg/kg
  • Niclosamide is active against cancer cells such as AML and colorectal cancer cells, not only as a monotherapy but also as part of combination therapy, in which it has been found to be synergistic with frontline chemotherapeutic agents (e.g., oxaliplatin, cytarabine, etoposide, and daunorubicin)
  • Because niclosamide targets multiple signaling pathways (e.g., NF-κB, Wnt/β-catenin, and Notch), most of which are closely involved with cancer stem cells, it holds promise in eradicating cancer stem cells
    Review article: common anti-parasitic medication, niclosamide, provides anti-proliferative effect in cancer stem cells (CSC), via inhibition of NF-kappaBeta, Wnt/B-catenin, Notch, ROS, mTORC1, and STAT2 pathways.
Nathan Goodyear

Niclosamide Suppresses Cancer Cell Growth By Inducing Wnt Co-Receptor LRP6 De... - 0 views

    Niclosamide, a common antilemintic/anti-parasitic medication, inhibits Wnt/Beta-catenin signaling involved in carcinogenesis and metastasis. the mechanism is through LRP6 degradation to provide antiproliferative and apoptosis activity.
Nathan Goodyear

The Nitrilosides(Vitamin B-17) - 0 views

    Dr. Krebs' Jr paper on nitrilosides i.e. laetril or vitamin B17 in its use in the fight against cancer.  This is a reprint from the Journal of Applied Nutrition from 1970.
Nathan Goodyear

ALIVE AND WELL by Philip E. Binzel, Jr., M.D. - 0 views

    The end report of Dr. Binzel's experience with the use of Laetril in cancer.
Nathan Goodyear

B17 | Cancer | Clinical Medicine - 0 views

    Good review of the research into the controversial medical topic Laetrile for the treatment of cancer
Nathan Goodyear

TGFβ drives immune evasion in genetically reconstituted colon cancer metastas... - 0 views

    Study finds that TGF-beta signaling is the primary means of tumor immune evasion in colon cancer
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