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Contents contributed and discussions participated by Nathan Goodyear

Nathan Goodyear

Fructose decreases physical activity and increases body fat without affecting hippocamp... - 0 views

  • the fructose animals gained significantly more weight than the glucose animals
  • The average liver mass of mice in the fructose treatment group was 20% heavier than for mice in the glucose group
  • The fat pads of mice consuming the fructose diet were 69% heavier than the fat pads of animals consuming the glucose diet
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  • there are many studies showing that consumption of fructose in comparison to other monosaccharides results in increased de novo lipogenesis, dyslipidemia, insulin resistance, BW6, 7 and, most recently, impaired cognitive function
  • in the present study, the intake of fructose by mice was more similar to that of typical human consumption in comparison to previous studies
  • prolonged consumption of diets containing fructose (11 weeks) increased BW and body fat deposition
  • studies in humans confirm that fructose, but not glucose (when provided as 25% of energy requirements), in the context of an energy-balanced diet increases de novo lipogenesis and visceral adiposity along with dyslipidemia, decreases insulin sensitivity10, 12 and decreases in fat oxidation
  • we hypothesize that fructose may reduce voluntary energy expenditure in terms of physical activity.
  • significant reduction (~20%) in physical activity in the fructose-fed animals in comparison to glucose
  • a recent study reported that ingestion of fructose (25% energy intake, 10 weeks) in human volunteers also resulted in reduced energy expenditure in relation to a diet with the same glucose dose
  • There is certainly evidence to suggest that, for example, exercise is able to prevent dyslipidemia in healthy subjects fed a weight-maintenance high-fructose diet (30%)54, which strongly suggests a protective role of physical activity in metabolic regulation.

  • the potential negative effects of fructose in brain and cognitive function have been investigated, with a series of studies showing cognitive deficits in spatial memory and learning in adolescent and adult animals following access to a high fructose diet
  • access to both fructose and sucrose, but not glucose, results in a 40% reduction in hippocampal neurogenesis
  • Collectively these studies seem to suggest that fructose consumption can have a considerable impact on hippocampal function and learning, which is in direct contrast with what we observed.
  • the impact of fructose is apparent only in BW, liver mass and body fat, but not in cognitive measures or rates of neurogenesis
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    animal study finds that fructose increased liver mass, abdominal fat and decreased physical activity when compared to glucose.  The study groups were iso caloric, but one group was fed 18% fructose and the other 18% glucose.
Nathan Goodyear

Using Apolipoprotein B to Manage Dyslipidemic Patients: Time for a Change? - 0 views

  • Apo B is a key structural component of all the atherogenic lipoprotein particles, including LDL, VLDL, and IDL
  • Each of these atherogenic particles carries only one apo B molecule; thus, the total apo B level represents the total number of circulating atherogenic lipoprotein particles and provides the clinician a more accurate picture of a patient's risk of cardiovascular events
  • apo B include the fact that it does not require a fasting specimen
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    good review of lipoproteins.
Nathan Goodyear

Reevaluation of the protein requirement in young men with the indicator amino acid oxid... - 0 views

  • the mean and population-safe protein requirements were estimated to be 0.93 and 1.2 g · kg−1 · d
  • diet containing 0.90 g · kg−1 · d−1 was at or above physiologic protein requirements for sedentary men
  • The current EAR recommendation and RDA for protein are 0.66 and 0.80 g · kg−1 · d−1, respectively. We believe that these recommendations are tentative because no long-term studies have suggested that these values would maintain nitrogen balance along with lean body mass, muscle mass, serum protein concentrations, immunity, functional capacity etc
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  • a series of long-term balance studies (67-69) showed that intake of the proposed safe allowance of 0.57 g (70) egg protein resulted in negative nitrogen balance, loss of lean body mass, and deteriorating serum protein and transferase values unless additional energy or nonessential nitrogen was supplied
  • The results of the present study suggest that the current EAR recommendations (0.66 g · kg−1 · d−1) and RDA (0.80 g · kg−1 · d−1) for protein are underestimated at 29% and 33%, respectively
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    study looked at protein requirements in 8 "healthy" men.  This study pointed to 1.2 g/kg/day as an appropriate daily dietary protein intake for healthy men.  This far exceeds levels per RDA.
Nathan Goodyear

Low Testosterone Level and Risk of Alzheimer's Disease in the Elderly Men: a Systematic... - 0 views

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    Just abstract available here; low Testosterone in meta-analysis found to be associated with increased Alzheimer's disease risk in elderly men.
Nathan Goodyear

Effect of Opioids on Testosterone Levels: Cross-Sectional Study using NHANES. - PubMed ... - 0 views

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    opiate use increases odds of low Testosterone; however, this is just one piece. 
Nathan Goodyear

Severe Starvation-Induced Hepatocyte Autophagy as a Cause of Acute Liver Injury in Anor... - 0 views

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    extreme malnutrition as in anorexia is found to be associated with increased liver enzymes.
Nathan Goodyear

Prevalence and Predictors of Abnormal Liver Enzymes in Young Women with Anorexia Nervosa - 0 views

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    liver enzymes inversely associated with body fat in women with anorexia.
Nathan Goodyear

Catechol estrogen metabolites and conjugates in different regions of the prostate of No... - 1 views

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    loss of ability to handle estrogen quinone metabolites is due to decreased detoxification capacity i.e.COMT, GSH...is associated with prostate carcinogenesis in rats.
Nathan Goodyear

A PERSPECTIVE ON THE ROLE OF ESTROGEN IN HORMONE-INDUCED PROSTATE CARCINOGENESIS - 0 views

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    review article points to the concept that it is not Testosterone, but Estrogen that is involved with carcinogenesis of the prostate.
Nathan Goodyear

Associations of the Fecal Microbiome With Urinary Estrogens and Estrogen Metabolites in... - 0 views

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    Post-menopause women with increased gut microbiome diversity found to be associated with increased urinary excretion of estrogen metabolites compared to parent estrogens.  This relationship has been shown to be associated with a reduced breast cancer risk.
Nathan Goodyear

http://joe.endocrinology-journals.org/content/167/2/281.full.pdf - 0 views

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    good discussion of the estrogen metabolites and increased estrogenic activity; including cancer risk.  Particular attention is given to the 4-hydroxyestrone metabolite.
Nathan Goodyear

Estrogen Metabolism and Risk of Breast Cancer in Postmenopausal Women - 0 views

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    Get article on estrogen metabolism/metabolites and their effects on the risk of breast cancer in post menopause women.  This article brings to light new information: 2:16alpha estrone ratio is not a great predicted of risk, 2-OH and 4-OH metabolites can form quinone intermediates...
Nathan Goodyear

New Frontiers in Androgen Biosynthesis and Metabolism - 0 views

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    great article on androgen metabolism in the diseased prostate.
Nathan Goodyear

Roles for the Backdoor Pathway of Androgen Metabolism in Prostate Cancer Response to Ca... - 0 views

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    "back door" DHT production from 3 alpha-androstanediol following ADT.
Nathan Goodyear

British Journal of Cancer - Androgen metabolism in prostate cancer: from molecular mech... - 0 views

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    androgen metabolites and prostate cancer promotion.
Nathan Goodyear

The Androgen 5α-Dihydrotestosterone and Its Metabolite 5α-Androstan-3β, 17β-D... - 0 views

  • Sex steroid hormones are primarily responsible for sex difference in adult HPA function; androgens inhibit whereas estrogens enhance HPA axis activation after a stressor
  • the PVN contains relatively high levels of AR (Bingaman et al., 1994; Zhou et al., 1994) and ERβ (Alves et al., 1998; Hrabovszky et al., 1998; Somponpun and Sladek, 2003) but is essentially devoid of ERα
  • the nonaromatizable androgen DHT and the nonselective ER ligand E2 influence HPA reactivity by acting on neurons within or surrounding the PVN
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  • inhibitory action of DHT is detectable at both the level of hormone secretion as well as PVN c-fos mRNA expression
  • the inhibition can be mimicked by the DHT metabolite 3β-diol and by the subtype selective ERβ agonist DPN
  • E2 acts to enhance HPA reactivity
  • the ability of the ER antagonist tamoxifen, but not the AR antagonist flutamide, to block the inhibitory actions of DHT, speaks to the intracellular mechanism by which this inhibitory signal might be transduced.
    • Nathan Goodyear
       
      that is because the interaction with the DHT metabolite is not with the AR, but with the ER-beta.
  • the DHT metabolite 3β-diol and the ERβ-subtype-selective agonist DPN suppressed ACTH, corticosterone, and c-fos mRNA responses to restraint stress in a manner similar to DHT
  • metabolism of DHT to 3β-diol and subsequent binding to ERβ can be inhibitory to HPA reactivity, and this is one possible mechanism for the action of DHT.
  • Our data also suggest that E2 enhances the reactivity of the HPA axis to stress by acting on or near neurons of the PVN
  • the actions of E2 appear to be through an ERα-dependent mechanism
  • these studies suggest that ERβ, within the male hypothalamus, acts to inhibit the HPA axis and that the inhibitory effects of DHT may be, at least in part, via its intracellular conversion to 3β-diol and subsequent binding to ERβ
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    DHT metabolites: particularly 3beta-androstanediol inhibit HPA axis through ER-beta.
Nathan Goodyear

Combined Diet and Physical Activity Promotion Programs to Prevent Type 2 Diabetes Among... - 0 views

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    Meta analysis does find that diet and exercise (lifestyle changes) do reduce risk of diabetes.
Nathan Goodyear

Chronic maternal stress inhibits the capacity to up-regulate placental 11beta-hydroxyst... - 0 views

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    acute stress is associated with increased 11beta-HSD2 in pregnant rat model.
Nathan Goodyear

11β-HSD1 inhibition ameliorates metabolic syndrome and prevents progression o... - 0 views

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    inhibition of 11beta-HSD1 improves metabolic syndrome and atherosclerosis.  This suggests that metabolic syndrome is associated with increase 11beta-HSD1 expression/activity.  Animal study
Nathan Goodyear

Progesterone receptor modulates ER[agr] action in breast cancer : Nature : Nature Publi... - 0 views

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    Abstract only available here.  Progesterone and Progesterone receptor key to regulating ER alpha and slowing breast cancer growth.
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