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Nathan Goodyear

Association of fructose consumption and components... [Nutrition. 2014] - PubMed - NCBI - 0 views

    Fructose intake associate with increased fasting blood sugar, elevated triglycerides, and elevated systolic blood pressure--all parameters of metabolic syndrome.
Nathan Goodyear

Annals of Internal Medicine | Association of Dietary, Circulating, and Supplement Fatty... - 0 views

    Meta-analysis finds no improvement with cardiovascular risk from low saturated fats.  This is not the first study to show this.  The weakness of this is that this study is a meta-analysis.  This needs to be taken in context and applied individually.  The take home is that universal restriction of saturated fats is not the holy grail of nutrition.
Nathan Goodyear

Sugar-Sweetened Beverage Intake and the Risk of Type I and Type II Endometrial Cancer a... - 0 views

    intake of sugar drinks i.e. coke associated with increased risk of type I endometrial cancer in postmenopausal women.
Nathan Goodyear

Is administrating branched-chain amino acid-enriched nutrition achieved symptom-free in... - 0 views

    BCAA improve NH3 metabolism.  This is via muscle metabolism as reported in other studies.  This study highlighted the differences in BCAA supplementation.  One caveat is that high glutamine is the result from glutamate and this can increase hepatic encephalopathy.
Nathan Goodyear

JISSN | Full text | International Society of Sports Nutrition position stand: creatine ... - 0 views

  • the energy supplied to rephosphorylate adenosine diphosphate (ADP) to adenosine triphosphate (ATP) during and following intense exercise is largely dependent on the amount of phosphocreatine (PCr) stored in the muscle
  • Creatine is chemically known as a non-protein nitrogen
  • It is synthesized in the liver and pancreas from the amino acids arginine, glycine, and methionine
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  • Approximately 95% of the body's creatine is stored in skeletal muscle
  • About two thirds of the creatine found in skeletal muscle is stored as phosphocreatine (PCr) while the remaining amount of creatine is stored as free creatine
  • The body breaks down about 1 – 2% of the creatine pool per day (about 1–2 grams/day) into creatinine in the skeletal muscle
  • The magnitude of the increase in skeletal muscle creatine content is important because studies have reported performance changes to be correlated to this increase
  • "loading" protocol. This protocol is characterized by ingesting approximately 0.3 grams/kg/day of CM for 5 – 7 days (e.g., ≃5 grams taken four times per day) and 3–5 grams/day thereafter [18,22]. Research has shown a 10–40% increase in muscle creatine and PCr stores using this protocol
  • Additional research has reported that the loading protocol may only need to be 2–3 days in length to be beneficial, particularly if the ingestion coincides with protein and/or carbohydrate
  • A few studies have reported protocols with no loading period to be sufficient for increasing muscle creatine (3 g/d for 28 days)
  • Cycling protocols involve the consumption of "loading" doses for 3–5 days every 3 to 4 weeks
  • Most of these forms of creatine have been reported to be no better than traditional CM in terms of increasing strength or performance
  • Recent studies do suggest, however, that adding β-alanine to CM may produce greater effects than CM alone
  • These investigations indicate that the combination may have greater effects on strength, lean mass, and body fat percentage; in addition to delaying neuromuscular fatigue
  • creatine phosphate has been reported to be as effective as CM at improving LBM and strength
  • Green et al. [24] reported that adding 93 g of carbohydrate to 5 g of CM increased total muscle creatine by 60%
  • Steenge et al. [23] reported that adding 47 g of carbohydrate and 50 g of protein to CM was as effective at promoting muscle retention of creatine as adding 96 g of carbohydrate.
  • It appears that combining CM with carbohydrate or carbohydrate and protein produces optimal results
  • Studies suggest that increasing skeletal muscle creatine uptake may enhance the benefits of training
  • Nearly 70% of these studies have reported a significant improvement in exercise capacity,
  • Long-term CM supplementation appears to enhance the overall quality of training, leading to 5 to 15% greater gains in strength and performance
  • Nearly all studies indicate that "proper" CM supplementation increases body mass by about 1 to 2 kg in the first week of loading
  • short-term adaptations reported from CM supplementation include increased cycling power, total work performed on the bench press and jump squat, as well as improved sport performance in sprinting, swimming, and soccer
  • Long-term adaptations when combining CM supplementation with training include increased muscle creatine and PCr content, lean body mass, strength, sprint performance, power, rate of force development, and muscle diameter
  • subjects taking CM typically gain about twice as much body mass and/or fat free mass (i.e., an extra 2 to 4 pounds of muscle mass during 4 to 12 weeks of training) than subjects taking a placebo
  • The gains in muscle mass appear to be a result of an improved ability to perform high-intensity exercise via increased PCr availability and enhanced ATP synthesis, thereby enabling an athlete to train harder
  • there is no evidence to support the notion that normal creatine intakes (< 25 g/d) in healthy adults cause renal dysfunction
  • no long-term side effects have been observed in athletes (up to 5 years),
  • One cohort of patients taking 1.5 – 3 grams/day of CM has been monitored since 1981 with no significant side effects
    Nice review of the data, up to the publication date, on creatine.
Nathan Goodyear

The Postprandial Rise in Plasma Cortisol in Men Is Mediated by Macronutrient-Specific S... - 0 views

    Macronutrients provide some difference in cortisol production.  Carbs, in this study, were found to increase adrenal and extra-adrenal equally, whereas fats/proteins stimulated adrenal cortisol more than extra-adrenal.
Nathan Goodyear

PLOS ONE: Healthy Lifestyles Reduce the Incidence of Chronic Diseases and Dementia: Evi... - 0 views

    Despite evidence that non-smoking, normal BMI, regular exercise, high fruit/vegetable intake and low/moderate alcohol intake, less than 1% of men change lifestyle.  Translation:  many don't want health even when presented with evidence of its benefits and the means to achieve it.  

    This study found a decrease in cognitive decline in individuals undergoing these lifestyle changes.
Nathan Goodyear

Nutrition Journal | Full text | A daily glass of red wine associated with lifestyle cha... - 0 views

    tools for health are all around us.  red wine reduced the LDL/HDL ratio by 13% in patients with carotid arteriosclerosis.  This occurred  independently from dietary changes and exercise.
Nathan Goodyear

Nutrition Journal | Abstract | A daily glass of red wine associated with lifestyle chan... - 0 views

    lifestyle changes, including red wine, shown to improve lipids.
Nathan Goodyear

Saturated fat, carbohydrate, and cardiovascular disease - 0 views

    simple sugars, not saturated fats linke to increased CVD.
Nathan Goodyear

Saturated fat is not the major issue | BMJ - 0 views

    Saturated fats are not to blame.  This study debunks traditional medical dogma.  What next--statins?
Nathan Goodyear

Brain foods: the effects of nutrients on brain function - 0 views

    Just a great article on the interaction between food, gut and the brain.
Nathan Goodyear

Dietary curcumin counteracts the outcome of traum... [Exp Neurol. 2006] - PubMed - NCBI - 0 views

    curcumin functions to reduce inflammation and free radicals.  Curcumin also increases BDNF post TBI, which will improve synaptic plasticity, cognition, and memory.  
Nathan Goodyear

A high-fat, refined sugar diet reduces hippocam... [Neuroscience. 2002] - PubMed - NCBI - 0 views

    High saturated fat and sugar diet causes reduced BDNF in the hippocampus.  This is an animal model.  The effect was a reduction in spacial learning.    Dietary choice can effect the neuroplasticity and learning capacity of the hippocampus.
Nathan Goodyear

The combined effects of exercise and foods in preventing neurological and cognitive dis... - 0 views

  • The most prevalent types of cognitive impairments include disturbances in attention and learning and memory function
  • An association between BDNF and learning and memory was found when measuring the performance of rats on the Morris water maze task
  • exercise and BDNF have been associated with reducing depression and promoting cognitive enhancement.
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  • In addition to reducing oxidative stress and inflammation, DHA serves to improve neuronal function by supporting synaptic membrane fluidity
  • Curcumin has also been shown to protect the hippocampus and to counteract learning impairment
  • insufficient DHA in the brain can compromise neuronal function with subsequent effects on a broad range of neurological and behavioral faculties.
    diet and exercise increases BDNF.  Diets rich in omega 3, curcumin, and polyphenols increase BDNF and thus increase neuroplasticity and associated cognition.   In contrast, sugar and saturated fats in crease oxidative stress and worsened spatial learning.  This study is a review.  
Nathan Goodyear

Metabolic Effects of Dietary Fiber Consumption and Prevention of Diabetes - 0 views

  • DF are highly complex substances that can be described as any nondigestible carbohydrates and lignins not degraded in the upper gut
  • Commonly, DF are classified according to their solubility in water, even though grading according to viscosity, gel-forming capabilities, or fermentation rate by the gut microbiota might be physiologically more relevant
  • Main sources of soluble DF are fruits and vegetables
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  • n increased intake of total DF was inversely associated with markers of insulin resistance in several studies
  • consumption of insoluble DF increased whole body glucose disposal independent of changes in body weight in both short-term and more prolonged studies
  • Short-chain fatty acids (SCFA) such as acetate, propionate, and butyrate are produced by bacterial fermentation of indigestible DF polysaccharides in the colon
  • increased production of SCFA is assumed to be beneficial by reducing hepatic glucose output and improving lipid homeostasis
  • a high DF diet (oligofructose) reduced gram-negative bacterial content and body weight, whereas a high fat diet increased the proportion of a gram-negative bacterial lipopolysaccharides (LPS) containing microbiota in humans
  • Prospective cohort studies indicate that diets high in insoluble cereal DF and whole grains might reduce diabetes risk
  • soluble DF (i.e., pectin, inulin, and β-glucans)
  • cereal DF (i.e., cellulose and hemicelluloses)
    Good discussion of dietary fiber intake and Diabetes.  
Nathan Goodyear

What dietary modification best improves insulin sensitivity and why? - Weickert - 2012 ... - 0 views

  • cereal-fibre intake, under isoenergetic conditions, improves whole-body IR in both short-term and more prolonged studies
    Great review of macronutrients and insulin resistance.  Caloric reduction plus exercise still the best method to reduce insulin resistance.   Long-term high protein intake increases insulin resistance.
Nathan Goodyear

Nutritional Modulation of Insulin Resistance - 0 views

  • Five branched chain and aromatic amino acids (isoleucine, leucine, valine, tyrosine, and phenylalanine) showed significant associations with future diabetes
  • there is increasing evidence that longer term high-protein intake may have detrimental effects on insulin resistance [68, 117123], diabetes risk [69], and the risk of developing cardiovascular disease
  • high-protein and the high GI diets significantly increased markers of low-grade inflammation
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  • significant and clinically relevant worsening of insulin sensitivity with an isoenergetic plant-based high-protein diet
  • healthy humans that are exposed to amino acid infusions rapidly develop insulin resistance
  • longer term high-protein intake has been shown to result in whole-body insulin resistance [68, 118], associated with upregulation of factors involved in the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR)/S6K1 signalling pathway [68], increased stimulation of glucagon and insulin within the endocrine pancreas, high glycogen turnover [118] and stimulation of gluconeogenesis [68, 118].
  • it was recently shown in a large prospective cohort with 10 years followup that consuming 5% of energy from both animal and total protein at the expense of carbohydrates or fat increases diabetes risk by as much as 30% [69]. This reinforces the theory that high-protein diets can have adverse effects on glucose metabolism.
  • Another recent study showed that low-carbohydrate high-protein diets, used on a regular basis and without consideration of the nature of carbohydrates or the source of proteins, are also associated with increased risk of cardiovascular disease [70], thereby indicating a potential link between high-protein Western diets, T2DM, and cardiovascular risk.
    macronutrient intake and effect on glucose regulation and thus metabolism.
Nathan Goodyear

Cambridge Journals Online - Proceedings of the Nutrition Society - Fulltext -... - 0 views

    Peripheral 11Beta-HSD1 plays critical role in fat metabolism and energy utilization.  Good discussion on the role that extra-adrenal 11Beta-HSD1 plays in metabolism
Nathan Goodyear

Nutrition Journal | Full text | Consumption habits of pregnant women and implications f... - 0 views

    Prenatal counseling must include nutritional counseling prior to pregnancy.  The key window to act is prior to pregnancy.  That is a reactive posture.  
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