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Nathan Goodyear

Diet-induced obesity and low testosterone increase neuroinflammation and impair neural ... - 0 views

  • both obesity and low testosterone are also risk factors for neural dysfunction, including cognitive impairment [] and development of AD
  • Levels of obesity and testosterone are often inversely correlated
  • diet-induced obesity causes significant metabolic disturbances and impairs central and peripheral nervous systems.
  • ...23 more annotations...
  • both obesity and low testosterone are linked with promotion of inflammatory pathways [] and exert harmful actions on the central [] and peripheral [,] nervous systems
  • In general, obesity-related changes were worsened by low testosterone and improved by testosterone treatment; however, this relationship was not statistically significant in several instances. Further, our data suggest that a common pathway that may contribute to obesity and testosterone effects is regulation of inflammation
  • fasting blood glucose levels were independently and additively increased by GDX-induced testosterone depletion and high-fat diet
  • testosterone treatment significantly reduced fasting glucose under both the normal and high-fat diets, demonstrating potential therapeutic efficacy of testosterone supplementation
  • fasting insulin, insulin resistance (HOMA index), and glucose tolerance, low testosterone tended to exacerbate and or testosterone treatment improved outcomes.
  • testosterone status did not significantly affect body weight
  • testosterone’s effects likely do not indicate an indirect result on adiposity but rather regulatory action(s) on other aspects of metabolic homeostasis
  • Prior work in rodents has shown diet-induced obesity induces insulin resistance in rat brain [] and that testosterone replacement improves insulin sensitivity in obese rats []. Our findings are consistent with the human literature, which indicates that (i) testosterone levels are inversely correlated to insulin resistance and T2D in healthy [,] as well as obese men [], and (ii) androgen therapy can improve some metabolic measures in overweight men with low testosterone
  • it has been shown that TNFα has inhibitory effects on neuron survival, differentiation, and neurite outgrowth
  • Our data demonstrate that low testosterone and obesity independently increased cerebrocortical mRNA levels of both TNFα and IL-1β
  • Testosterone status also affected metabolic and neural measures
  • many beneficial effects of testosterone, including inhibition of proinflammatory cytokine expression
  • neuroprotection [,], are dependent upon androgen receptors, the observed effects of testosterone in this study may involve androgen receptor activation
  • testosterone can be converted by the enzyme aromatase into estradiol, which is also known to exert anti-inflammatory [] and neuroprotective [] actions
  • glia are the primary sources of proinflammatory molecules in the CNS
  • poorer survival of neurons grown on glia from mice maintained on high-fat diet
  • Since testosterone can affect glial function [] and improve neuronal growth and survival [], it was unexpected that testosterone status exhibited rather modest effects on neural health indices with the only significant response being an increase in survival in the testosterone-treated, high-fat diet group
  • significantly increased expression of TNFα and IL-1β in glia cultures derived from obese mice
  • testosterone treatment significantly lowered TNFα and IL-1β expression to near basal levels even in obese mice, indicating a protective benefit of testosterone across diet conditions
  • IL-1β treatment has been shown to induce synapse loss and inhibit differentiation of neurons
  • Testosterone status and diet-induced obesity were associated with significant regulation of macrophage infiltration
  • testosterone prevented and/or restored thermal nociception in both diet groups
  • a possible mechanism by which obesity and testosterone levels may affect the health of both CNS and PNS
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    Study points to obesity and low Testosterone contribution of neuroinflammation.  No effect of body weight was seen with TRT.  This animal model found similar positive effects of TRT in insulin sensitivity.  Obesity and low T increase inflammatory cytokine production: this study found an increase in TNF-alpha and IL-1beta and TRT reduced TNF-alpha and IL-1beta to near base-line.  Testosterone is neuroprotective and this study reviewed the small volume of evaded that pointed to benefit from estradiol.  Testosterone's effect on glial survival was positive but not significant.  Obesity and low T were found to be associated with increased macrophage infiltration in the PNS with increased TNF-alpha and IL-1beta.   Testosterone therapy improved peripheral neuropathy via its positive effects on nocicieption.
Nathan Goodyear

Excessive Sugar Consumption May Be a Difficult Habit to Break: A View From the Brain an... - 0 views

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    Only abstract available here, but sugar in the form of sucrose found to lower cortisol.  Increased activity in the hippocampus was evident in the sucrose arm of this study.  Both of these activities will lead to stress induced food addictions--particularly of sugar.  Sugar is highly addictive and should be especially avoided in children.  Of note, this study followed the cortisol levels through saliva.
Nathan Goodyear

Estrogen and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) in hippocampus: complexity of ste... - 0 views

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    Estrogen effects in the hippocampus with BDNF (surprise, surprise) appear to have different effects between the sexes.
Nathan Goodyear

What Happens to Your Brain on Sugar, Explained by Science - Mic - 0 views

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    This is your brain on drugs, sorry I meant sugar.
Nathan Goodyear

BMC Neuroscience | Full text | The effect of adolescent testosterone on hippocampal BDN... - 0 views

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    study finds that BDNF is more associated with cell proliferation and neurogenesis with normal circulating Testosterone levels.  
Nathan Goodyear

An inverse relationship between cortisol and BDNF levels in schizophrenia: data from hu... - 0 views

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    Elevated Cortisol found to have inverse association with BDNF.
Nathan Goodyear

Lower low density lipid cholesterol levels are associated with Parkinson's disease - 0 views

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    Lower LDL levels associated with increased risk of Parkinson's disease.  LDL levels < 113 were associated with a 3.5 fold increase in Parkinson's disease compared to LDL of 138.
Nathan Goodyear

Effects of testosterone administration on cognitive function in hys... - PubMed - NCBI - 0 views

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    Testosterone therapy in women post-hysterectomy, with low total and low free Testosterone, provides no benefit in cognitive function.
Nathan Goodyear

Effects of the FITKids Randomized Controlled Trial on Executive Control and Brain Function - 0 views

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    After school fitness/exercise improved focus, attention, and cognition of children.
Nathan Goodyear

Slow CCL2-dependent translocation of biopersistent particles from muscle to brain - 0 views

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    Study finds translocation of alum from vaccines from muscle to brain in some individuals.  This leads to the neurologically condition termed Macrophagic myofasciitis.  Study after study has shown this connection and now studies are showing this translocation of immune cells to the brain resulting in neuro-inflammation.  All I hear from pro vaccinators is vitriol.  Here is science.
Nathan Goodyear

Thyroid hormone treated astrocytes induce maturation of cerebral cortical neurons throu... - 0 views

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    T3 plays a significant role in astrocyte maturation.  This has significant cognitive and disease impact.
Nathan Goodyear

Nerve growth factor receptor immunoreactivit... [Mech Ageing Dev. 1993] - PubMed - NCBI - 0 views

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    alpha-GPC appears to increase nerve growth factor receptors in rat brains. 
Nathan Goodyear

Behavioral effects of L-alpha-glycer... [Pharmacol Biochem Behav. 1992] - PubMed - NCBI - 0 views

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    animal study finds improvement in learning and memory with alpha-GPC after 20 days of therapy.
Nathan Goodyear

Effect of treatment with choline alphoscerate on h... [Brain Res. 2006] - PubMed - NCBI - 0 views

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    alpha-GPC, in rat model found to protect brain from glial reaction damage in cerebrovascular disease.
Nathan Goodyear

Multicentre study of l-alpha-glyceryl-ph... [Drugs Aging. 1993 Mar-Apr] - PubMed - NCBI - 0 views

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    alpha-GPC and to a lesser degree acetyl-l-carnitine improved dementia in multi-center trial.
Nathan Goodyear

Associations between brain-derived neu... [Neuro Endocrinol Lett. 2014] - PubMed - NCBI - 0 views

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    BDNF correlates with Estradiol in women.
Nathan Goodyear

Neuropsychopharmacology - Striatal Dopaminergic and Serotonergic Markers in Human Heroi... - 0 views

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    study points to a modest decrease in dopamine and serotonin production in heroic users.  There appears to be a decrease in dopamine production, which could be via a down regulation of tyrosine hydroxylase enzyme and thus release.  Decreased homovanillate also noted.  Other studies have pointed to a decrease/downregulation of D2/D3 receptors.
Nathan Goodyear

Exercise Induces Hippocampal BDNF through a PGC-1α/FNDC5 Pathway: Cell Metabo... - 0 views

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    Brain benefits of exercise explained.  Exercise increases hippocampal BDNF via PGC-1alpha from skeletal muscle.
Nathan Goodyear

https://endo.confex.com/endo/2014endo/webprogram/Paper14285.html - 0 views

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    Statin use found to be associated with cognitive decline.  The authors defined use as long-term, though 2 years of use was found to be associated with decline.   interestingly, metabolic syndrome was not found to be associated with cognitive decline.
Nathan Goodyear

Progesterone induces the growth and infiltrat... [Biomed Res Int. 2014] - PubMed - NCBI - 0 views

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    Progesterone shown to stimulate growth and migration of astrocytes in the brain.  The has both implications in cancer, such as in astrocytomas, but also in TBI.  The study also found that the Progesterone antagonist RU486 inhibited this effect.  A more thorough evaluation would have included the pregnane metabolites.
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