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mschutjer

ollie-afe-2019: Educational Leadership: The Quest for Quality--article - 6 views

    • nealjulie
       
      I thought this quote was interesting. I always believe that having more than one data point helps a teacher see more of a rounded picture of that student. Relying on just one assessment isn't fair to the student. I believe we should look at multiple assessments, formative assessments, check points to help our students grow. JN
  • assessor needs to have a clear picture of what achievement he or she intends to measure. I
    • rhoadsb_
       
      Assessment needs to be directly tied to the standard you are teaching too.
    • Deborah Cleveland
       
      When we were rolling out the Iowa Core, we really emphasized how content, instruction, and assessment were part of the "curriculum". Each piece playing an integral part in student learning.
    • nealjulie
       
      I think we as teachers need to make sure we are focused on what essentials we need to assess. We have the mindset that we must teach the content, and not the process. JN
  • ...66 more annotations...
  • Do the results provide clear direction for what to do next?
    • nealjulie
       
      Do we use the data for reteaching? JN
  • Students learn best when they monitor and take responsibility for their own learning
    • kmolitor
       
      I really like this idea of having students take responsibility for their own learning, and putting the learning target in language they can understand would definitely help!
    • mpercy
       
      I agree that students do learn best when they take on the responsibility but I also think this is the ideal situation and often does not happen. How do we motivate more students to do this?
    • alisauter
       
      I agree with this, but it seems so foreign to students. I think we need to plan on a lot of modeling to shift the responsibility to them.
    • nealjulie
       
      Student friendly learning targets! I believe involving students in tracking their own learning targets is very powerful! It's high on the Hattie scale. JN
  • f we don't begin with clear statements of the intended learning—clear and understandable to everyone, including students—we won't end up with sound assessments.
    • Wendy Arch
       
      While this seems like a straightforward idea, in reality, making a learning purpose clear and understandable to everyone - students included - can be difficult. Especially in English, the skill were teaching is not clear cut. CCSS Reading Literature 11-12.6 asks students to "Analyze a case in which grasping a point of view requires distinguishing what is directly stated in a text from what is really meant." However, there's no "right" answer to this skill. Student analysis of "what is really meant" could encompass a huge range of ideas. Crafting an assessment and teaching/learning opportunities that clearly delineate "proficient" analysis from "poor" analysis can't always be put into clear and understandable language. How can you quantify the qualitative?
    • kimgrissom
       
      There is truth in the challenge. But I know I have been guilty of knowing what I was looking for but not clearly communicating it to students. Then they are left to guess...which means they are likely to guess in at least some ways incorrectly. I think the more modeling we do, the more "anchor papers" we provide, the better students achieve our expectations. Putting those expectations into words and examples is its own challenge, but a worthy one.
    • cathy84
       
      It is nice to hear from other high school English teachers about the difficulty of measuring such subjective skills. I always struggled. One strategy I did find helpful was assigning paragraph writing as an assessment and scoring them 1-5, with a 3 being adequate and a 5 outstanding Then we would do several together and discuss what constituted a 3 and the differences between 3-4-5. That did seem to help, and students personalized the challenge of getting at least a 3 to show competency and reaching for outstanding.
  • t also helps them assign the appropriate balance of points in relation to the importance of each target as well as the number of items for each assessed target.
    • annott
       
      I really like this chart, it's easy to follow and easy to read.
  • minimizing any bias that might distort estimates of student learning.
    • Wendy Arch
       
      This is where I know as an English teacher, I can get bogged down in the details. All of my writing assignments have an assessment category for "M.U.G.S." as we call them (mechanics, usage, grammar, spelling), but those aren't actively taught and retaught every unit. We just expect students to have a certain level of proficiency at this point. However, that isn't always the case. There are MANY students who have not internalized the "rules" of writing. Their mechanics (punctuation) seems haphazard, grammar atrocious, usage nonexistent, and spelling like they fell asleep on their keyboard. However, a complete lack of those skills might not prevent them from being able to distinguish "what is directly stated in a text from what is really meant." I have to be careful to not allow my internal bias against poor writing ability to distort an accurate estimate of a student's learning and demonstration of the skill.
    • kmolitor
       
      When I read through this about minimizing bias it made me think of the old ITBS/ITED tests and a student we had that was new to this country. The student was very bright but he did not perform well on the test because of bias. One example I recall was he had no idea what a fir tree was as where he was from there was no such thing.
  • Will the users of the results understand them and see the connection to learning?
    • Wendy Arch
       
      This is also where I struggle. Our department uses the online program Turnitin.com to give students feedback on written assessments and grade almost all work. This is partially to alleviate issues with plagiarism, but mostly because it gives students and teachers a one access point to communicate feedback. The program allows users to submit rubrics that students can see. We've started assessing rough draft using the final rubric so students can see where their work is in the rough draft stage so they know which paper criteria need work. They also can view my feedback on the paper that tells them how to fix what they need to fix. My frustration is when students aren't willing to go back and look at the feedback on the paper or rubric so they know what learning skills they still need to work on. How can we motivate them to look at the results, see the connections, and make the progress in learning?
    • kmolitor
       
      That is a great point! How do we motivate kids to go back and look at the feedback and make changes. Many of our kids just want to know what do I need to know to pass the test or assignment and once they pass that's all that matters.
    • jennham
       
      You have mentioned before that kids always want to know what they have to do in order to get an A or pass...but that's what I want to know when I take a course. I want/need to know what the expected outcomes are. I feel that kids have so many classes, tests, and assignments that if they don't ask those questions or think in that kind of a structured fashion that they will crash and burn. I get that we want them to LEARN and be passionate, but especially in required courses, the passion just isn't always there and the class literally is a box to check off.
  • From a formative point of view, decision makers at the classroom assessment level need evidence of where students are on the learning continuum toward each standard
    • Wendy Arch
       
      This is another area where I personally struggle. The time and flexibility needed to be truly responsive is astronomical. I currently teach 4 of the 10 sections of English 10 at Indianola High School. As a class cohort, we try to be within a day or two of each other in content delivery. However, if my students don't get a concept, it's difficult to take a day to reteach since that throws off my alignment with the other teachers. It also means that I would have would have different periods at different places. I'm hoping the flipped and blended learning opportunities will help with the time and organization issues I currently have. If I can break groups up into smaller cohorts based on skill, then use flipped/blended methods for each group, I can (hopefully) accomplish more within the time frame. It makes organization more complicated, but allows more flexibility.
    • kimgrissom
       
      This is why common formative assessments can be so helpful. If some of your students aren't getting something, it's likely that others aren't either. If you look at the whole team's formative data, it could be that everyone needs to adjust rather than just you.
    • barbkfoster
       
      And if your class is doing more poorly than another class, you can have conversations about the different instructional practices being used. We all do our best but it's ok to not be the best. Together we can do what is best for our students.
  • Do the results provide clear direction for what to do next?
    • mgast40diigo
       
      We receive a lot data but never do much with it. What do other schools do with their data? There are great questions within this paragraph that should be asked when the results are in. MG
  • A grade of D+, on the other hand, may be sufficient to inform a decision about a student's athletic eligibility, but it is not capable of informing the student about the next steps in learning.
    • mgast40diigo
       
      SBL and transitioning from all letter grades is a lengthy process but very beneficial for feedback purposes. MG
    • tommuller4
       
      I agree with you about the SBL and how it shows a student exactly what they know or what they need to improve on. A letter grade just give them a percentage of the time they have a correct answer. Doesn't give them any information at what they know or don't know.
    • kmolitor
       
      I agree Matt, but how do we get kids to go back and internalize the feedback?
  • aim for the lowest possible reading level,
    • mgast40diigo
       
      I am curious to see if the new Iowa Assessments focus on this. MG
    • kimgrissom
       
      I think this is also interesting because I know there are some tests that do this purposefully to "increase the rigor" of the test. For instance, AP exams notoriously use vocabulary to make the questions harder. This is saying it could be not just separating those who know less about the content, but also those who have different background, cultural knowledge, or just English as a first language. I, too, wonder how the ISASP will do with this.
    • mpercy
       
      Are we challenging our top students and preparing them for their futures when we use low reading levels? Seems to contradict what we are trying to accomplish.
    • rhoadsb_
       
      This is so very important as we are seeing a dramatic increase in student populations that are not fluent in English.
    • jennham
       
      I have developed a system where I always read math tests out loud. That way students are not missing information due to not understanding the vocabulary.
    • chriskyhl
       
      Jenn that's an interesting concept of reading the tests outloud....have never thought of doing that in a HS classroom but might help!
  • The classroom is also a practical location to give students multiple opportunities to demonstrate what they know and can do, adding to the accuracy of the information available from that level of assessment.
    • rhoadsb_
       
      This is an important thing to consider in the design of your course.
    • tmolitor
       
      I agree, providing students multiple opportunities to show their knowledge, and understanding needs to be done.
  • Most assessments developed beyond the classroom rely largely on selected-response or short-answer formats and are not designed to meet the daily, ongoing information needs of teachers and students.
    • mgast40diigo
       
      I fall into this trap with assessments. I do need to incorporate more questions that focus on higher DOK levels. MG
    • jennham
       
      You are not alone. So do I. When I have an average of 70+ students to assess on math skills, these are easier.
  • Five keys to assessment quality
    • sjensen21
       
      To summarize, the 5 keys to assessment quality are: 1. clear purpose 2. clear learning targets 3. sound assessment design 4. effective communication of results 5. student involvement in the assessment process
    • cathy84
       
      Great idea on how to use an annotation tool. I can see this being very beneficial to high school students
    • chriskyhl
       
      thats a really cool usage! Could see teaching my kids to do this when doing technical reading
  • grouping the assessments
    • sjensen21
       
      Grouping assessments into levels: ongoing classroom assessment (daily work/observation), periodic interim/benchmark assessment (weekly quizzes/ group work), and annual state/district standardized assessments. I would add summative unit assessments (tests/projects) here also.
    • kmolitor
       
      Grouping assessments should give us a better picture of where students are at and help to identify where they need help.
  • cannot measure more complex learning targets at the heart of instruction
    • sjensen21
       
      Our school district is doing the ISASP this year for the first time. This is a computer based test based on the Iowa Core. I worry how these results will be used to evaluate student mastery of content specific standards. How much effort will students put into the test and are there too many distractors that will bias the results?
    • kimgrissom
       
      Those are legitimate concerns. On the other hand, what this quote makes me think of regarding the ISASP is that at least the types of questions are not only selected response. So many of the standards in the Core can not be measured by the only multi-choice questions in the previous test.
  • Bias can also creep into assessments and erode accurate results.
    • sjensen21
       
      On the new computer based standardized tests, ISASP, I worry that there will be skewed results, because this if the first time students have had to take a standardized test online.
  • descriptive feedback
    • kmolitor
       
      We do need to make sure that our feedback is helpful. Telling students "fix this" or "revise this paragraph" doesn't help them learn, the feedback needs to be more specific and point to the learning target.
    • tommuller4
       
      I totally agree with giving feedback about why they missed a question or problem. If you just count it wrong the student might now have any idea why they got the question wrong.
  • The assessor must begin with a clear picture of why he or she is conducting the assessment.
    • kimgrissom
       
      I think a lot of times we default to "for a grade" but there are lots of other reasons to consider.
    • tommuller4
       
      I think this is very important sentence. I know I don't do the greatest job of outlining learning goals everyday and explaining value in each. It's same thing for test. Are testing because its end of chapter or because you want to assess learning goals from the chapter that were the most important from the chapter and meet the standards for your class.
    • annott
       
      I agree Tom, I am not the best at covering learning targets with students. And maybe standards based learning will help focus my lesson designing and improve student learning.
    • rhoadsb_
       
      I think it is very important that we focus on the learning that is taking place within our classrooms and not on grading. Our assessments should be an avenue to strengthen learning and to inform the teacher what they need to do for learning to continue to occur.
    • alisauter
       
      This reminds me of UBD, or working backwards. The teacher knows the outcome first, and then builds the learning and assessments.
  • Selecting an assessment method that is incapable of reflecting the intended learning will compromise the accuracy of the results.
    • kimgrissom
       
      I thought the assessment brainstorming we did at the end of last week with ways to assess face-to-face vs. online was an interesting way to think of all the ways we can assess. I think as teachers we often default to a couple content-specific norms and it would be good to open up to other alternatives on occasion.
    • barbkfoster
       
      Many years ago I remember assessing my math students at the end of the year with a multiple choice test. None of my tests during the year were multiple choice, but finals were required and it was the most efficient way to get my grades done :( I'm sure it did compromise the accuracy of the results.
  • This means that teachers need to write learning targets in terms that students will understand.
    • kimgrissom
       
      I was a part of a John Hattie book study this year. In Visible Learning he talks a lot about success criteria being so clear that students can accurately self-assess their work. I think that's a really great goal for any rubric or learning target.
    • rhoadsb_
       
      Again here we should aim to write them in the lowest reading level possible
  • common assessments.
    • kylelehman
       
      I totally agree with this statement that we are assessing more than ever before. I don't think that it has to be a bad thing. However, I could see from a student's point of view that it could be overkill if they don't understand why.
  • Teachers have choices in the assessment methods they use
    • mpercy
       
      Is it important for assessments to contain all 4 types of responses?
    • jennham
       
      I don't think so. I think the teacher is to pick the best assessment method for that particular learning target.
    • tmolitor
       
      I agree with Jen. I think the teacher would need to use professional judgement to decide what the best assessment method would be. Sometimes it may include all 4 types though.
  • inform what decisions?
    • kylelehman
       
      This has been a large debate that we have been having at our district. We need some sort of feedback roll out that will say how we have managed the data and what the data is and will be used for.
    • tommuller4
       
      I think is important part for a teacher after each assessment to use results to maybe modify teaching topics that students performed poorly on. Maybe need an extra day to cover certain topics more in depth if students struggled with it on test or maybe we have a poorly written question on the test causing students to miss points.
  • communicated
    • kylelehman
       
      This has been another large debate that we have had. We want to make sure that our assessments are given back in a timely manner but we also want to make sure that they have correct and accurate feedback as well as to help the student know what they did well and where to improve and all of that takes time.
    • barbkfoster
       
      TIME! It's a four-letter word in teaching! The feedback we give students is WAY more important than the grade, and way more time consuming. How do we effectively give the feedback necessary for student growth in a timely manner? I'd love to hear strategies from others here.
  • Summative applications
    • kylelehman
       
      I think that this becomes more and more important as we look into SBG. Summatives are what tell you the story of how the students mastered something and if you want to see the evidence along the way, that becomes the formatives.
  • Periodic interim/benchmark assessments can also serve program evaluation purposes, as well as inform instructional improvement and identify struggling students and the areas in which they struggle.
    • mpercy
       
      Our math department has been looking at the AAIMS tests for Algebra students which could be used as data to support the learning taking place.
    • annott
       
      This makes me think of the concept of scaffolding. Which I have used in my classroom when lesson designing. Now I need to do the same thing with assessing. Assess students periodically both formative and summative.
  • minimizing any bias that might distort estimates of student learning.
    • kmolitor
       
      As teachers we do have to be careful of bias and making assumptions. When I read through this about minimizing bias it made me think of the old ITBS/ITED tests and a student we had that was new to this country. The student was very bright but he did not perform well on the test because of bias. One example I recall was he had no idea what a fir tree was as where he was from there was no such thing.
    • cathy84
       
      I completely understand this. Teaching writing and reading at the secondary level is so very difficult.
  • Creating a plan like this for each assessment helps assessors sync what they taught with what they're assessing
  • Knowledge targets, which are the facts and concepts we want students to know.
    • annott
       
      As our district moves toward standards based grading, understanding our knowledge targets is naturally happening during this process.
    • alisauter
       
      We are working on Power Standards in our buildings. I think this would fit with those too.
    • barbkfoster
       
      It all goes back to 1) what do we want them to know and 2) how will we know when they know it. We are working hard on choosing power standards. It is a long and exhausting process but a necessary one. Even after power standards are chosen, we need to break them down into learning targets our students can understand.
  • students to track their own progress on learning targets
    • whsfieldbio
       
      I have seen this done throughout a unit of student with a Red Light, Yellow Light, Green Light rating for students to self assess their percieved understading of a learning target. This self assessment was revisited frequently and used to drive student to specific learning activities that they needed to work on.
    • tmolitor
       
      I think allowing the students to self-assess and set goals is really beneficial. I like the idea of using red light, green light, and yellow light for students to show the teacher their understanding.
  • performance assessment or personal communication may be less effective and too time-consuming
    • whsfieldbio
       
      One dilema that teacher face is the factor of time which we all know. I have worked with teacher who have over 200 students in their classes and often default to a selected response assessment item even when a performance based would be more appropriate. It is challenging to assess and provide feedback in timely manner with this many students. This is not an excuse, but a barrier that needs to be explored.
  • or making the correct answer obvious
    • whsfieldbio
       
      I would also suggest to make non correct answers plausible and avoid answers that are glaringly impossible. If student select the incorrect answer then teachers could be able to identify misconceptions from an item analysis.
  • dependable data generated at every level of assessment.
    • whsfieldbio
       
      I wonder how much professional develoment or preservice teacher training is spent on looking at data to make decisions. There is most likely a range of understanding of what data should be used to design instruction. This is why is it good to have a strong PLC for teachers to work through data and assessment creation (which is really challenging in itself).
    • chriskyhl
       
      we are starting this assessment process and it is very challenging
    • mistermohr
       
      It is amazing to me that data acquisition/analysis and student feedback/scores are largely two separate endeavors. In this day and age, these should be the same step. Without some automation, I don't think this can actually be done. At least not in a meaningful manner.
  • track their own progress on learning targets
    • whsfieldbio
       
      I have seen this done throughout a unit of student with a Red Light, Yellow Light, Green Light rating for students to self-assess their perceived understanding of a learning target. This self-assessment was revisited frequently and used to drive student to specific learning activities that they needed to work on.
  • if students will be the users of the results because the assessment is formative
    • rhoadsb_
       
      Use of formative assessment is vital to the success of students and to inform teachers. this should be a daily practice and done through multiple types of measures.
  • n the past, few educators, policymakers, or parents would have considered questioning the accuracy of these tests.
    • alisauter
       
      Is this because educators had more trust among these stakeholders back in the day?
  • Assessment literacy is the foundation for a system that can take advantage of a wider use of multiple measures.
    • alisauter
       
      We need to be teaching assessment literacy in teacher prep classes.
  • inform students about their own progress
    • mrsmeganmorgan
       
      Shouldn't this be the goal of all assessments? If it serves other purposes great. If this does not become the focus of the assessment, then a student will start chasing points.
    • mschutjer
       
      Ideally testing should serve the purpose of helping the teacher and student see areas where they need improvement...
  • clear curriculum maps for each standard, accurate assessment results, effective feedback, and results that point student and teacher clearly to next step
    • mrsmeganmorgan
       
      I believe that this is important because highlights the role feedback plays in the assessment process. I think we often forget feedback.
    • tmolitor
       
      I agree, feedback is really important. It also needs to be provided as quickly as possible.
    • zackkaz
       
      Feedback is most certainly key for something that can be so subjective like writing, but I also think providing feedback on LOT can also improve students understanding. I know that is something I struggle with - leaving the necessary feedback. There's always a time crunch, and sometime students that assessed well receive little feedback even though they could use it too.
  • students can use the results to self-assess and set goals.
    • mrsmeganmorgan
       
      We need to model how to self-assess and set goals. I was guilty of expecting that my students knew how to do this.
    • Deborah Cleveland
       
      Yes. It is indeed a paradigm shift for teachers and students. Modeling the process to students and talking about it will help them get the most out of the assessment process.
  • learning targets represented in the assessment into a written test plan that matches the learning targets represented in the curriculum.
    • mrsmeganmorgan
       
      I wonder if the creators of ISASP has taken this into consideration. It would be interesting to learn how they accomplished this.
    • cathy84
       
      Excellent point!
    • cathy84
       
      I wonder who "we" are when the authors say "we're betting." I don't think it's the teachers, for we know the limits of testing.
  • cultural insensitivity.
    • cathy84
       
      I think this is a way bigger problem than ,most people realize.
    • cathy84
       
      I think this is a real problem with ISASP
    • zackkaz
       
      I'm willing to let ISASP run its course though - I think it is vastly improved from the old ITBS. At least it does have open ended questions and require students to process and write instead of the good ole A, B, C, or D.
  • Making decisions that affect individuals and groups of students on the basis of a single measure
    • robertsreads
       
      The idea that a single measure can accurately assess students is absolutely baffling to me. ~KMR
    • chriskyhl
       
      definitely a scary concept with the large presence and weight placed on these assessments
    • mschutjer
       
      it seems this concept totally contradicts what education stands for. Only good test takers like these tests.
  • We're betting that the instructional hours sacrificed to testing will return dividends in the form of better instructional decisions and improved high-stakes test scores
    • robertsreads
       
      I could not agree with this more. The amount of hours we spend preparing students for a single test is astounding. The time would be better served to actually teaching students content.
  • The goal of a balanced assessment system is to ensure that all assessment users have access to the data they want when they need it, which in turn directly serves the effective use of multiple measures.
    • robertsreads
       
      Given the requests for data from our administrators and other stakeholders, this is imperative.
  • From a summative point of view, users at the classroom and periodic assessment levels want evidence of mastery of particular standards; at the annual testing level, decision makers want the percentage of students meeting each standard.
    • robertsreads
       
      It is more beneficial for students to demonstrate mastery of standards than for students to test well.
  • assessment formatively
    • barbkfoster
       
      I feel like we could do a better job of formatively assessing students. When students hear the word assessment, they think quiz or test and they get apprehensive. We need to change their mindset and show them how they can use formative assessments (exit tickets, class polls, one-minute papers, etc) to help them take control of their own learning.
  • the use of multiple measures does not, by itself, translate into high-quality evidence
    • jennham
       
      I happy to say that in our district we are working very hard at using only those assessments that we find useful to both the teachers as well as the students. We have drastically cut back on the number of assessments our students take.
  • At the level of annual state/district standardized assessments, they involve where and how teachers can improve instruction—next year.
    • jennham
       
      I feel this takes us dangerously close to teaching to the test. Is that really what is best for students? Changing everything around in order for them to score well on standardized tests? If the goal is truly to benefit students and how they learn, I am all for it no matter what.
  • "I can make good inferences. This means I can make a guess that is based on clues."
  • Who is the decision maker?This will vary. The decision makers might be students and teachers at the classroom level; instructional leaders, learning teams, and teachers at the periodic level; or curriculum and instructional leaders and school and community leaders at the annual testing level.
    • zackkaz
       
      For those that teach AP they also have the AP board to assess
  • or summatively—to feed results into the grade book.
    • zackkaz
       
      Evan, just curious since you suggested that potentially the answer is no grade book? How would use summative assessments? Would students just keep repeating until they were garnered proficient?
  • Effectively planning for the use of multiple measures means providing assessment balance throughout these three levels, meeting student, teacher, and district information needs.
    • chriskyhl
       
      so important to consider all 3 levels when planning
  • Reasoning targets, which require students to use their knowledge to reason and problem solve. A reasoning target in math might be to use statistical methods to describe, analyze, and evaluate data. Performance skill targets, which ask students to use knowledge to perform or demonstrate a specific skill, such as reading aloud with fluency. Product targets, which specify that students will create something, such as a personal health-related fitness plan.
    • Deborah Cleveland
       
      These categories of learning targets seem to tie in nicely with authentic learning.
  • balanced system
  • balanced system
    • Deborah Cleveland
       
      Do districts map out these different groups of assessments on a yearly calendar? It would be interesting to see how many days a year are students engaging in assessment and also the types of assessment.
  • overflow of testing
    • Deborah Cleveland
       
      Yes. There is a lot of testing these days One of my friends mentioned that between testing and snow days she hadn't "taught" from MLK day to almost President's day. Needless to say she was anxious about how well students wee going to demonstrate learning when they hadn't had much instruction for over a month.
  • schools now make decisions about individual students, groups of students, instructional programs, resource allocation, and more.
    • mistermohr
       
      I think that these decisions are made too infrequently. One test may place a student in a group that is not in your zone of proximal development. They may be stuck there for quite some time.
  • We're betting that the instructional hours sacrificed to testing will return dividends in the form of better instructional decisions and improved high-stakes test scores
    • mistermohr
       
      and to think of the potential impact on opportunities available to students...crazy
    • mschutjer
       
      too much time is spent testing....
  • about the overall level of students' performance.
    • mistermohr
       
      From my experience, most of the high stakes testing explicitly states that the results should not be used on the individual student decision making level. Oh the irony....
  • ults
Drinda Williams

New English File Elementary Cloze Generator - 1 views

  •  
    Do this cloze activity to see how well you understand the difference between a Read-aloud and a Think-aloud.
Joanne Cram

Article(s): Self- and Peer-Assessment Online - 1 views

  • increase student responsibility and autonomy • strive for a more advanced and deeper understanding of the subject matter, skills and processes • lift the role and status of the student from passive learner to active leaner and assessor
    • Bev Berns
       
      So many times teachers spend too many hours planning a process for students to read a learning target. Each student may choose a varied route to achieve a target, it is up to the teacher to facilitate and support the learning toward that goal.
    • Evan Abbey
       
      I'm assuming you meant "reach" a learning target, but if you didn't, I'm chuckling in agreement. I don't think having the class read aloud the target of the day is a great strategy by any means (though one I've observed many times).
  • Students feel ill equipped to undertake the assessment
    • Bev Berns
       
      YES! It takes a significant amount of time to help student understand how to think about their thinking. But, it is time well worth it because student internalize the process an start to add reflective thinking in conversation or as a natural part of their learning.
  • “Put simply, we see self-assessment as feedback for oneself from oneself.”
    • Bev Berns
       
      It is important for me to look for success and opportunities for improvement.
    • jbdecker
       
      What am I doing well and why?  What could I improve on and can I make a plan to get there?
  • ...66 more annotations...
  • Students in this sample reported that their attitudes toward self-assessment became more positive as their experiences with the process accumulated.
    • Bev Berns
       
      That isn't surprising. Its new and could feel threatening.
    • joycevermeer
       
      I wonder if when initially doing self-assessment if some students would almost feel guilty about assessing themselves too positively....even if they feel they did a really fantastic job. That's where rubrics come in, right?
    • Diane Jackson
       
      I think that's why self-assessment really needs to be explained what it is and how it is going to be used. As students use this more, they will become more confident about assessing their progress.
    • Evan Abbey
       
      My personal opinion: I don't feel this can take place in one class. This is a cultural norm that has to be set up over many years in school.
  • elp students develop that all-important ability of looking objectively at their work and then making changes that improve its quality
    • Bev Berns
       
      This is the life-long skill to develop!
    • joycevermeer
       
      Looking objectively at your own work isn't always easy. Sometimes the more work you put into it the more your think it becomes great and/or the more you struggle with it the more you think it isn't great. Sometimes how objective you are is subjective.
    • Evan Abbey
       
      True. It is hard to separate the quality of the work itself, and the effort you put into the work.
    • Lynn Helmke
       
      These last sentences summarize the article.  Self-assessment does not have to equate with grading.  We need to teach people how to evaluate their own work so that they can make changes for improvement of their work. I feel that at times people are just after the grade.....pleasing the professor....not about learning. 
  • Students individually assess each other's contribution using a predetermined list of criteria.
    • Kathleen Goslinga
       
      It's important to have a "predetermined list of criteria" that has been identified by the teacher. Followed by a practice peer assessment being completed as a group for practice. This will serve as a guide to the student(s) as they begin the peer assessment process for each other.
  • • Focuses on the development of student’s judgment skills.
    • Kathleen Goslinga
       
      Developing good judgement skills of a student takes practice and time. Small group work of 4-5 members on a couple of sample assignments will help in learning how to identify and offer good peer assessment.
    • Evan Abbey
       
      The idea of using some sample assignments as a way to help identify good peer assessment is a good recommendation. I don't think students are naturally good assessers, and this requires practice (and scaffolding).
  • 2) When assignments are low stakes
    • Kathleen Goslinga
       
      I can see peer grading being low stakes in the beginning. However, as students start to become more proficient in their skills the teacher might consider giving them the opportunity to work on a high stakes assignment as well.
  • When they self-assessed, these students reported that they checked their work, revised it, and reflected on it more generally. Before this class their self-assessment efforts were “relatively mindless.”
    • Kathleen Goslinga
       
      Interesting how the students see the value of the self assessment and prior to this class didn't put as much thought into their work.
    • Kristina Dvorak
       
      I agree, I find when I include self-assessment regularly my students are more thoughtful about what they produce.  It is also helpful for me because self-assessment allows students to verbalize their processes.  
  • Forcing’ the individual student to assess their own behaviour, as opposed to others is more constructive – it supports the aim of developing collaboration skills, along with the knowledge component.
    • Kathleen Goslinga
       
      I agree that if a student knows how to effectively complete a self evaluation of their work then chances are they will be able to work more collaboratively in a group situation.
    • Deb Vail
       
      I think I agree here. I have found that for the most part students are usually honest in a self-reflection, especially if they have to provide specific evidence to support their claims rather than just a number. If the self-evaluation is just a number it is often inflated. 
  • Goal setting Guided practice with assessment tools Portfolios
    • Kristina Dvorak
       
      Key elements of self-assessment to keep in mind.  
  • t is helpful to introduce students to the concepts and elements of assessment against specified criteria in the first weeks of class when you explain the unit of study outline
    • Kristina Dvorak
       
      This sets the tone for the class and helps to avoid some of the disadvantages discussed above.  
    • Lynn Helmke
       
      I think that the steps given in this paragraph are crucial for this process to work.  It is teaching what is expected and guidance how to measure.
  • Rees admitted the guidelines were clearly outlined as to how to grade, and that the grades he received were accurate, yet it was the quality of comments that he felt was lacking,
    • Kristina Dvorak
       
      I have a lot of questions about his process.  Did he provide students with a rubric for grading? Were comments expected?  Maybe students didn't know what to comment on (organization, subject, editing, etc.)  There are a lot of variations that need to be considered.  Also, is this expectation set out at the beginning of the course?  
    • Evan Abbey
       
      These are valid questions. The context could paint an entirely different picture. Hypothetically, though, I can see situations where he would be correct. Commenting can often be lacking, regardless of the strength of the guidelines, given a student's perceptions around how they should critique fellow students.
  • When learners are mature, self-directed and motivated.
    • Kristina Dvorak
       
      Depending on the type of class, peer feedback might not be an expectation of some learners.  For example, in an art course peer feedback is critical, but I wouldn't necessarily want (or expect to give) peer feedback in other courses I have taken.  
    • Evan Abbey
       
      This is very true. Not only subject areas, but different contexts as well. It is harder to be critical when you are simply a classmate; much easier when you are a teammate on a Mock Trial team or a Basketball team, for example.
  • we have a scoring table which where I will evaluate my 3 other group members, and myself
    • scampie1
       
      I guess I would like to know if group members are not alble to resolve problems during the project before it ends. I like the idea of monitoring group chats or discussions and using wikis that allows for some awareness of how groups are working.
  • • Students are involved in the process and are encouraged to take part ownership of this
    • scampie1
       
      If students are involved in determining what they want feedback on and have the opportunity to share what they felt went well, it is more likely feedback from peers will be valued. I have used LASW protocols, for example, and teachers seem to do more collaborative feedback this way. See link: http://www.lasw.org/protocols.html
  • Goal setting is essential because students can evaluate their progress more clearly when they have targets against which to measure their performance.
    • scampie1
       
      This is a great way to motivate students in a topic. If they can set a goal and you can support them or show how what they are learning will help them meet that goal, students gain in their learning. A bit difficult to do with younger students
    • Evan Abbey
       
      Being able to measure their performance is key. Simply going from a B to an A is a nice goal, but students often don't know how to get there. I had the goal of getting an A in my Renaissance Literature course, and was willing to do whatever it would take to get it, but for the life of me, I couldn't figure out what it would take. The grades were not connected with measurable performance.
    • Joanne Cram
       
      I think that while having goals visible to students to help drive achievement, it is also very effective when those goals are put into measurable conditions that can be graphed and monitored visually. This can be highly motivating.
    • scampie1
       
      When students identify what they did well and what they need to improve, you are provided with information about their understanding of the concepts and criteria.
    • joycevermeer
       
      Yes, the student learns about what the student knows and the teacher learns about what the student knows. It's a win-win situation.
    • scampie1
       
      Specific, measureable, aligned, realistic and timely are parts of a SMART goal if I remember correctly.
    • Evan Abbey
       
      There is some discrepancy. I learned them as Specific, Measureable, Achieveable, Relevent, and Time-Bound. Though I've seen them different in different places.
  • Grading is based on a predetermined process,
    • bgeanaea11
       
      This is important to note- if makes the process clear and meaningful.
  • • Students will have a tendency to award everyone the same mark.
    • bgeanaea11
       
      I feel a clear process and expectations would help with this.
    • Evan Abbey
       
      It can. Though, the term "clear" is not very clear. I've seen peer assessment tasks that are very detailed, but it doesn't mean students can actually provide good assessment. Many see this as something that will potentially make them look bad if they are overly critical... it seems to go against the proverbial Sunday School Lesson of being nice to everyone.
  • This also highlights the need to fully prepare and equip students for their own assessment and for the assessment of others.
    • bgeanaea11
       
      Absolutely!
  • • Agreed marking criteria means there can be little confusion about assignment outcomes and expectations.
    • bgeanaea11
       
      This is key!
  • • Additional briefing time can increase a lecturer’s workload
    • bgeanaea11
       
      As long as it is valuable to the learners I think it should be worth the time;)
  • “The difference between self-assessment and giving the teacher what he or she wants was a recurring theme
    • bgeanaea11
       
      Interesting!
    • joycevermeer
       
      It would be difficult, when you are so used to teachers evaluating your work, to truly assess your own work without thinking about what the teacher might want.
  • They also recommend that teachers share expectations for assignments and define quality.
    • joycevermeer
       
      That teachers share their expectations really makes it self-assessment, not self-grading.
  • There are ways of framing and then using self-assessment
    • ajbeyer
       
      I think this is a good skill not only for the current time and place, but also a skill students can use throughout their life. If they can learn how to effectively and objectively look at their work, they will become better and better at it in all areas of their life.
    • Joanne Cram
       
      I think this is a good case in support of using rubrics- if written correctly, it's a good tool to guide self refelction in a measurable way.
  • The instructor must explain expectations clearly to them before they begin.
    • Travis Wilkins
       
      While this seems obvious and upfront, I can recall some experiences in my undergraduate work where we were expected to complete a peer assessment and this was not at all clear.  It left our conversations to be very dull and not meaningful.  We focused on very superficial things and tried not to say things that would hurt the other's feelings.  If the expectations had been clear it would have made the process much more meaningful.
    • Evan Abbey
       
      I think the word "clear" isn't clear. That may be a bit glib, but it is a throwaway statement to say "Your expectations should be clear". Well, no doubt. But how do you know they are clear? Clear to whom? Luckily, the author backs this up with some other paragraphs below... usually authors leave it at that.
  • Portfolios
    • Travis Wilkins
       
      I see more and more reference to portfolios as students and schools move toward a 1:1 computing environment.  However, often I find that the purpose has not been clearly articulated, and the portfolio essentially becomes a collection of student work similar to the scrapbook that my mother made of my school work while growing up.  Placing the focus of the portfolio on either a self assessment of the process or product helps to provide a context and purpose for the practice.
  • • Encourages students to reflect on their role and contribution to the process of the group work
    • Travis Wilkins
       
      I feel that self assessment done well can be extremely valuable for our students.  It focuses the the process of self reflection and forces the student to constantly look back at the criteria listed for the work to be completed.
  • “Professors in the trenches tend to hold their monopoly on evaluating their students’ work dearly, since it helps them control the classroom better by reinforcing their power and expertise,” supports a cognitive and instructor-focused learning orientation.
    • Travis Wilkins
       
      Unfortunately, this statement rings very true in my personal experience.  The focus of the professors often seems to be to protect their standing as the expert and power holder.  I often wonder if the constructivist centered work that is starting to take place in our K-12 institutions is impacting what is happening at the next level.
  • There are many options still to be explored. Time will tell.
    • Travis Wilkins
       
      With the growth of MOOCs as well as other online learning options I see this as an area that will certainly continue to change and grow over time.  While both peer and self assessment may offer specific challenges in the online course world, I do believe they can have a place in assessment.
  • critically review their own work with an eye for improvement.
    • Travis Wilkins
       
      I think this is a crucial point in the process of self-assessment.  the purpose must be viewed as a process for improvement.  If the objective is complete upon grading, the self - assessment will be of little value.
    • Diane Jackson
       
      I agree that this is a crucial point. It is about the process for improvement. I take classes now for the knowledge not the grade. It puts a whole new spin on the learning and wanting to improvement my practices, etc.
  • identifying any ‘slackers’ or those who sit on the side lines through the entire project, with minimal contributions.
    • Deb Vail
       
      This is so true. I hate to admit it, but I think I was too focused on making sure that the assessment took into account each member's contribution more so than did each student meet the target or goal. I wonder if it's because I was always one of the heavy lifters in all projects. I wanted to be sure that my grade didn't suffer because of those that didn't care. I suspect my approach to assessing group work was influenced unduly by my past experiences as a student than sound pedagogy.  
    • Lynn Helmke
       
      Question: Couldn't the teacher "see" who has participated in the group work by using the instructor's tools for the online platform?  Why use peer assessment for a grade?
    • jbdecker
       
      I see the reasoning behind this peer assessment but I never liked it as a student and I have had a hard time even giving part of a grade on group projects based on peer evaluations so I have generally steered clear of using them in this way.
  • I have mixed feelings about peer evaluations, leaning towards not using peer reviews as part of the assessment strategy. I wonder if the concept of peer evaluation is exclusive to higher education institutions in the USA? In considering the 
    • Deb Vail
       
      I agree. I have never been satisfied with efforts at peer assessment. I love the idea of it, but I never got the desired results. I suspect I did not do enough modeling. 
  • Though, my experience is that the points do not motivate the student to participate in the project on the front end, but more allows the other group members to express his or her dissatisfaction with the other group members lack of participation or cooperation. I do 
    • Deb Vail
       
      I have to agree here. This has more of a punitive feel to it rather than providing an incentive for positive behavior. 
  • A well written rubric not only helps the facilitator score the assignment but it and can greatly increase the quality and effort put into assignments by giving students a clear expectations with knowledge that must be demonstrated.
    • Deb Vail
       
      A well-written rubric provides guidance for what the end result should be, but it doesn't do much to ensure that the group works well together to accomplish this goal. Often, it just indicates what the heavy lifters have to do.
    • joycevermeer
       
      More than anything else I have learned this through this course...that well-written rubrics are so important! I thought that before, but now as we look at self and peer assessment I see it as absolutely critical.
    • Evan Abbey
       
      Deb, you really have a good point. Rubrics for group work in of themselves do not ensure that everyone is doing their part.
  • • Students feel ill equipped to undertake the assessment. Preparing students for self or peer assessment
    • Deb Vail
       
      I have found that the more students practice assessing other pieces of writing, the better informed they are as to the what quality work looks like. They are better able to assess it in others' work as well as their own. However, often there doesn't seem to be enough time to devote to this process. It is so worthwhile but very time consuming. 
    • Diane Jackson
       
      I agree with you Deb. It is so worthwhile but it takes time. In order to get better they need practice and guidance. I do think student engagement and responsibility for own learning will outweigh the time involvement in the long run.
  • hange to one of facilitator.
  • the ultimate expression of individualism
    • joycevermeer
       
      n education we are always talking about the individual...doing individual child planning...working individually with students....valuing the thoughts of the individual...etc. This is a good point. Peer evaluation is the ultimate expression of individualism.
    • Evan Abbey
       
      I'm not sure I understood what the author was trying to get at with this section. Whether peer evaluation is considered "individual" or "collective" is beside the point to me.
  • “Most group work is assessed by giving every individual the same grade for a team effort. However this approach runs counter to the principles of individual accountability in group learning…. difficult to determine the individual grades for work submitted by the group.”
    • joycevermeer
       
      This is true as well. Maybe peer assessment isn't so individualistic. How can an instructor possibly know exactly how much an individual contributed to the group work. There are ways of making it look like you're a team player, when maybe you aren't....moreso with online learning I would think.
  • a team grade AND a grade allocated for the peer evaluation, the latter usually accounting for a small percentage of the total assignment.
    • joycevermeer
       
      This seems right to me.
  • the ability to self-assess skills and completed work is important.
    • Diane Jackson
       
      This is an important part of career readiness, being able to self-assess. In my work career I am constantly reflecting on my own work, what I need to know more about and how I can improve the process and/or the final product.
  • Encourages student involvement and responsibility.
    • Diane Jackson
       
      If we want students to be engaged and responsible for their learning, self-assessment is a great start. Students monitor their progress and contribute to their learning goals.
  • As this work illustrates, self-assessment need not necessarily be about self-grading. There are ways of framing and then using self-assessment that can help students develop that all-important ability of looking objectively at their work and then making changes that improve its quality.
    • Lynn Helmke
       
      These last sentences summarize the article.  Self-assessment does not have to equate with grading.  We need to teach people how to evaluate their own work so that they can make changes to improve their work. I feel that at times people are just after the grade.....pleasing the professor....not about learning. 
  • Rather than assessing whether the student learned from the assignment or not, this method seems geared to identifying any ‘slackers’ or those who sit on the side lines through the entire project, with minimal contributions.
    • Lynn Helmke
       
      Question: Couldn't the teacher "see" who has participated in the group work by using the instructor's tools for the online platform or asking for entrance into the google doc process?
  • ‘Forcing’ the individual student to assess their own behaviour, as opposed to others is more constructive – it supports the aim of developing collaboration skills, along with the knowledge component
    • Lynn Helmke
       
      Personally, I like self-evaluation better than peer- assessment.  With peer-assessment, other participants may not know why a peer has not contributed at all or minimally to a group project. Maybe there was a good reason.  Also, I still don't like a group grade. What I have seen is that a few people carry the load of the work.
  • Yet there are times when it won’t work, this is where I agree with Professor Rees, the situations where students do need detailed and constructive feedback from an instructor, or mentor that is qualified.
    • Lynn Helmke
       
      I agree with this statement.  When I am paying for a graduate course, I want feedback from the person who knows more than I know about the subject. Peer review is fine, too, but the instructor needs to step in when information/insight needs to be added to the discussion.
  • t is helpful to introduce students to the concepts and elements of assessment against specified criteria in the first weeks of class when you explain the unit of study outline. This requires taking time at the outset of the group activity or unit of study to discuss what is required, and to provide guidance on how to judge their own and others’ contributions. Students will need to be assisted to develop criteria that match the learning outcomes with regards to the output and process of the group work. If assessment criteria for each element are set up and clearly communicated, your role will also change to one of facilitator.
    • ajbeyer
       
      This is exactly what needs to happen in order for assessment to be outlined explicitly in a class. It's crucial to teach these steps to students in order for the assessmets (both peer and self) are done well.
  • It is helpful to introduce students to the concepts and elements of assessment against specified criteria in the first weeks of class when you explain the unit of study outline. This requires taking time at the outset of the group activity or unit of study to discuss what is required, and to provide guidance on how to judge their own and others’ contributions. Students will need to be assisted to develop criteria that match the learning outcomes with regards to the output and process of the group work. If assessment criteria for each element are set up and clearly communicated, your role will also change to one of facilitator.
    • Lynn Helmke
       
      I think that the steps given in this paragraph are crucial for this process to work.  It is teaching what is expected and guidance how to measure.
  • Students that fell into this group were physically and cognitively lazy, not contributing to the process as required. This phenomenon was referenced in several other research studies within the paper. I suggest another group be added to the mix besides the loafers— students that cannot provide feedback due to the lack of necessary skills, whether it be education background or language.
    • jbdecker
       
      I can see where this could be a major problem in a large open course with peer grading in anonymity.  I don't see the social loafing problem to be one that I would deal with in a online class with 20-30 students using a LMS like Moodle or Canvas where expectations have been set up, models have been provided and scaffolding of skills has been completed prior to a peer evaluation.
  • When learners are at a similar skill level
    • jbdecker
       
      I can see where this could be an issue that an instructor would have to use scaffolding to overcome prior to having the students complete peer grading. 
  • It can also be very effective in small, closed online classes where students are at similar skill level and receive instruction and guidance in how to grade within the process.
    • jbdecker
       
      I guess I should have read this part before I commented above.  I am thinking about this article from my perspective as a High School teacher.  I would never expect to use peer grading without first providing instruction and assessing student readiness to handle the process.
  • It seems like the kind of skill that should be addressed in college.
    • jbdecker
       
      Couldn't it start much sooner than this?  If it is a skill that is acquired with practice and developed with feedback why wait until college? Being able to look at criteria and critically assess your own performance could and should happen much earlier than college.
  • They were required to submit their self-assessments with the completed work, but their assessments were not graded.
    • jbdecker
       
      Requiring students to self-assess and submit it with their work makes so much sense. We work on creating rubrics so that the students know the criteria that they are trying to meet with their performance why wouldn't you require the students to self assess against this same rubric. To be honest though this is something that I have rarely done.  I have reminded students to reference the rubric provided but I haven't let them know early on that they would be required to submit a self-assessment using the rubric.  This is something that I am eager to try with my students in the near future. 
  • that is well crafted to include focused self reflection questions)
    • jbdecker
       
      I like this idea. Have each student provide evidence for the work they have completed in their group.  Providing this self evaluation at the front end of a group project may spur more participation if each student knows they will be responsible for providing answers to these questions to the instructor.
  • Students can also benefit from using rubrics or checklists to guide their assessments
    • criley55
       
      Highly important when having students evaluate themselves or others!
    • Joanne Cram
       
      This also helps students know what is expected of them.
  • For peer evaluation to work effectively, the learning environment in the classroom must be supportive. Students must feel comfortable and trust one another in order to provide honest and constructive
    • criley55
       
      I completely agree with this - if it is not an environment of mutual respect, you can't expect that they will give each other honest open feedback. Students will be guarded and not open to others opinions.
  • For example, a student may agree to work toward the grade of "B" by completing a specific number of assignments at a level of quality described by the instructor.
    • criley55
       
      I remember doing these in school and while it is a way for students to consider setting goals, it makes me wonder if it's the best idea because shouldn't all students be aiming for an A?
  • Students do not learn to monitor or assess their learning on their own; they need to be taught strategies for self monitoring and self assessment
    • criley55
       
      Some students come by this naturally but most need very specific examples and guided practice. There are many students who have never "failed" at anything so wouldn't be able to accurately assess themselves.
    • Joanne Cram
       
      In working with the special education population of teachers and students, this is a key point. If we don't explicitly teach the objectives we hope to achieve, there's a strong correlation for failure.
  • Portfolios are purposeful, organized, systematic collections of student work that tell the story of a student's efforts, progress, and achievement in specific areas
    • criley55
       
      I like the use of portfolios if they are truly a story of the students' work showing growth over time and not just items selected by the teacher to showcase what they think parents want to see.
  • Instructors who use group work and peer assessment frequently can help students develop trust by forming them into small groups early in the semester and having them work in the same groups throughout the term.
    • Nicole Wood
       
      I definitely feel that peer assessment can be powerful, but only if students are taught the process and given opportunities to practice with teacher guidance. Student comfort level and trust in their group are also key. I think it takes the teacher carefully considering personalities and ability-level while also supporting teams to establish these groups. I also like the idea of students staying with the same team all year to help establish this comfort level. I would be interested to see different models of what peer assessment looks like in primary grades.
  • In addition, students' motivation to learn increases when they have self-defined, and therefore relevant, learning goals.
    • Nicole Wood
       
      I do believe that goal setting is motivational for students. I found even in the primary grades students took more ownership in their learning when they set their own goals. They often needed support with forming SMART goals, but the idea came from them and they felt confident talking about their goal.
  • students are looking at their work and judging the degree to which it reflects the goals of the assignment and the assessment criteria the teacher will be using to evaluate the work
    • Nicole Wood
       
      I found students frequently put more effort into their work when they knew they would be self-assessing. By providing them with the rubric or criteria that I would be evaluating their work with and having them complete it first, they were much more focused on the quality of their work. In the primary grades, it could be as simple as a check list with pictures to prompt them for what to look for in their work. It also opened the door for discussions on their work because I could ask them how they came up with their marks.
    • ajbeyer
       
      I think that a lot of times, students can be harder graders on themselves than a teacher is on them. They have gone through the ups and downs of the assingment and know where they weak points are. The hardest critic is always yourself.
  • The instructor usually takes the average of the peer evaluations, and shares this grade with each team member which serves as the student’s grade in the peer evaluation portion.
    • Nicole Wood
       
      I was initially very hesitant over the idea of peer evaluation, but did like the idea of the evaluations being averaged and anonymous. I still feel as though instructors could get a good idea of the participation level for different members through the use of some online tools.
  • The tool also encourages the student to consider actions that he or she demonstrated to support the team and to estimate what percentage of the work he or she contributed to the project.
    • Nicole Wood
       
      I really like the idea of self-evaluation, especially for adult courses. I often feel that adults typically are truthful about their level of contribution. If the evaluation form or reflection is phrased well, it can also lead the adults to be more honest about what they actually contributed to the group project. Self reflecting also can help them change their future behavior within group projects.
  • Portfolio assessment emphasizes evaluation of students' progress, processes, and performance over time
    • ajbeyer
       
      Portfolio assessment is a great way for students to gain a better understanding of what they have learned and their progress over time. It's better than a 1 time snapshot test assessment. It's a great way for students to see that progress has been made.
    • Joanne Cram
       
      A portfolio is only as effective as the instructor makes it. If it is just a means of " turning something in"- then it will not be valued, utilized, nor looked at by the student. If a portfolio is used as a basis for comparison of learning and progress made, it can be highly effective.
  • Showing students examples of effective and ineffective pieces of work can help to make those definitions real and relevant
    • ajbeyer
       
      I know that I benefit from seeing what is effective and what is not effective, so I am sure students are the same way. It helps me realize to what level I need to work and what is expected of me. Showing students good and not good examples can also help them review their orwn work better too.
  • Group work can be more successful when students are involved in developing the assessment process.
    • ajbeyer
       
      When students are involved in their grading process they feel like they have a stake in it. When they feel like they have a part of it, they feel like they need to achieve higher in order to meet the stakes they have helped set. They can be very good, but not used all the time.
  •  
    " increase student responsibility and autonomy * strive for a more advanced and deeper understanding of the subject matter, skills and processes * lift the role and status of the student from passive learner to active leaner and assessor"
  •  
    " increase student responsibility and autonomy * strive for a more advanced and deeper understanding of the subject matter, skills and processes * lift the role and status of the student from passive learner to active leaner and assessor"
nwhipple

Implementation in an Elementary Classroom (Articles) - 1 views

  • Step Three: Develop a Universally-Designed Lesson Referring to the Class Learning Snapshot, you will transform an existing lesson using the Personalized Learning (PL) Lesson template. You will use the model and examples to assist you in establishing a learning goal for this lesson, how to unpack the Common Core State Standards with your learners, design a warm-up activity that will engage specific learners based on the Class Learning Snapshot. You will also universally-design the new vocabulary along with guided and independent activities as the framework of the lesson
    • dwefel
       
      I like how it mentions using an existing lesson. This might make it easier for teachers just to start. Taking something they already know and tweaking it a bit to make is a PL lesson. I also like how it talks about models and examples to assist; when starting something new I ALWAYS need lots of examples and models for understanding.
    • Alison Ruebel
       
      Yes, I agree! I like how all throughout these 6 steps it talks about models and examples to help us along. I'm one that needs visuals or templates to go off of to help guide me when doing something new too :) Although in the article, I wish it would show us what they mean by the templates and examples so we can get more of an idea of what they mean.  (-Alison Ruebel)
    • kaberding
       
      I agree with you both!  Models are important to students, so why wouldn't they be important for teachers to get the idea!  I'm at ease knowing that we can take the lessons we have and then move them toward personal learning.  Why reinvent the wheel?
    • jroffman
       
      I also like how it talks about one lesson, I personally dive into new ideas head first and then can't figure out why I am drowning! I like the idea of one lesson at a time. 
    • kainley
       
      ^^Yes go slow, I like anything that tells me to do that! I also like the idea of having steps to take as a guide and I agree it would be nice to have an actual template to see.
    • nwhipple
       
      Like you all said, models are important not only to students but teachers as well.  Teachers need to be shown how to do something right the first way before we expect our students to do the same.
  • We review how each generation processes information differently and how digital information has changed teaching and learning. We discuss the how and why people approach life depending on their mindset, the importance of failure to learn, unlearn, and relearn, and the skills needed to be college and career ready.
    • dwefel
       
      This reminds me of a title of a book I read, "If they don't learn the way you teach, then teach the way they learn." So true!
    • jillnovotny
       
      Good point! It is interesting to think about how learners have changed from one generation to another. When I was in elementary school, we were just starting to use computers more. Nowadays, almost every classroom has access to computer, iPads, or other types of technology. Digital information has definitely changed teaching and learning over the years, and it is going to continue to change! It is so important for educators to continue to do professional learning to prepare for these changing learners.
  • You will develop a rationale why assessment as learning creates independent, expert and self-regulated learners. Expert learners and assessment as learning is the key for learners taking responsibility for their learning.
    • dwefel
       
      Exactly! Students taking charge of their learning. That is exactly what we need to create. It will be neat to see once this is statewide after 10 years of implementation.
    • jillnovotny
       
      Assessment as learning, or assessment for learning, has been a major focus in my school district for the past 5 years or so. Within the structure of personalized learning, it makes complete sense that students would be able to take responsibility for their learning through self and peer assessment. Students are often more aware of their strengths and areas for improvement than we teachers are, because they know which parts of the assignment/project were more difficult for them. 
    • nwhipple
       
      Assessment for learning drives our curriculum and lessons.  I agree that if we expect our students to guide their own learning, they need to be able to tell us what it is they are learning about through questioning by teachers and peers.
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  • Although her natural inclination is “to help my students when they’re stumped or confused, I need constantly to remind myself that when I supply an answer or even suggest a method for finding an answer, I’m not truly helping.” In terms of the tenets of inquiry-based instruction, she explains, when she answers students’ questions straightforwardly instead of asking questions to help the students find the answers themselves, she’s actually interfering with the learning process.
    • Alison Ruebel
       
      This is interesting. This would be so hard for many teachers to do, because we are just so used to helping our students, it's natural to us. We need to get into a different mindset and let our students figure things out and question. This would be difficult to change, but knowing it's not helping our students to help them out, tell them answers or suggest how to find an answer, that we are just interfering with our student's learning.
    • dwefel
       
      I agree! I think teachers naturally want to nurture students but in the end it is hurting more than helping.
    • jroffman
       
      I also fear that when teachers stand back students may just give up. I also feel that many teachers have so many things to get done in a day they don't have enough time for this type of learning. 
    • jillnovotny
       
      Letting students figure things out for themselves (in a supportive classroom environment where there are resources available for them to find the answers to their questions) is crucial for true learning. For this reason, it is so important that teachers are skilled at using guiding and probing questions to move students' thinking forward without giving them the answer or telling them how to find it. 
  • “Many teachers mistakenly assume kids know how to think,” she says. In most cases, though, children — many adults, too — experience thought as Zen masters describe it: a drunken monkey swinging haphazardly in a mind-forest, from thought-branch to thought-branch and idea-tree to idea-tree. Thinking Maps, she explains, help students gain control of the process by offering them eight distinct ways to organize their inquiries — a circle map for defining in context, for example, or a bubble map for describing with adjectives, etc. Thinking Maps, she continues, introduce students to the notion of thinking about thinking —
    • Alison Ruebel
       
      Yes-we do often just assume kids know how to think. Thinking maps are a great way to help kids record and organize their thoughts! 
    • kainley
       
      I love using graphic organizers. You are able to see what they are thinking and they can see what they are thinking drawn or written out on paper.
  • Most teachers know the classroom is the perfect place for children to play, but opportunities to provide those benefits are on the decline. Reduced recess, cuts to physical education courses and limited free time in the classroom coupled with an increasing emphasis on testing are propelling this decline all over the country.
    • Alison Ruebel
       
      So true :( It's very sad to think all of the time that kids were allowed to "play" is being taken away. I fully agree younger students learn to much through play! I worked at a daycare during my college years, and was able to see how important play was to kids and how much they actually do learn. 
    • kaberding
       
      I agree!  Ironically my 5th grade students did a compare and contrast paper after reading recent articles about the decline of recess and the pros and cons.  I think recess or "free play" allows for character development and social development as well; something many educators struggle to find time to incorporate anymore with the demands of the academics now of days.  
  • We will share examples of teachers using questions, display questions, and how to incorporate inquiry throughout teaching and learning no matter what grade or subject
    • kaberding
       
      To me it seems reasonable to begin the year with the meaning of question and inquiry and it's importance to learning.  I think if students can connect to this (even at a young age), then their learning might make more sense to them.  They already question and are inquisitive by many things that they learn on their own, so connecting that to the learning environment might spark more interest and help them realize this type of learning is really what we do in our daily lives.  For example, I've been curious about raising some cattle, so I have been doing a lot of research about this topic.  Same idea of personal learning.  We just need to share examples of what they may have done at their level already so they don't feel so foreign to this learning style.  
    • jillnovotny
       
      Great connection! I agree that questioning is SO important when it comes to personalized learning. There has been a lot of research about higher-level questioning and its positive impact on academics. To me, it makes a lot of sense why traditional classrooms typically use lower-level questions (Who, What, Where) and personalized/project-based/inquiry/etc. classrooms typically use higher-level questions (How, Why).
  • Start with just one lesson, Reed and Blaydes suggest, and modify it to suit your students’ needs.
    • kaberding
       
      I really like how they suggest to start with one lesson.  It seems that the articles all suggest to start slow with what you have.  That makes me think that the author realizes how overwhelmed teachers are in this day.  
  • For example, common sense seems to dictate that a five-pound object dropped from a given height will fall faster than a five-ounce object dropped from the same height. A traditional teacher may tell her class that’s not true and the kids might remember the correct answer if subsequently quizzed, but in their hearts they may not believe it. If employed properly, though, Ms. Moore contends, inquiry-based instruction stands a better chance of demolishing the misconceptions — eliminating them completely — by encouraging and allowing students to discover fundamental principles on their own.
  • Next, Ms. Moore asks the students what they wonder about their specimens. At this juncture, she explains, she knows which aspects of the material the Standard Course of Study requires her to cover and admits to becoming anxious if the students do not focus on them quickly. This is when her trust in the inquiry process is tested, when she must practice patience and restraint.
  • “Everything I do should contribute to students’ success outside of class,” she says, “and it’s never too early for kids to learn how to get along in the world.”
    • jroffman
       
      This is so true, I never thought about how working in groups is preparing students for real live working situations and just life in general. 
  • Marcon tracked children from preschool through the third and fourth grades and found that those with “overly academic” preschool experiences struggled in their later elementary years when they were expected to “think more independently and take on greater responsibility for their own learning process.”
    • jroffman
       
      Wow!!! this makes me sick I feel that we try and play a lot in the preschool classroom but maybe we don't play enough. 
    • kainley
       
      This is such interesting research. When I taught preschool we were doing the creative curriculum. I got a chance to have those same students again in third grade and they love turn and talk (getting and giving ideas and answers for comprehension questions) and creating projects together because they know how to communicate with each other and learn from each other. I wish the government and adminstrators would pay attention to this research...it is so vital that children get a chance to be explorers and creators in those early years!
  • They started small, and they've grown and honed their strategies each year.
    • kainley
       
      I like how they started small with 5 minutes turning into five years. It showed me a way to do a model like this with fidelity. I was also able to see I am already doing some of the things listed!
  • Look, Ms. Daugherty, these dinosaurs have open mouths, and these dinosaurs have closed mouths. I can sort things!” He’s taken Daugherty’s lessons on sorting by color a step further—and he’s done it while playing.
    • nwhipple
       
      A-HA.  Play time is HUGE, yet it is being taking away and forced out of the classroom.  This is exactly what I see and hear in my kindergarten classroom during, SHORT, periods of play.  When it is "free choice" children are learning MORE than when I have them in their seats or at the carpet "preaching" and "teaching".  If they can handle the reigns with their personal learning, they feel more in control and will be more comfortable talking to an audience about what it is they want to share.
  • Blaydes recommends activities that link learning and movement. An example activity for teaching punctuation asks students to first come up with motions and sounds for punctuation marks (for instance, jumping into the air and yelling, “Yes!” for exclamation points), then act out those movements at appropriate moments during a text read-aloud. These playful activities are fun—and memorable.
    • nwhipple
       
      I LOVE this because I have taught end punctuation like this to my large and small groups.  It is funny to see everyone get excited about finding an exclamation point in a text and jumping up and acting excited.  When kids will be reading to themselves, sometimes they will jump up on their own because they have come across an exclamation point in their book.  You know you have reached them when they do it on their own!  :)  
Joanne Cram

ollie_4-fall14: Educational Leadership: The Quest for Quality--article - 13 views

  • Student Involvement in the Assessment ProcessStudents learn best when they monitor and take responsibility for their own learning. This means that teachers need to write learning targets in terms that students will understand.
    • bgeanaea11
       
      This seems to be to be a critical component to engaging students in their learning.
    • joycevermeer
       
      Writing learning targets in tersm that students will understand can be a challenge...especially with younger children.
    • scampie1
       
      Having I can statements make a huge difference in what the learning will be. All students need this!
    • Nicole Wood
       
      I think goal setting and tracking is way students can take responsibility for their own learning.
    • nathanjenkins
       
      Learning targets and "I can" statements reach all students and guide them in their learning, but even more so help to maintain attention for students that get off task easily or loose focus. Having these short-term goals posted in the classroom can aide in self-guidance of the students. A quick gesture to the poster or board with these goals can redirect without too much effort.
    • Joanne Cram
       
      Student involvement in assessment always produces deeper understanding. When students can create their own learning targets (when guided by the educator), this is deeply beneficial because they've created a mini road map to help them navigate through the content. They won't have any surprises, only answers to the learning targets they hoped to gain.
  • Clear Learning TargetsThe assessor needs to have a clear picture of what achievement he or she intends to measure. If we don't begin with clear statements of the intended learning—clear and understandable to everyone, including students—we won't end up with sound assessments.
    • bgeanaea11
       
      I feel we often assess for the sake of assessing without keeping our focus on what it is we want the student to gain from it in the long run.
    • Deb Vail
       
      I completely agree. I was constantly assessing formatively, but I hate to admit that summative assessments that I created for my units were more assessment for the sake of assessment. I should have approached it more big-picture
    • Deb Vail
       
      Also, I think that clearly communicated learning targets are so important. How many times have I taken classess or sat through PD and was doing what was asked of me, but I wasn't sure why.
    • Kristina Dvorak
       
      I agree, having clear learning targets is helpful for students.  It gives them an idea of what is most important in a lesson and gives students a guide for learning.  
    • Kathleen Goslinga
       
      I agree with Deb and Kristina that students need to have clearly defined learning targets which will guide students as to the area of focus. Assessment should be done for a purpose and an outcomes.
    • criley55
       
      I also agree that we can't keep what we are teaching a mystery to the students. They need to know the learning targets so they know what is expected of them. Then they will be able to connect with the content and engage in the learning.
    • Joanne Cram
       
      I think it's important to have a road map that is constantly being referred to- and instructors that ask the question, are we getting there? If the assessment can't answer that question, maybe the instruction needs to be adjusted, or the assessment needs to be thrown out.
  • Keys to BalanceThe goal of a balanced assessment system is to ensure that all assessment users have access to the data they want when they need it, which in turn directly serves the effective use of multiple measures.
    • bgeanaea11
       
      I like the use of the tern balance. It implies we need to USE assessments for information instead of just because we feel we need to assess everything. The issue of access is also critical because if we do not give teachers access to the data directly they cannot effectively use it!
    • Kathleen Goslinga
       
      Direct access to data provides teachers with feedback as to whether further instruction is needed in a specific area or if students understand and you can move forward. I often question why we start another unit immediately after a test when there may be a need to step back and review an application before moving forward.
    • joycevermeer
       
      If we respond to what the assessment data is telling us we won't always be doing the same things with the same children. Planning for individual and small group instruction becomes necessary if we truly want to scaffold learning.
    • Joanne Cram
       
      Balance as a whole is essential in any learning environment- especially in assessment. Students need to have ample time spent in learning environments that allows them the success they earn in an assessment environment. After that time is used in assessment- students need to know that those assessments will drive the instruction in the future, and they see the value in assessment.
  • ...74 more annotations...
  • What decisions will the assessment inform?
    • bgeanaea11
       
      This is a good question we should ask before each assessment! Why are we assessing this? What will we do as a result?
    • joycevermeer
       
      Yes, and the answer to the question of why we do assessment can't be "because we have to".
    • scampie1
       
      Or because I have to enter something in a LMS system
    • Deb Vail
       
      Great question. I think we often assess because we feel we should and we always do; it's just part of a routine. This question forces more of a big-picture plan for assessment.
  • begin with a clear picture of why he or she is conducting the assessment.
    • Lynn Helmke
       
      I believe that this statement is so true.  The teacher and students must have a clear picture of why the assessment is happening.  I am afraid that many times it is because the curriculum says that it is time for a particular test or the district has said it is time.  But, then the assessments are only being used to give a letter grade or to get stats for a certain audience like the school board.
    • criley55
       
      I completely agree. We can't let pacing guides dictate when an assessment is necessary or what we use it for.
  • Are results communicated in time to inform the intended decisions?
    • criley55
       
      I know there is never enough time to get everything done but if we are not providing timely feedback, then it was a waste of time to give the assignment in the first place.
    • Bev Berns
       
      Using results in a timely fashion is so important!
  • Specific, descriptive feedback linked to the targets of instruction and arising from the assessment items or rubrics communicates to students in ways that enable them to immediately take action, thereby promoting further learning.
    • joycevermeer
       
      This statement really ties into what we learned in unit 1 about rubrics. Having a rubric helps you to be able to give specific descriptive feedback that make continuous improvemnt more likely.
    • Deb Vail
       
      I agree. This is really a biggie. Tmely, specific feedback that is linked to specific learning goals is so important. It takes time, but it sure has an impact on learning.
    • jbdecker
       
      In starting to teach a course online for the first time this fall being able to easily provide written feedback to each and every student has been a positive of the online format. Yes, it takes time and I don't know exactly how soon the students view the comments that I make but it has the potential to make a real impact on student performance and learning. 
  • next steps in learning
    • joycevermeer
       
      Next steps in learning--teachers quickly understand that they must provide this, but don't always see it's connection to how we assess.
    • Kristina Dvorak
       
      It might be helpful to look at ourselves as coaches, a coach would give feedback to help an athlete improve.  They wouldn't say, "that's average" and move on.  Our assessments shouldn't do this either.  
  • the need for all assessors and users of assessment results to be assessment literate
    • joycevermeer
       
      These examples really help one to understand how various assessment methods have different functions.
  • it's important to know the learning targets represented in the written curriculum.
    • scampie1
       
      This is a challenge for many of us with the new Iowa Core which has process and content targets. Knowing how to assess processes is new to many of us.
    • scampie1
       
      It also requires deep understanding of the curriculum.
    • Kristina Dvorak
       
      For me, as an art teacher, I have had experience assessing the process.  However, I don't always include it in the final assessment like I should.  It is always interesting to hear the student's perspective in the process they went through when learning.  
  • Most assessments developed beyond the classroom rely largely on selected-response or short-answer formats and are not designed to meet the daily, ongoing information needs of teachers and student
    • scampie1
       
      Teachers often rely on text book published assessment tools that may or may not reflect the intended learning needs of the teacher.
  • Educators are more likely to attend to issues of quality and serve the best interests of students when we build balanced systems, with assessment-literate user
    • scampie1
       
      This statement made me think about the LMS some schools have that make formative assessment a challenge. They tend to require grades for weekly reports to parents that may not be reflective of the process of learning.
  • inform students about their own progress
    • Nicole Wood
       
      I think it is always important to keep in mind the value of students taking ownership in their learning and being aware of their own progress toward standards.
    • Kristina Dvorak
       
      Yes, when students take ownership of their own learning they are more successful.  It is important to keep in mind when designing assessments.  
  • It calls attention to the proper assessment method and to the importance of minimizing any bias that might distort estimates of student learning.
  • It calls attention to the proper assessment method and to the importance of minimizing any bias that might distort estimates of student learning.
  • It calls attention to the proper assessment method and to the importance of minimizing any bias that might distort estimates of student learning.
  • It calls attention to the proper assessment method and to the importance of minimizing any bias that might distort estimates of student learning.
  • It calls attention to the proper assessment method and to the importance of minimizing any bias that might distort estimates of student learning.
  • It calls attention to the proper assessment method and to the importance of minimizing any bias that might distort estimates of student learning.
  • It calls attention to the proper assessment method and to the importance of minimizing any bias that might distort estimates of student learning.
  • It calls attention to the proper assessment method and to the importance of minimizing any bias that might distort estimates of student learning.
  • It calls attention to the proper assessment method and to the importance of minimizing any bias that might distort estimates of student learning.
  • It calls attention to the proper assessment method and to the importance of minimizing any bias that might distort estimates of student learning.
  • It calls attention to the proper assessment method and to the importance of minimizing any bias that might distort estimates of student learning.
  • It calls attention to the proper assessment method and to the importance of minimizing any bias that might distort estimates of student learning.
  • It calls attention to the proper assessment method and to the importance of minimizing any bias that might distort estimates of student learning.
  • It calls attention to the proper assessment method and to the importance of minimizing any bias that might distort estimates of student learning.
  • Sound Assessment Design
  • It calls attention to the proper assessment method and to the importance of minimizing any bias that might distort estimates of student learning.
  • It calls attention to the proper assessment method and to the importance of minimizing any bias that might distort estimates of student learning.
  • It calls attention to the proper assessment method and to the importance of minimizing any bias that might distort estimates of student learning.
  • It calls attention to the proper assessment method and to the importance of minimizing any bias that might distort estimates of student learning.
  • Sound Assessment Design
  • ods are most likely to produce accurate results for different learning targets.
  • It calls attention to the proper assessment method and to the importance of minimizing any bias that might distort estimates of student learning.
  • It calls attention to the proper assessment method and to the importance of minimizing any bias that might distort estimates of student learning.
  • It calls attention to the proper assessment method and to the importance of minimizing any bias that might distort estimates of student learning.
  • It calls attention to the proper assessment method and to the importance of minimizing any bias that might distort estimates of student learning.
  • It calls attention to the proper assessment method and to the importance of minimizing any bias that might distort estimates of student learning.
  • It calls attention to the proper assessment method and to the importance of minimizing any bias that might distort estimates of student learning.
  • It calls attention to the proper assessment method and to the importance of minimizing any bias that might distort estimates of student learning.
  • It calls attention to the proper assessment method and to the importance of minimizing any bias that might distort estimates of student learning.
  • It calls attention to the proper assessment method and to the importance of minimizing any bias that might distort estimates of student learning.
  • It calls attention to the proper assessment method and to the importance of minimizing any bias that might distort estimates of student learning.
  • It calls attention to the proper assessment method and to the importance of minimizing any bias that might distort estimates of student learning.
  • It calls attention to the proper assessment method and to the importance of minimizing any bias that might distort estimates of student learning.
  • It calls attention to the proper assessment method and to the importance of minimizing any bias that might distort estimates of student learning.
  • It calls attention to the proper assessment method and to the importance of minimizing any bias that might distort estimates of student learning.
  • It calls attention to the proper assessment method and to the importance of minimizing any bias that might distort estimates of student learning.
  • It calls attention to the proper assessment method and to the importance of minimizing any bias that might distort estimates of student learning.
  • Examples of bias include poorly printed test forms, noise distractions, vague directions, and cultural insensitivity.
    • Nicole Wood
       
      This was a good reminder to me that many variables impact assessment results in addition to the just the assessment methods.
    • Deb Vail
       
      The vague directions reference is key. It is so critical that directions are clear, but that is easier said than done at times.
    • Diane Jackson
       
      It is easier said than done. I have written directions that I thought were very clear but evidently were not as I had several questions from students. I'm trying to get better at this.
    • Bev Berns
       
      It's interesting that assessment result inacuracies are connected to external factors. So true!
    • Joanne Cram
       
      So many kids don't have any idea what the instructions are, but are too afraid to ask for clarification because they don't want to stick out. It's essential for teachers to make sure that all students know what is expected of them.
  • A mechanism should be in place for students to track their own progress on learning targets and communicate their status to others.
    • Nicole Wood
       
      I consider data binders a great tool for helping students track their own progress on learning targets. They can also use it to communicate their progress to parents at conferences.
    • jbdecker
       
      Teachers being able to organize the grade book or other assessment scores in an online classroom environment might be a powerful tool in allowing students to easily see the progress they are making towards a learning target throughout a particular online course. 
    • Diane Jackson
       
      Students having access to the progress they are making would help give students the motivation to keep improving and a sense of accomplishment.
    • criley55
       
      It seems like a lot of work up front getting things set up for students to be able to track their progress but it is much more meaningful when they are taking responsibility for their learning and have that internal motivation.
  • Ongoing classroom assessments serve both formative and summative purposes and meet students' as well as teachers' information needs.