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Tero Toivanen

Languages smarten up your brain - Guardian Weekly - 1 views

  • Now a study published by the European Commission reveals that learning an additional language such as English may bring benefits that go beyond the ability to use the language itself. This report has implications for why, when and how we teach and learn English as a second or foreign ­language.
  • One of the significant findings for English language teaching is that changes in the brain’s electrical activity may occur much earlier than previously thought.
  • this study suggests that changes in the brain may start even in the earlier stages of language learning.
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  • Another cluster concerns enhanced mental flexibility.
  • The benefits reported include enhanced capacity for learning whereby knowledge of languages can lead to superior memory function, especially short-term “working” memory.
  • Most of the advantages ­described support overall competence-building for life and work in modern, information-rich, internet environments.
  • Enhanced problem-solving capability is also reported.
  • Greater understanding of how language functions and is used to achieve specific goals in life acts as the fourth cluster.
  • Finally the study reports on research that links knowledge of languages to a slowdown of age-related mental diminishment such as certain forms of dementia.
  • The cognitive neurosciences stress the need for powerful learning environments, and yet not enough of our language education is spent encouraging learners to engage in higher-order thinking about meaningful content that fires up the brain.
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    Most people learn languages to help them communicate. Now a study of recent research into brain function reveals that students could be gaining a lot more from their pursuit of linguistic skills, says David Marsh
Tero Toivanen

TEDxCapeTownED - Associate Professor Laura Czerniewicz - SA Needs Open Education - YouTube - 0 views

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    Great TED-talk about open education and open access to research materials.
Tero Toivanen

WikiEducator's Wayne Mackintosh: Open Education and Policy - Creative Commons - 0 views

  • The act of teaching is fundamentally about sharing knowledge. OER embodies the purpose of teaching and is today’s most compelling manifestation of the core values of education in a digital world, that is, to share knowledge freely.
    • Tero Toivanen
       
      Opettaminen on tiedon jakamista. Siksi avoimet oppimisen resurssit edustavat opettamisen puhtainta arvomaailmaa digitaalisessa maailmassa.
  • WikiEducator is a flagship project of the OER Foundation
    • Tero Toivanen
       
      WikiEducator on avoimien oppimisen resurssien liikkeen lippulaivaprojekti.
  • Cape Town Open Education Declaration
    • Tero Toivanen
       
      Allekirjoitin jo tämän julistuksen.
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  • Creative Commons is the air that the OER movement breathes.
    • Tero Toivanen
       
      Creative Commons:in merkitys avoimien oppimisen resurssien liikkeelle.
  • Creative Commons could, for instance, leverage its networks to establish a global network of pro bono legal counseling services, or develop an array of draft intellectual property policies published as OER that can be reused and remixed by education institutions around the world. In this way, all projects benefit from the core expertise and tacit knowledge of our respective organisations.
    • Tero Toivanen
       
      Mitä CC voisi tehdä tulevaisuudessa OER:ia tukeakseen.
  • In responding to these needs, the OER Foundation has launched the CollabOERate project. CollabOERate is the OER equivalent of research and development (R & D) for new “product” design in open content and open education. CollabOERate is an “OER remix” of industry’s “co-opetition” model where individual OER projects agree to collaborate on areas that allow them to “compete” better for their own sustainability and attainment of their own strategic objectives.
    • Tero Toivanen
       
      Mikä on CollabOERate -projekti.
  • The uncharted territory, and arguably the biggest point of difference for OER lies in the remix.
  • At the OER Foundation we subscribe to free cultural works licensing.
  • . At the OER Foundation we believe in radical transparency and all our planning documents, projects and funding proposals are developed openly in WikiEducator, using Creative Commons licences.
  • WikiEducator believes learning materials should be free (read “libre”) for all students of the world.
    • Tero Toivanen
       
      Oppimateriaalien pitäisi olla ilmaisia kaikille maailman opiskelijoille!
  • By free digital resources, we mean educational materials which meet the requirements of the free cultural works definition that I mentioned before. That is, the freedom to reuse, revise, remix and redistribute education materials without restriction. This includes the freedom to use free software, and the freedom to earn a living. Consequently, we do not consider OER using the Non Commercial (NC) or No Derivatives (ND) restrictions to be free in all material aspects.
  • Sadly, in education circles the non-commercial restriction is widely used.
  • We believe that the restriction of commercial activity around OER is a material restriction of the freedom to earn a living, especially when the ShareAlike provision, if used in conjunction with free file formats, is sufficiently adequate to protect the future freedoms of digital materials against commercial exploitation.
  • Most national education systems are predominantly funded through taxpayer dollars. Why should taxpayers have to pay “twice” for education materials?
    • Tero Toivanen
       
      Miksi oppimateriaaleista pitää maksaa kahdesti?
  • Capability and community development using WikiEducator’s Learning4Content training model.
  • In Sub-Saharan Africa, 76% of the children of the school-going age for the last 3-years of the K-12 system will NOT have the privilege of attending school. The conventional education system that has evolved in the industrial world is unaffordable to the majority of our planet. Consider for example, that in many African countries, the cost of sending a child to secondary school is typically more than 20% of the per capita income.
  • “Access to learning and acquisition of knowledge should be freely available to all humanity. Any and every effort to realise this vision must be welcomed and enthusiastically supported by all.”
    • Tero Toivanen
       
      Tämän eteen kannattaa tehdä töitä!
  • We can make a difference in widening access to learning. While the skeptics and educational purists may argue that such systems may not meet the “quality” requirements of teaching provision compared with traditional face-to-face provision, these approaches have got to be better than no education at all. Our industrialised nations can help if they release materials as OER.
  • To paraphrase Mahatma Gandhi: “We can be the change we want to see in the OER world!” This is what we are doing and I hope that your readers can help us.
  • Many education institutions perceive that the sharing of education materials will potentially erode their student base, or even worse, their “competitive advantage.”
  • Any researcher worth their salt knows that a thorough literature review of existing knowledge is the natural starting point in resolving a research question.
  • “to have reached the stage where we are technically able to share knowledge and enhance education right across the world is a wonderful thing.”
  • OER is not a binary question of whether or not it is going to happen, it’s simply a question of how long it will take to have free digital resources in support of all national curricula in the world.
  • We only need a small minority of contributors to achieve the goal where learning materials will be free for all students of the world.
  • Good teaching is good teaching, irrespective of whether we are using open or closed resources.
Tarmo Toikkanen

What educational question is Second Life the answer to? - 0 views

  • In another session Shailey Minocha and Rita Tingle discussed the importance of a sense of presence and a sense of place which are harder to achieve in a 2D environment. They also suggest from their research that activities in Second Life don’t actually enhance learning in themselves but by creating a sense of community and common purpose they can build motivation in learners which then leads to better learning.
  • it’s amazing how included you feel…I would never have been able to take part in the activities offered by the OU if they hadn’t been in Second Life…everyone joins in and really helps me learn
  • The avatar becomes an extension of the self and people in her Glasgow evening classes call each other by their avatar names. Kath feels that people’s identity is more real in Second Life somehow than in their Facebook presence.
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  • Maggie Savin-Baden from Coventry reports that students think play is important but perceive that staff think it’s a distraction from learning.
  • There is no doubt that virtual worlds are enhancing social contact and quickly become as real to their participants as “real” communication. If you don’t believe this think how much we believe we’re hearing someone’s voice when we pick up the telephone. It’s just a reproduction of their voice transported in multiple ways through complex communication networks but we con ourselves into thinking we’re actually hearing their voice.
  • Edward Castranova quotes Gartner’s prediction that by 2011 80% of web users will use an avatar and have a “second life”.
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    Analyysia Second Lifen hyödyistä opetuksessa.
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    Research shows that activities in Second Life don't actually enhance learning in themselves but by creating a sense of community and common purpose they can build motivation in learners which then leads to better learning.
Tero Toivanen

How to Find Anything Online: Become an Internet Research Expert | Webdesigner Depot - 0 views

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    Todella kattava lista työvälineitä Internetin käyttöön tutkimuksen välineenä ja tiedonhankintaan.
Tero Toivanen

Social Media's Effect on Learning - Digits - WSJ - 0 views

  • Adults must be socially stimulated to learn, which is why language retention is usually only successful for adults when they are immersed with other language-speakers. Bilingual people “build new bridges” in the brain, said Dr. Kuhl, and their brains are constantly adapting and reshuffling data as they translate.
  • “Bilingual people aren’t cognitively smarter, but they are more cognitively flexible,” she added. “Practice at constant switching improves an aspect of their cognitive abilities. They become more facile at adjusting to new situations and inventing new situations.”
  • This is much like what people do when they’re updating their Twitter status, instant-messaging friends, or answering text messages and emails while they’re doing something else. Dr. Kuhl said this multitasking, where people are stimulating new patterns of sequential processing, could then reap the same benefits as bilingualism.
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    Researchers are figuring out how the interaction Social Media spurs can stimulate brain activity.
Tarmo Toikkanen

Wikipedia enters a new chapter | Technology | The Guardian - 0 views

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    Tutkimusta Wikipedian kasvun hidastumisesta. Kannattaa lukea mielenkiinnolla, mutta myös kriittisesti.
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    News item referencing research on why the growth of Wikipedia is slowing. They just missed one obvious potential reason: maybe after 3 million articles, there aren't that many important topics to put into a dictionary...
Tero Toivanen

Correlator from Yahoo! Research - 3 views

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    Tämä on mahtava idea. Kokeilin "tacit knowledge":lla ja tuli kyllä mielenkiintoisia tuloksia. Kokeilkaa ihmeessä!
Tarmo Toikkanen

Laptops in lectures | Tony Bates - 0 views

  • f most students have laptops, why are they still having physically to come to a lecture hall? Why can’t they get a podcast of the lecture? Second, if they are coming, why are the lecturers not requiring them to use their laptops for study?
  • So, yes, there are occasions when lectures work very well. But they should not be the default model for regular teaching in higher education. There are much better ways to teach that will result in better learning over the length of a course or program.
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    Luennolla läppäriä käyttävät opiskelijat pärjäävät opinnoissaan muita huonommin. Miksi? Tässä artikkelissa on pohdintaa aiheesta.
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    An article about students bringing lap-tops to lectures, with research indicating that students who use laptops in class do less well than students without laptops.
Tarmo Toikkanen

Transfer of learning - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia - 0 views

  • Type Characteristics Near Overlap between situations, original and transfer contexts are similar Far Little overlap between situations, original and transfer settings are dissimilar Positive What is learned in one context enhances learning in a different setting (+) Negative What is learned in one context hinders or delays learning in a different setting (+) Vertical Knowledge of a previous topic is essential to acquire new knowledge (++) Horizontal Knowledge of a previous topic is not essential but helpful to learn a new topic (++) Literal Intact knowledge transfers to new task Figural Use some aspect of general knowledge to think or learn about a problem Low Road Transfer of well-established skills in almost automatic fashion High Road Transfer involves abstraction so conscious formulations of connections between contexts High Road /Forward Reaching Abstracting situations from a learning context to a potential transfer context High Road / Backward Reaching Abstracting in the transfer context features of a previous situation where new skills and knowledge were learned
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    "Transfer (of learning) research can be loosely framed as the study of the dependency of human conduct, learning or performance on prior experience."
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    Siirtovaikutus, eli kuinka yhdessä kontekstissa opittu siirtyy käytettäväksi toisiin konteksteihin. Klassinen opetuksen ongelma, kuinka siirtovaikutus saadaan syntymään.
Tarmo Toikkanen

open thinking » 90+ Videos for Tech. & Media Literacy - 1 views

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    "Over the past few years, I have been collecting interesting Internet videos that would be appropriate for lessons and presentations, or personal research, related to technological and media literacy. Here are 70+ videos organized into various sub-categories. These videos are of varying quality, cross several genres, and are of varied suitability for classroom use."
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    Medialukutaitoon liittyviä videoita eri aiheista kategorisoituna. Osa sopii luokkaopetukseen, osa omatoimiseen tutustumiseen.
Tero Toivanen

The inexorable rise of open access scientific publishing | Stephen Curry | Science | gu... - 0 views

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    Kehityksen suunta on oikea. Jo puolet tutkimuskirjallisuudesta avoimesti saatavilla! :-)
Tero Toivanen

Eurocall CMC & Teacher Education SIGs Annual Workshop - Home - 0 views

  • Open Educational Resources (OER) are defined as “materials used to support education that may be freely accessed, reused, modified and shared by anyone” (Downes, 2011). Open Educational Practices (OEP) are practices which “support the production, use and reuse of high quality OER through institutional policies, which promote innovative pedagogical models, and respect and empower learners as co-producers on their lifelong learning path.” (ICDE, 2011). Open Communication is reciprocal and respectful exchange which contributes to social presence in online learning (Gunawardena & Zittle, 1997), and the development of intercultural awareness and competence in language learning.
    • Tero Toivanen
       
      Avoimien resurssien, avoimien käytäntöjen ja avoimen kommunikaation määritelmät.
  • “A culture of sharing resources and practices will help facilitate change and innovation in education” (OER Commons, 2011).
  • Open access initiatives to make research publications freely available online or the adoption of open source software solutions, such as Moodle or Mahara, are already having a big impact on education.
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  • This two-day conference focuses on the impact of adopting openness as a key principle in education.
Tarmo Toikkanen

Cognitive Daily: Does mentioning SEX help students learn about other stuff too? - 0 views

  • Sexy examples, it seems, distract from the learning task. The researchers aren't suggesting that teachers start using boring examples, either -- what's best is to present only information that's relevant to what's being learned. Adding in irrelevant examples, especially the juicy ones, only makes learning more difficult.
  • In the study, the irrelevant materials were about 30 percent of the total material presented. Maybe if attention-getting examples could be reduced to, say, 10 percent of the total, they'd serve their purpose without getting in the way of learning.
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    Luennon höystäminen mielenkiintoisilla asiaan liittymättömillä tarinoilla voi jopa haitata oppimista.
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    Spicing up a lecture with irrelevant examples and anecdotes: Students can apply information better if the irrelevant sections are boring. If they are very interesting or sexy, they do worse.
Tero Toivanen

Education Futures - The Bank of Common Knowledge: A mutual education network - 0 views

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    Mahtava idea: Yhteisen Tiedon Pankki.
Tarmo Toikkanen

How Rewards Can Backfire and Reduce Motivation | PsyBlog - 3 views

  • As you can see the expected reward had decreased the amount of spontaneous interest the children took in drawing (and there was no statistically significant difference between the no reward and surprise reward group). So, those who had previously liked drawing were less motivated once they expected to be rewarded for the activity. In fact the expected reward reduced the amount of spontaneous drawing the children did by half. Not only this, but judges rated the pictures drawn by the children expecting a reward as less aesthetically pleasing.
  • Rewards reduce intrinsic motivation
  • In one study smokers who were rewarded for their efforts to quit did better at first but after three months fared worse than those given no rewards and no feedback (Curry et al., 1990). Indeed those given rewards even lied more about the amount they were smoking.
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  • tangible rewards tend to have a substantially negative effect on intrinsic motivation (...) Even when tangible rewards are offered as indicators of good performance, they typically decrease intrinsic motivation for interesting activities.
  • This is why play can become work when we get paid. The person who previously enjoyed painting pictures, weaving baskets, playing the cello or even writing blog posts, suddenly finds the task tedious once money has become involved.
  • When we do something for its own sake, because we enjoy it or because it fills some deep-seated desire, we are intrinsically motivated. On the other hand when we do something because we receive some reward, like a certificate or money, this is extrinsic motivation.
  • Rewards have even been found to make people less creative and worse at problem-solving.
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    Miten palkkio vaikuttaa motivaation? Sisäiseen motivaation se vaikuttaa tässä blogissa mainittujen tutkimusten mukaan negatiivisesti.
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    Joo, nykyinen motivaatiotutkimus on ihan mielenkiintoista. Vaikka sisäisen ja ulkoisen motivaation jako on jo vähän vanhahtava, on se edelleen hyvä ajattelun väline. Modernimpi tulkinta olisi varmaankin, että sen sijaan, että jännite muodostuisi toimijan ja tehtävän välille, se muodostuu toimijan ja palkkion välille.
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    "Yet psychologists have long known that rewards are overrated. The carrot, of carrot-and-stick fame, is not as effective as we've been led to believe. Rewards work under some circumstances but sometimes they backfire. Spectacularly."
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    Jos tuota sisäistä motivaatiota vertaa Mihály Csíkszentmihályin Flow-ilmiöön, ollaan lähellä samoja asioita. Flow-tilassa ulkoisille palkkioille ei ole tarvetta. Se on mielestäni myös optimaalinen tila oppimista ajatellen. Sosiaalisen median välineet saattavat olla muuten aika hyviä tähän tilaan pääsemiseen. Itseopiskelu voi muuttua lähes addiktiota aiheuttavaksi sen avulla.
Tarmo Toikkanen

Yhteisöllisyys voimavarana yliopisto-opetuksen ja -opiskelun kehittämisessä - 1 views

  • Yhteisön voimavaroja hyödyntäviksi työtavoiksi osoittautuivat yhteisistä tavoitteista ja pelisäännöistä neuvottelu, vaihtuvat pienryhmät, yhteisen ja yksilöllisen vastuun tarkentaminen sekä toiminnan tulosten ja toimintaprosessin arviointi. Myös ristiriitojen käsittely kuuluu yhteisöllisen työskentelyn haasteisiin. Yhteisön voimavaroja pystytään hyödyntämään, jos yliopiston opettajat ja opiskelijat kehittävät yhteisöllisten työtapojen lisäksi yhteisösensitiivisyyttään, jolloin he pystyvät entistä paremmin havainnoimaan yhteisöllisiä ilmiöitä ja vaikuttamaan niihin.
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    "Tutkimuksen tavoitteena oli selvittää, miten yhteisöllisyys voi toimia yliopisto-opetuksen ja -oppimisen sekä niiden kehittämisen voimavarana."
Tero Toivanen

toolsforsearch - home - 4 views

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    Wikispaces -sivu, johon kerätty todella paljon erilaisia hakukoneita ja tapoja hakea.
Tero Toivanen

ASCD Inservice: Framing Finland Visit Through Key Questions - 2 views

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    ASCD (Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development) tekee tutkimusmatkan Suomeen tutkiakseen Suomen koulutusjärjestelmää.
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