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Garth Holman

Brief History of Samurai Warriors [Infographic] - 0 views

    Samurai and Feudal Japan
Garth Holman

The Siege of Kaffa and the Black Death - History in an HourHistory in an Hour - 0 views

  • Between 1347 and 1350, the Black Death raged through Medieval Europe. Historians and biologists have traced the origins of this deadly pandemic to the remote steppes of Central Asia. Plague had certainly erupted there by 1331 but how exactly did it spread from East to West? After ravaging Central Asia, the plague descended on China, India and Persia. In China alone, the plague killed around half of the human population. Despite such destruction, commercial activities continued unabated. This meant that the traders, their vessels and the rats aboard became the agents of infection. As they travelled along the established trade routes of the medieval world, they unwittingly carried the plague with them.
  • For several years, the Mongols had allowed a group of merchants from Genoa to control Kaffa, a bustling seaport on the Crimean Peninsula. This was highly advantageous for the Mongols as it provided a direct link to Italy’s largest commercial centre and encouraged trade across all corners of their vast empire. Tensions and disagreements, however, were a common feature of this commercial relationship, arising primarily from their religious differences; the Italians were devoutly Christian and the Mongols had been practising Muslims since the 1200s.
  • ‘This Pestilential Disease’
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  • “Whereupon the Tartars (Mongols), worn out by this pestilential disease, and falling on all sides as if thunderstruck, and seeing that they were perishing hopelessly, ordered the corpses to be placed upon their engines and thrown into the city of Kaffa. Accordingly were the bodies of the dead hurled over the walls, so that the Christians were not able to hide or protect themselves from this danger, although they carried away as many as possible and threw them into the sea.”
  • summer of 1347, the Italian merchants headed to their ships and the fled the city of Kaffa. En route, however, the Italians stopped at Constantinople, inadvertently infecting the city. Thousands of people were killed, including Andronikos, the son of the Greek Emperor, John VI Cantacuzenos. Those who were able fled the city, many not realising that they were already infected. By the autumn, the western coast of Asia Minor was experiencing the full force of the Black Death and it would not be long before returned home to infect their native Italy.
    Mongols, Kaffa, trade and the Black Death .
Garth Holman

Medicine and Health in the Middle Ages - 0 views

    Medicine of the Middle Ages.
Garth Holman

BBC News | Health | A millennium of health improvement - 0 views

  • In the medieval world, there was a belief that only miracles were so powerful
  • full and healthy life for men was making it through early childhood. For women, it was making it past childbearing age.
  • boy had reached 20 he could hope to live to 45, and if he made it to 30 he had a good chance of making it into his fifties.
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  • main threats lay in early childhood, as the child's immune system was coming to terms with the threats posed by a disease-ridden environment.
  • Thatch roofs were common in the countryside (where 85-90% of the population lived) and they attracted insects and rodents
    • Garth Holman
      Thatching is the craft of building a roof with dry vegetation such as straw, water reed, sedge (Cladium mariscus), rushes, or heather, layering the vegetation so as to shed water away from the inner roof. It is a very old roofing method and has been used in both tropical and temperate climates. See images:
  • They carried bacteria, which they deposited either on the inhabitants or the food they would eat
  • There was no plumbing, so human waste was deposited outside - but not too far from - the house. Such material produced a breeding ground for the biggest killers of the period, cholera and typhoid, which were caused by unsanitary living conditions.
  • body lice living on infected people.
  • increased risk of death as a result of accidents at work.
  • It was noblemen who were most successful at keeping themselves clean, and they surrounded themselves with well-scrubbed servants.
  • But between the ages of 14 and 40 - the years of having children - a woman's life expectancy was half that of a man's.
  • One reason offered for this is that having babies in the middle ages was more dangerous than going to war
  • less sanitary, and put the mother at a high risk of fatal infection.
  • Food storage was also primitive, with no refrigeration except in winter, and consumers showed a tolerance of slightly rancid goods because there was a general shortage of food.
  • while relatives of the afflicted prayed for miracles.
Garth Holman

Coronation Oath, 2nd June 1953 - 0 views

  • Madam, is your Majesty willing to take the Oath?And the Queen answering,I am willing.
  • Archbishop. Will you solemnly promise and swear to govern the Peoples of the United Kingdom
  • and of your Possessions and the other Territories to any of them belonging or pertaining, according to their respective laws and customs?
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  • I solemnly promise so to do.Archbishop. Will you to your power cause Law and Justice, in Mercy, to be executed in all your judgements?Queen. I will.
  • Archbishop. Will you to the utmost of your power maintain the Laws of God and the true profession of the Gospel? Will you to the utmost of your power maintain in the United Kingdom the Protestant Reformed Religion established by law? Will you maintain and preserve inviolably the settlement of the Church of England, and the doctrine, worship, discipline, and government thereof, as by law established in England? And will you preserve unto the Bishops and Clergy of England, and to the Churches there committed to their charge, all such rights and privileges, as by law do or shall appertain to them or any of them?
  • Queen. All this I promise to do.
  • The things which I have here before promised, I will perform and keep. So help me God.
hmcphillips h

Kids Biography: Marco Polo - 0 views

  • lived in China for many years and learned to speak the language
  • The Silk Road referred to a number of trade routes between major cities and trading posts that went all the way from Eastern Europe to Northern China.
  • Marco Polo was a merchant and explorer who traveled throughout the Far East and China for much of his life.
liat s

The Renaissance: Was it a Thing? - Crash Course World History #22 - YouTube - 0 views

    Explains a little bit about the Renaissance
Garth Holman

Middle Ages Tech Support - YouTube - 0 views

    A very funny play on the world today.
azheng a

Daily Life of a Knight in the Middle Ages - 0 views

    If you are a knight, this would be VERY helpful for you.
azheng a

The Middle Ages -- Arts & Entertainment - 0 views

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  • sic were critical aspects of medieval religious life
  • Singing without instrumental accompaniment was an essential part of church services. Monks and priests chanted the divine offices and the mass daily.
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  • Some churches had instruments such as organs and bells. The organistrum or symphony (later known as a hurdy gurdy) was also found in churches. Two people were required to play this stringed instrument--one to turn the crank and the other to play the keys.
  • Medieval drama grew out of the liturgy, beginning in about the eleventh century.
  • hese dramas were performed with costumes and musical instruments and at first took place directly outside the church. Later they were staged in marketplaces, where they were produced by local guilds.
    Arts and entertainment in the middle ages.

NOVA Online | Secrets of Lost Empires | Medieval Siege | Life in a Castle - 2 views

  • most important figure in the daily life of a castle was the constable. His job was to look after the castle,
  • the lord was not usually at home.
  • on the floors were rushes with dogs rolling around with scraps of meat and bones and such.
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  • Perhaps some carpets hung on the walls, but
  • oilets, or garderobes as they were called, usually were situated so that they opened over the moat.
  • An awful lot of life in a castle went on in the great hall. There was a fire and shelter in the hall. People ate and slept in the great hall. Very often, certainly in smaller castles, before sophisticated domestic arrangements evolved, you would have found the lord and lady sleeping at one end of the great hall in a sort of screened-off area. So medieval men and women didn't have much privacy.
  • medieval men didn't really bathe terribly often. People might have wiped their hands and faces from time to time.
  • lords and ladies would have been slightly cleaner and sweeter-smelling than most of their subordinates.
  • If you were a lord or lady, if you were the constable or the constable's lady, then you would have had a private room.
  • Very often in the great hall there was a central fire. Later on there were proper fireplaces, but a central fire with a hole in the roof was standard.
  • He had a number of people who worked beneath him. There was the garrison, whose members vary in status, including knights, men-at-arms, archers, and engineers. You also had grooms, watchmen, porters, cooks, and scullions, who did all the washing up in the kitchen.
  • So the constable was the person whose job it was to look after the castle in the lord's absence.
  • private fortress. Most of the time the castle operated as a small, large, or medium-sized household.
    Quest 7
aelepele a

The Middle Ages -- More About Homes - 1 views

  • Fenestral windows, with lattice frames that were covered in a fabric soaked in resin and tallow, allowed in light, kept out drafts, and could be removed in good weather. Only the wealthy could afford panes of glass; sometimes only churches and royal residences had glass windows.
  • In peasant families, the wife did the cooking and baking.
  • The peasant diet consisted of breads, vegetables from their own gardens, dairy products from their own sheep, goats, and cows, and pork from their own livestock.
glever g

Medieval Clothing - 0 views

  • The clothing of peasants during the Middle Ages was very simple, while the clothing of nobility was fitted with a distinct emphasis on the sleeves of the garments. Knights adorned themselves with sleeveless "surcoats" covered with a coat of arms. Barbarian nomads wore clothing made of fur, wool, and leather. They wore long trousers, some of which had attached feet. Fine leather shoes were also worn. Imports such as turbans and silks from the East were common for the more fortunate of society.
  • As with today, clothing styles of medieval men changed periodically
  • At the end of the 13th century, the once loose and flowing tunics became tighter fitting. Besides tunics, the men also wore undershirts and briefs covered by a sleeveless jacket and an additional tunic. Stockings completed the ensemble. Men's medieval clothing also consisted of cloaks with a round opening that was slipped over the man's head. Such cloaks were worn over other clothing as a type of "jacket"
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  • kirtles
  • which were tunics worn to their ankles
  • Women, especially those who were married, wore tight-fitting caps and nets over their hair, which was wound in a "bun" on their heads. Other women wore veils over their hair, which was left either hanging loosely, or braided tightly.
tdowd t

How Feudalism Works - 0 views

  • Mind Your Manors   In the days of decentralized government, a fief was like its own mini country that produced pretty much everything that was needed from food to weapons to tools. At the heart of a lord's fief was the manor-large estates. The manor was where the lord's family, servants, and his knights lived. At first they began as large houses, but over the years became full castles as walls, towers, and moats were added for protection. Manors were always in the country and surrounded by farmland and woods. Some of the wealthier lords even had more than one manor.   A manor was the center of the community. Not only did it serve as a place for peasants to run to in times of war, but was the political center as well. When he wasn't out fighting for his Lord, the lord of a fief would act as a judge in settling disputes. He also appointed officials who would collect taxes and rent from the peasants and townspeople. Large manors had their own churches complete with their own clergy, as well as a marketplace where locals could buy and sell goods. At any time one time, hundreds of people from priests, knights, squires, entertainers, merchants, peasants, and visiting nobles would head to the manor.   For the Lady of the manor her day was spent overseeing servants & caring for the children. When her husband was away (or killed in battle) the Lady of the manor assumed the same roles her husband did, appointing officials and acting as judge. In the early Middle Ages a woman owning property was not all that uncommon.
  • Living in a castle might sound romantic but it's not all that it was cracked up to be. Medieval manors were built of wood and stone and built on a large scale. Glass was rare and extremely expensive so windows often were either left open or covered with cloth during the winter. The only means of heating a manor was the fireplace. Each major room had its own. The Great Room, which as its name implies was the center of manor life.  The Great Room was heated and lit by an enormous fireplace, big enough to stand in. The Great Room was where all of the eating, drinking, debating, politicking, and merry making and other business was conducted. Speaking of doing business, how did medieval people use the bathroom? All manor houses had privies either outside or inside the castle. The ones inside were nothing more than a seat that emptied directly into the moat. ​ To modern observers manors would have been filthy places. Fleas were common and the smell of hundreds of unwashed people (who often only bathed once a week) would have pervaded. Rats and mice also would have been running around as food was thrown directly on the floor during meal times. At night the servants swept the floor and rushes (dried river reeds) would be spread on the floor and all minor visitors and knights would bed down. The manor was often dark, cold, and smoky. To liven things up a bit, tapestries would be commissioned to decorate the walls.
Garth Holman

Medieval Times - 0 views

  • women didn't even know the man before they wed.
  • ometimes able to choose their bride. Marriage back then was not based on love; most marriages were political arrangements.
  • The arrangement of marriage was done by the children's parents. In the middle ages, children were married at a young age. Girls were as young as 12 when they married, and boys as young as 17. The arrangement of the marriage was based on monetary worth. The family of the girl who was to be married gives a dowry, or donation, to the boy she is to marry. The dowry goes with her at the time of the marriage and stays with the boy forever.
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  • posted on the door of the church. The notice was put up to ensure that there were no grounds for prohibiting the marriage.
  • There were several reasons for prohibiting a marriage. One reason was consanguinity, meaning the couple was too closely related. If the boy or the girl had taken a monastic or religious vow, the marriage was than also prohibited. Other reasons that prohibited marriage, but were not grounds for a divorce, were rape, adultery and incest. A couple could also not be married during a time of fasting, such as lent or advent, and a couple not be married by someone who had killed someone.
Erica G

Medieval Romance - 0 views

  • While medieval country marriages were often the result of love, marriage among the noble class was more a business transaction than the culmination of ardent feelings
  • Courtly love became the subject of some of the most famous medieval poems, and where we get today's word, "Courtesy."
  • Passion was considered sinful to 11th and 12th century moralists, but these ideals were slowly being worn away with the rituals of courtly love.
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