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Home/ History with Holman/ Contents contributed and discussions participated by Yuke Z

Contents contributed and discussions participated by Yuke Z

Yuke Z

The Carbon Cycle - 0 views

  • carbon is attached to oxygen in a gas called carbon dioxide (CO2).
  • carbon dioxide is pulled from the air to make plant food from carbon.
  • When plants and animals die, their bodies, wood and leaves decay bringing the carbon into the ground. Some becomes buried miles underground and will become fossil fuels in millions and millions of years.
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  • Carbon moves from fossil fuels to the atmosphere when fuels are burned.
  • Carbon moves from the atmosphere to the oceans. The oceans, and other bodies of water, soak up some carbon from the atmosphere.
  • greenhouse gas and traps heat in the atmosphere.
  • weathering of rocks on land can add carbon to surface water which eventually runs off to the ocean
Yuke Z

Inventions of the Renaissance - 2 views

  • early 1230's to launch fireworks and in weapons.
  • Knights were replaced by the foot soldier who carried firearms.
  • between 1590 and 1608
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  • first useful microscope
  • many advances in medicine and hygiene could be made with the microscope.
  • 1608 a Dutch eyeglass maker named Hans Lippershey made the first telescope
  • Isaac Newton improved the telescope by adding mirrors instead of lenses.
  • Galileo Galileo
  • moon had huge valleys and craters
  • discovered four moons orbiting Jupiter.
  • planets revolve around the sun and not around the earth.
  • printed in a book called Starry Messenger in 1610.
  • Robert Hooke published his book Micrographia in 1665 men began to take the microscope seriously.
  • Gutenberg was a goldsmith
Yuke Z

Renaissance -- Out of the Middle Ages - 2 views

  • more than enough money to meet their basic needs for food, clothing, and shelter.
  • leisure time to spend on education and entertainment.
  • Bankers and accountants needed to understand arithmetic. Those trading with other countries needed a knowledge of foreign currencies and languages. Reading was essential for anyone who needed to understand a contract.
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  • Many Italian coastal cities became centers for trade and commerce, and for the wealth and education that ensued.
  • Florence.
  • made their wealth as business people
  • Medicis had the appearance of nobility.
Yuke Z

Humanism at - 1 views

  • human innovation instead of spiritualism.
  • recreated classical styles in art, literature, and architecture.
  • believed in reason. Reason is the ability to think logically
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  • alued human experience and believed in the dignity and worth of the individual.
  • often devout Christians,
  • Today we refer to the study of literature, philosophy and art as the humanities.
Yuke Z

The Renaissance at - 3 views

  • About 1450
  • Renaissance is a French word that means "rebirth."
  • beginning of modern history.
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  • flowering in literature
  • painting, sculpture, and architecture. Paintings became more realistic and focused less often on religious topics.
  • began in northern Italy
  • Arab scholars preserved the writings of the ancient Greeks in their libraries. When the Italian cities traded with the Arabs, ideas were exchanged along with goods. These ideas, preserved from the ancient past, served as the basis of the Renaissance.
  • Crusaders returned to Europe with a newfound understanding of the world. The invention of the printing press encouraged literacy and helped to spread new ideas. Wealthy families and the church had amassed enough wealth to become patrons. The development of financial techniques such as bookkeeping and credit allowed merchants to prosper
    • Yuke Z
      Cultural Diffusion
    • Yuke Z
      Replaced illuminated manuscripts. Took much less time to use printing press, which means, more books and ideas could be spread
    • Yuke Z
      Banking is invented. Instead of breaking the stick, now there is bookkeeping.
Yuke Z

Santiago - Take a Trip With Charles Darwin - 2 views

  • when a plant or animal produces more offspring than can possibly survive in nature. 
  • of the thousands of eggs produced, only a few hundred will actually hatch
  • several dozen will live to adulthood. 
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  • smaller number will successfully reproduce.
    Science Page
Yuke Z

Magna Carta - 0 views

  • The first clauses concern the position of the Catholic Church in England. Those that follow state that John will be less harsh on the barons. Many of the clauses concern England's legal system.  Magna Carta promised laws that were good and fair. It states that everyone shall have access to courts and that costs and money should not be an issue if someone wanted to take a problem to the law courts.  It also states that no freeman will be imprisoned or punished without first going through the proper legal system. In future years the word "freeman" was replaced by "no one" to include everybody.  The last few sections deal with how the Magna Carta would be enforced in England. Twenty five barons were given the responsibility of making sure the king carried out what was stated in the Magna Carta - the document clearly states that they could use force if they felt it was necessary. To give the Magna Carta an impact, the royal seal of King John was put on it to show people that it had his royal support. This is the largest red seal at the bottom of the Magna Carta above. In detail it looked like this :
Yuke Z

The Middle Ages for Kids - King John and the Magna Carta - 0 views

  • This made the archbishop furious. The archbishop called all the nobles together
  • He would promise anything to anybody, especially if there was money in it for him, but he soon broke his word.
  • King John was an English king. He was not a very pleasant person. He told lies.
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  • discover that King John was breaking the law
  • King John promised he would do better.
  • he raised taxes again without consulting anyone.
  • they gathered a huge force of nobles at the town of Runnymede. They brought the king there.
  • parchment called the Magna Carta
  • if he did not sign, his nobles would
  • Most rights were already law.
  • The Magna Carta added new rights.
Yuke Z

Castle Architecture - 0 views

  • Stone, mortar, wood-these were the simple components used to construct some of the most heavily fortified structures ever created.
  • wood and built on hills of "mottes". Surrounded by a high, wooden palisade, motte and bailey castles were used widely until the Norman invasion of 1066. These fortifications proved too easy to burn, and stone was then used more frequently.
  • simple stone and mortar architecture made repairs fairly easy to make.
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  • Cannons and gunpowder made the castle ineffective and these large structures evolved in the later Middle Ages and Renaissance to become manor homes and palaces.
Yuke Z

Medieval Warfare - 1 views

  • New weapons technology prompted new defensive technologies, for example the introduction of cross-bows led quickly to the adoption of plate armour rather than chain mail.
  • Siege Towers Battering Rams Cats and Weasels Chemical, Biological and Psychological Warfare Mining: undermining castle walls
  • Siege Towers
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  • One way to foil the approach of a belfry was to have sloping castle walls. This forced the attackers to cover a greater distance from the top of the belfry to the top of the castle wall. This was one of the benefits of a talus.
  • This gave the ram much greater travel so that it could achieve a greater speed before striking its target and was therefore more destructive.
  • Some battering rams were supported by rollers.
  • a battering ram is just a large, heavy log carried by several people and propelled with force against the target, the momentum of the ram damaging the target.
  • defenders attempted to foil battering rams by dropping obstacles in front of the ram just before it hit a wall, using grappling hooks to immobilize the log, setting the ram on fire, or sallying out to attack the ram. Battering rams had an important effect on the evolution of defensive walls - the talus for example was one way of reinforcing walls. In practice, wooden gates would generally offer the easiest targets.
  • Greek fire was a burning-liquid used as a weapon of war by the Byzantines, and also by Arabs, Chinese, and Mongols. I
  • As a defence, water alone was ineffective. On land sand could be used to stop the burning . Intriguingly it is also known that vinegar and urine were effective
  • Medieval warriors also used basic biological weapons, for example catapulting dead and diseased animals into a defended fortress to help spread disease.
  • For example would have mad armour suitable for a man of several times normal size. He would then leave a few samples laying around the scene of his victories against the Persians. After he had gone Persians would find this armour and were were soon spreading stories of Alexander's superhuman giant soldiers.
  • Other examples of psychological warfare include making loud noises (an old Celtic practice) and catapulting the severed heads of captured enemies back into the enemy camp.
  • Defenders in castles under siege might prop up dummies beside the walls to make it look like there were more defenders than there really were. They might throw food from the walls to show besiegers that provisions were plentifu
  • A"mine" was a tunnel dug to destabilise and bring down castles and other fortifications. The technique could be used only when the fortification was not built on solid rock. It was developed as a response to stone built castles that could not be burned like earlier-style wooden forts.
  • Medieval Battle Equipment & Weapons
  • Wet animal hides were highly effective against burning arrows
Yuke Z

Illumination History - 0 views

  • During the early Middle Ages most books were used by priests and monks for liturgical purposes. New books appeared most often when a new monastery was founded.
  • Most illuminators were humble craftsmen who set up shop. Some were independent, itinerant artists who traveled from place to place looking for commissions. The best held the rank of court artists at the exclusive service of a wealthy patron.
  • Illuminators usually belonged either to the painter’s guild or another guild involved in the book trade. Most illuminators remained anonymous until the late Middle Ages
    Illumination, from the 7a World History website! 
Yuke Z

The Medieval Church - 3 views

  • From the very earliest of ages, the people were taught that the only way they could get to Heaven was if the Roman Catholic Church let them. Everybody would have been terrified of Hell and the people would have been told of the sheer horrors awaiting for them in Hell in the weekly services they attended.
  • The control the Church had over the people was total. Peasants worked for free on Church land. This proved difficult for peasants as the time they spent working on Church land, could have been better spent working on their own plots of land producing food for their families.
  • They paid 10% of what they earned in a year to the Church (this tax was called tithes). Tithes could be paid in either money or in goods produced by the peasant farmers. As peasants had little money, they almost always had to pay in seeds, harvested grain, animals etc. This usually caused a peasant a lot of hardship as seeds, for example, would be needed to feed a family the following year.
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  • What the Church got in tithes was kept in huge tithe barns; a lot of the stored grain would have been eaten  by rats or poisoned by their urine.
  • A failure to pay tithes, so the peasants were told by the Church, would lead to their souls going to Hell after they had died. 
  • People were too scared not to pay tithes despite the difficulties it meant for them.
  • You also had to pay for baptisms (if you were not baptised you could not go to Heaven when you died), marriages (there were no couples living together in Medieval times as the Church taught that this equaled sin) and burials - you had to be buried on holy land if your soul was to get to heaven. Whichever way you looked, the Church received money.
  • The Church also did not have to pay taxes.
  • Important cities would have cathedrals in them.
  • To work on the building of a cathedral was a great honour. Those who did the skilled work had to belong to a guild. They would have used just the most basic of tools and less than strong scaffolding to do the ceilings. However, if you were killed in an accident while working in a cathedral or a church, you were guaranteed a place in Heaven - or so the workers were told.
  • Their sheer size meant that people would see them from miles around, and remind them of the huge power of the Catholic Church in Medieval England.
    Medieval Church
Yuke Z

Women During the Middle Ages - 2 views

  • Women were widely considered inferior during the Middle Ages. Even though some women possessed considerable - and often extraordinary - power, most of them were very poor and had to work 12 hours every day just to get by. Behind every great king and ruler, was a woman. The influence of women during the Middle Ages is often underestimated. Most women of the Middle Ages were totally dominated by men. Any man in the family could order a woman to do as he wished. If a woman refused, she was beat into submission, as disobedience was considered a crime against God.
  • While it is often believed that women possessed no rights during the Middle Ages, that was generally not the case. They had to obey men, but they were often treated well. Women of the royalty lived luxuriously and when chivalry was finally introduced, they were more respected by men. We could say that women were treated based on their social rank, but this would also show some inconsistencies. Some peasants who lived in peaceful times could only work as much as we do today and still live well.
    Rights of women
Yuke Z

Medieval Education - 3 views

  • All lessons taught in a grammar school were in Latin. Lessons were taught in a way that boys had to learn information off by heart. Whether they understood what they had learned was a separate issue! Books were extremely expensive in Medieval England and no school could hope to kit out their pupils with books.
  • Lessons frequently started at sunrise and finished at sunset.
  • Discipline was very strict. Mistakes in lessons were punished with the birch (or the threat of it) In theory pupils would never make the same mistake again after being birched, as the memory of the pain inflicted was too strong.
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  • The sons of the peasants could only be educated if the lord of the manor had given his permission. Any family caught having a son educated without permission was heavily fined.
  • Very few girls went to what could be describes as a school. Girls from noble families were taught at home or in the house of another nobleman. Some girls from rich families went abroad to be educated. Regardless of where they went, the basis of their education was the same – how to keep a household going so that their husband was well kept. Girls might learn to play a musical instrument and to sing. But the philosophy of their education remained the same – how to keep a successful household for your husband.
    Peasant Schooling
Yuke Z

Medieval Manors - 2 views

  • Medieval manors varied in size but were typically small holdings of between 1200 - 1800 acres. Every noble had at least one manor; great nobles might have several manors, usually scattered throughout the country;
  • A substantial number of manors (estimated by value at 17% in England in 1086) belonged directly to the king. An even greater proportion (rather more than a quarter) were held by bishoprics and monasteries.
  • A manor was the district over which a lord had domain and could exercise certain rights and privileges in medieval England. A typical manor would include a Manor House which was built apart from the village where the peasants lived.
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  • Servant: Servants were house peasants who worked in the lord's manor house, doing the cooking, cleaning, laundering, and other household chores
  • Peasant or Villein - A peasant or villein was a low status tenant who worked as an agricultural worker or laborer. A peasant or villein usually cultivated 20-40 acres of land
Yuke Z

A History of Ancient Rome - 0 views

    • Yuke Z
      Very easy to undertand site, with many links leading to different topics. I like this site, very simple to use. Good and thorough history.
    Looks good with many useful links
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