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Garth Holman

What caused the Black Death and could it strike again? | Aeon Essays - 0 views

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    "prescient"
jclenk

Ancient Civilizations | Ancient History for Kids - 0 views

  • This massive Arid climate makes it a strange place for a large population of people
  • It flows north through the Sahara creating a long oasis in the desert eventually dumping into the Mediterranean Sea
  • The Nile River is the world’s longest river
  • ...19 more annotations...
  • The Nile is divided into sections by cataracts.  A cataract is a rocky area that creates a waterfall or rapids.  There are six cataracts in the Nile river.
  •  As the water level lowered, it would leave behind rich fertile soil for farmers
  • Fresh water, irrigation, fertile soil--this is why people called it the "gift" of the Nile.
  • Around 6000 BCE the climate began to change, which might explain why many humans changed from hunting and gathering to farming.  Before civilization, early humans came to the Nile River to hunt, fish, and gather food, but gradually as people learned to farm and domesticate animals (about 7000 BCE and 5500 BCE), and therefore live in permanent settlements, areas around the Nile became more crowded.
  • The change from nomadic hunter-gatherers to civilized living followed the same pattern as other places around the world: farming provided extra food, which allowed the division of labor, which allows the development of government and religion and creates social classes. 
  • Historians call them Upper Egypt and Lower Egypt
  • Religion was a the center of Egyptian life.  Egyptians believed in many Gods, so they were polytheistic.
  • Another reason we know so much about Egypt is because they made their architecture out of stone, which has lasted for the most part. 
  • We know so much about the Egyptians because there are so many written resources and because their culture lasted so long with few interruptions
  • Later Egyptians would call their kings “pharaoh”.  Egyptian people believed the pharaoh was a living God, so the Egyptians developed a theocracy, or a government ruled by religious leaders.  This is important to understanding why Egyptian people were so willing to give their grain to the Pharaoh and build him or her incredible temples—they thought the Pharaoh was a living God that would be with them forever in eternity.
  • The most well-known ritual was mummification.  Egyptians believed in life after death, and they wanted the body to look life-like.  Anyone could be mummified if they had enough money
  • Egyptians were a very advanced civilization due to their inventions and technology.  Egyptians developed a writing system called hieroglyphs that combined pictures and symbols.  Eventually, they created an alphabet from their symbols.  In 1822 CE a European explorer found what is called the Rossetta Stone (left picture)--a stone with the same message written in 3 different languages, which finally allowed historians to translate ancient hieroglyphs. Egyptians developed a 365-day calendar and used a number system based on 10. Egyptians figured out amazing ways to cut stone to use in their temples and obelisks.  An obelisk is a tall narrow monument that becomes more narrow as it goes up.  They created a writing material similar to paper called papyrus from reeds found in the Nile.  Egyptians were excellent ship builders and excelled at mathematics.  They used fractions, decimals, addition, subtraction, multiplication, division and basic ideas of geometry.  Egyptian art and architecture is famous and has been reused and copied by many other civilization including Greece, Rome, and even the United States
  • Egyptian life depended on what social class you were a part of.
  • At the top of society was the Pharaoh.  Below the Pharaoh was the royal court (Pharaoh's family), high priests, government officials, and scribes and nobles (rich land owners).  Below them were doctors and engineers, craftsman, and then farmers and unskilled workers at the bottom.  Egyptians did use some slaves, but slavery is hardly mentioned in their writings.
  • Bread was the main food source, but they would have eaten meat during festivals. 
  • Egypt's history is divided into six different time periods
  • creating Egypt's first dynasty.  He defeated some enemies and united Upper and Lower Egypt into one civilization.
  • One of the first major Pharaohs of the Old Kingdom was Djoser.  His temple was one of the first pyramids Egyptians tried to build.  It was a "step pyramid" and it started the tradition of building pyramids as a burial ground for Pharaohs. Although the term "Pharaoh" wasn't used until much later, we will keep using it to refer to Egyptian kings.   
  • Hatshepsut was a women Pharaoh.  Her tomb is an amazingly long ramp leading to a temple that has been cut out of a mountain.  Pharaoh Akhenaten tried to start a new religious tradition of worshipping only one God.  Worshipping one God is called monotheism.  This did not sit well with the polytheistic population that has honored many gods for thousands of years.  After Akhenaten's death his monuments were destroyed and his name was removed from the list of kings. Years later he was often referred to as, "the enemy". Akhenaten's son would also become famous, thousands of years later when his tomb was found perfectly preserved. His name was Pharaoh Tutankhamen--he is known and King Tut. He became Pharaoh at age 9 or 10 and ruled for only 9 years.
km21dcs

Feudal System - 4 views

  • prisoner of war, his life was saved by his nobility, and his ransom had practically to be raised by the "villains" of his domains.
    • Garth Holman
       
      So, Nobles would not be killed and the people below in the social class had to raise money to pay his ransom.  Sweet deal, if you are a noble. 
  • The Feudal System Right of Hunting
  • privileges dearest to and most valued by the nobles.
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    • Garth Holman
       
      With the Right of Hunting: What would peasants not have access to in their diet? 
    • Gilmore Dashon
       
      Maybe meat
    • Austin David
       
      Meat
    • Dakota Houston
       
      Meat
    • Luke Jennings Sanders
       
      Meat
    • Tolga Cavusoglu
       
      meat
    • Maximilian Uhlir
       
      meat
    • Teren Landis
       
      Meat
    • Alexander Johnson
       
      Meat
    • bchao27
       
      Meat
  • Feudal System Right of Jurisdiction
  • which gave judicial power to the nobles and lords in cases arising in their domains, had no appeal save to the King himself.
  • The Feudal System Right of Safe Convoy
  • that it even applied itself to the lower orders, and its violation was considered the most odious crime.
  • The Feudal System Right of Wearing Spurs
  • privileges that of wearing spurs of silver or gold according to their rank of knighthood
  • Feudal System Rights of Knighthood
  • Knights had the right of receiving double rations when prisoners of war; the right of claiming a year's delay when a creditor wished to seize their land; and the right of never having to submit to torture after trial, unless they were condemned to death for the crime they had committed.
  • Feudal System Right of having seats of honour in churches and Monuments
  • Feudal System Right of Disinheritance
  • The nobles enjoyed also the right of disinheritance, that is to say, of claiming the goods of a person dying on their lands who had no direct heir
  • Feudal System Right of Shelter
  • The right of shelter, was the principal charge imposed upon the noble. When a great baron visited his lands, his tenants were not only obliged to give him and his followers shelter, but also provisions and food, the nature and quality of which were all arranged beforehand with the most extraordinary detail.
  • The Feudal System was sustained by the rights and privileges given to the Upper Classes and in most cases enacted by laws. Everything was a source of privilege for the nobles.
  • villains
    • km21dcs
       
      This is a type of Peasant. Meaning Peasants weren't allowed to hunt
dcs-armstrong

Peasant Life In The Middle Ages - The Finer Times - 0 views

  • Peasant life in the Middle Ages was noticeably difficult. Families and entire villages were exposed to disease, war and generally a life of poverty.
  • most people across Europe were peasants or “velleins”
  • worked in the vast stretches of lands owned by the local lords
  • ...28 more annotations...
  • very little known about the detailed life of peasants in Europe because the lords and the clergy did not keep records of the peasants
  • only
  • early records were concerning
  • duties
  • peasants owed their masters
  • slaves and serfs.
  • Majority of the peasants worked three days a week in their lord’s land but they would work longer during the harvest and plantation periods
  • Those who were full time servants would work every day of the week and would get a break to attend Mass on Sundays. Peasants were forbidden from leaving the lord’s manor without seeking permission. The condition of serfdom was hereditary and one would be tied to his master unless he saved enough to purchase some land or if he married a free person.  At the end of the twelfth century, the ties that bound peasants to their masters began to loosen.
  • Peasant life in the Middle Ages was confined to the manors,
  • The lords had great influence over the lives of the peasants;
  • manors were divided into two:
  • was where the peasants worked, tilled the land, planted and harvested on
  • one part of the land, the “demense”
  • behalf of the lord
  • he peasants would receive a larger piece of land as long as they adhered to the condition that they work on the lord’s land before working on their own.
  • The plows and horses were so few and the peasants themselves spent the entire day working in the “demense”.
  • peasant also tended to the horses and cattle in meadows
  • Most peasants did not do much other than working, going to church and the occasional celebration.
  • hardly travelled outside their villages but they did have a sense of community amongst themselves
  • Peasant life was generally marked by having few possessions in the home
  • houses were basic shacks with benches, stools, wooden cups, bowls and spoons. Most households had a chest of drawers where the family would keep their valuable items. Peasants hardly slept on beds; they slept on straw mattresses on the floor. Given that they had few possessions even in terms of personal attires, they typically slept with their work apparels and covered themselves with animal skin.
  • Women
  • a small garden behind their house.
  • he Church offered help to the neediest peasants in the form of food and necessities.
  • Church was also a source of education mainly for the peasant’s children who attended the local school that was part of the church. The peasants looked to the priests for baptism, marriage, and performance of last rites for the dying.  Christianity guided the moral decisions that peasant men and women made in their day-to-day life.
  • Education was meager and only available to a select group of boys.
  • young girls helped with chores in the house and they were married off as soon as they attained maturity; this was usually at the young age of thirteen or sixteen years.
  • Societal and economic development saw the rapid rise of cities and towns. As the ties between serfs and their masters became lose, the peasants were able to rent land and some even migrated to the towns. Catastrophes such as the Black Death, a plague that killed thousands of peasants made it difficult for lords to find peasants to work in their farms.
Garth Holman

Alexander the Great - Ancient Greece for Kids - 1 views

    • Garth Holman
       
      So, He shared the Greek Culture to any area he conquered.  This cultural diffusion so became called Hellenistic Culture (Greek Like)  
  • Alexander had many teachers, one of which was Aristotle.
  • Alexander had many teachers, one of which was Aristotle.
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  • Macedonian
  • Alexander never lost a battle, never, not even one
  • became ill and died. He was only 32 years old.
  • It was Alexander who spread the Greek culture throughout the Mediterranean
  • Greece.
  • He was a
  • Macedonia was a
  • Macedonian prince.
  • n empire located to the north of
  • culture might not have survived
  • was Aristotle.
  • Alexander had many teachers
  • He loved the Greeks.
  • and interesting and talented
  • Aristotle thought the Greeks were clever
  • Aristotle had a grea
  • effect on Alexander and what he believed.
  • taught all the people he conquered about the ancient Greeks
  • shared their stories, their myths, their gods, their language - just as he had been taught.
  • advertisement
  • It was Alexander who spread the Greek culture throughout the Mediterranean.
    • ns21dcs
       
      Alexander had mant teachers, one of which was Aristole
  • His teachers tried t
  • teach him that a Macedonian king was n
  • ot merciful
  • He believed in the Greek gods
  • Greek gods.
  • Aristotle
  • totle
  • However, there is no denying that Alexander changed the world.
    • Garth Holman
       
      STOP here for Early life.
  • When he finally came home, his dad got him a job in the royal court in nearby Macedonia as a tutor to the young prince Alexander.
  • They taught him the art of war. Artistotle taught him to admire and respect the Greek culture. Artistotle was only Alexander's tutor for 3 years, but he had an enormous affect on the young prince, so much so that Alexander soon convinced himself that his father, King Phillip II of Macedonia, was not his real father at all.
  • Alexander was 19 years old, his father (King Phillip II) was assassinated. Alexander took over as king of Macedonia in 336 BC. Alexander quickly pulled together all of Macedonia under his leadership.
  • Alexander turned his attention to the massive Persian Empire.
  • By the time Alexander was 25 years old, against incredible odds, and in only six years, Alexander had become not only the king of Macedonia, but also the leader of the Greeks, overlord of Asia Minor, pharaoh of Egypt, and the great king of Persia.
  • Alexander led his army a further 11,000 miles, founding over 70 cities and creating an empire that stretched across three continents, and covered around two million square miles. The entire area from Greece in the west, north to the Danube, and south into Egypt, and as far to the east as the Indian Punjab, was linked together in a vast international network of trade and commerce. This network was united by a common Greek language and culture."
  • As a scholar, Alexander felt it was his mission to spread the Greek culture.
  • schools everywhere he went to teach Greek philosophy and the Greek language.
  • Alexander adopted many of the customs of the local people he conquered, blending their culture with the Greek culture.
  • established hospitals, built fortified cities, and created the largest library in the ancient world at Alexandria.
  • but he never lost a battle.
  •  
    Important stuff about Alexander 
  •  
    Alex was very great.
Garth Holman

(39) Tolga Stop Motion Movie: A Knight in the Middle Ages - YouTube - 0 views

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    19 Student examples of Projects on youtube from Garth's class.
Garth Holman

Digital History - 1 views

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    Columbus letter to king. Primary resource
Garth Holman

https://apple.news/A4DUX-3BlRbSrDDfq-RItpg - 0 views

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    Learn from failure
oscar121

Facts About History of Ming Dynasty Clothing FashionMing Dynasty Historical Details Pro... - 0 views

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    Ming dynasty people wear Chinese clothing/
oscar121

Ming Dynasty Historical Details Provided With Care - 0 views

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    help me learn more about ming dynasty history. nice work!
alove_

The Third Crusade - 7 views

  • He raised money for the enterprise bythe persecution and robbery of the Jewsthe imposition of an unusual tax upon all classesthe sale of offices, dignities, and the royal lands
  • The knightly adventures and chivalrous exploits which mark the career of Richard in the Holy Land read like a romance.
  • At one time, when Richard was sick with a fever, Saladin, knowing that he was poorly supplied with delicacies, sent him a gift of the choicest fruits of the land.
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  • And on another occasion, Richard's horse having been killed in battle, the sultan caused a fine Arabian steed to be led to the Christian camp as a present for his rival.
  • King Richard on his return from the Holy Land was shipwrecked off the coast of the Adriatic. Attempting to travel through Austria in disguise, he was captured by the duke of Austria, whom he had offended at the siege of Acre. The king regained his liberty only by paying a ransom equivalent to more than twice the annual revenues of England.
    • Garth Holman
       
      Twice the annual revenues to buy the Kings freedom!  This is going to cause some serious problems back home in England. 
  • Moslem
  • Mohammedan
  • sultan
  • Latin Kingdom of Jerusalem.
  • rout
  • spoil
Garth Holman

Cheeky Complaints Monks Scribbled in the Margins of Manuscripts - Maria Popova - The At... - 0 views

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    "drudgery. It crooks your back, it dims your sight, it twists your stomach and your sides."" Comments by Monks in 
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