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remyfung19

What is Priming? A Psychological Look at Priming & Consumer Behavior - 1 views

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    Priming is a linguistic and psychological concept where a "prime" idea (word, image, etc.) is presented before a "target". The prime might influence what a viewer thinks of the target. Psychological studies use priming in tests such as a completion or lexical decision task in order to test other phenomenon.

    Priming is also a strategy used in marketing. Advertisers use priming to get you see appeal in their product. Perhaps this is in the form of a commercial where statistics of the product vs other companies' products is shown to enhance their own product. This can also be as simple as playing moody music in a restaurant before you sit down!
Lara Cowell

Ancient Migration Patterns to North America Are Hidden in Languages Spoken Today | ... - 0 views

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    Previously, genetic analysis had indicated that the ancestors of Native Americans left Siberia to migrate across ancient Beringia (the strip of land that once connected Asia and what's now Alaska) about 25,000 years ago, but the earliest evidence of human habitation on North America dates to 15,000 years ago. With ice covering much of Alaska, the ancestors of Native Americans might've lived in Beringia for about 10,000 years before moving on.

    Now linguistic evidence may help support that theory. A pair of linguistics researchers, Mark Sicoli and Gary Holton, recently analyzed languages from North American Na-Dene family (traditionally spoken in Alaska, Canada and parts of the present-day U.S.) and the Asian Yeneseian family (spoken thousands of miles away, in central Siberia), using similarities and differences between the languages to construct a language family tree.

    As they note in an article published today in PLOS ONE, they found that the two language families are indeed related-and both appear to descend from an ancestral language that can be traced to the Beringia region. Both Siberia and North America, it seems, were settled by the descendants of a community that lived in Beringia for some time. In other words, Sicoli says, "this makes it look like Beringia wasn't simply a bridge, but actually a homeland-a refuge, where people could build a life."
jessicali19

The Science of Sarcasm? Yeah, Right - Smithsonian - 1 views

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    In modern society, there is sarcasm all around us. This article describes sarcasm and how we are so surrounded by it, that it is practically the "primary language". It also discusses how we detect sarcasm and how it is naturally picked up from a young age. Lastly, researchers found that some people have a difficult time detecting sarcasm so some computer scientists have actually developed a sarcasm detection device.
cole_nakashima18

As the E.U.'s Language Roster Swells, So Does the Burden - The New York Times - 0 views

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    With increasing membership in the EU more languages and translators are needed. Members struggle to figure out which languages should be considered official languages, which leads to disagreements
jessicali19

Teaching English Language Learners from China - 0 views

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    Learning English as a second language is far from uncommon around the world. Looking more specifically, what is it like learning English as a Chinese first language individual. This paper covers three main topics:
    1. The differences between the Chinese and English languages
    2. The differences between Chinese and American culture
    3. The differences between Chinese and American educational practices
    When teaching English as a second language, it is important to know the what fits the students particular needs in learning and how your teaching will be most effective. This paper allows teachers to understand more about their Chinese students and their general linguistic and cultural background.
Lara Cowell

Neologisms - 0 views

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    Neologisms are words that've newly entered language. This article contains links to several articles on the phenomenon, including how new words become real words, How language is made and why it grows, emerging prefixes and suffixes, and the survival probability of 10 newly coined words.
Lara Cowell

The Mystery of Onomatopoeia Around the World - The Atlantic - 1 views

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    Words formed from a sound and intended to imitate that sound-what linguists refer to as onomatopoeia-fluctuate around the world even when the underlying sound is roughly the same in each place. And the thing about it is, we don't really understand why this fluctuation occurs. It has something to do with the alchemy of humans in different times and places striving to mimic noises in the world around them, and to incorporate this mimicry into distinct linguistic systems and cultural contexts.

    Some have hypothesized over the years that language originated with the imitation of natural sounds-a notion sometimes referred to as the "bow-wow theory." But whatever the answer to this question, onomatopoeia explains only a sliver of the words we use.

    The article goes on to share some fun collections of onomatopoeia.
Lara Cowell

Onomatopoeia: The origin of language? - Filthy Monkey Men - 2 views

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    Almost every language on the planet includes words that sound like the things they describe. Crash, yawn, glug… speech is just full of these onomatopoeias. And because they have their root in real things they're often easy to identify. Even a non-native speaker might recognise the Hindi "achhee" (a sneeze) or the Indonesian "gluk" (glug). Because these onomatopoeias are so widely encountered, easy to pick up, and convey information might they be the first form of language?

    That's the argument presented in a recent paper published in Animal Cognition. It points out that our ancestors would have begun encountering more and more noises that we could repeat. Tool use/
    manufacture in particular, with its smashes and crashes, would be a prime source of onomatopoeias. Mimicking these sounds could have allowed early humans to "talk" about the objects; describing goals, methods, and objects. Might handing someone a rock and going "smash" been a way to ask them to make a tool? Perhaps different noises could even refer to different tools.

    Humans are good at extracting information from mimicked sounds. These sounds also trigger "mirror neurons" - parts of the brain that fire when we observe other people doing something - allowing us to repeat those actions. Seeing someone hold a rock a certain way and saying "smash" could have helped our ancestors teach the proper way to smash. But the biggest benefit would be the fact that you can communicate about these objects without seeing them. Having a sound for a tool would allow you to ask someone for it, even if they didn't have it on them.

    Given these advantages, it's easy to imagine how evolution would have favoured people who mimicked noises. Over time, this would have driven the development of more and more complex communication; until language as we recognise it emerged. Following this narrative, you can see (or maybe hear) how an a human ancestor with almost no language capability gradual
christinekuo18

Sarah Thomason will speak on world's vanishing languages - 1 views

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    Sarah Thomason, linguistics professor, estimates that by 2100, only 700 of the world's 7,000 languages will remain. Although this isn't a full article and mainly an advertisement for her lecture on this same subject, it will most likely be possible to find a full recording online after the event!
christinekuo18

Think You're An Auditory Or Visual Learner? Maybe Not - 1 views

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    This article talks about learning styles (audio, visual, kinesthetic) and how there has not yet been conclusive proof that they actually exist. It cites a Psychological Science journal, as well as psychologist Dan Willingham. However, while it states there has been no scientific evidence to prove the existence of learning styles, it does not actively disprove their existence.
Lara Cowell

Why Students Forget-and What You Can Do About It | Edutopia - 0 views

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    While this article is directed towards teachers, students can leverage this information to their advantage. Employ the following five strategies to aid retention:
    1. Teach a friend. When students explain what they've learned to peers, fading memories are reactivated, strengthened, and consolidated. This strategy not only increases retention but also encourages active learning (Sekeres et al., 2016).
    2. The spacing effect: Instead of covering a topic and then moving on, revisit key ideas throughout the school year. Research shows that students perform better academically when given multiple opportunities to review learned material. For example, teachers can quickly incorporate a brief review of what was covered several weeks earlier into ongoing lessons, or use homework to re-expose students to previous concepts (Carpenter et al., 2012; Kang, 2016).
    3. Frequent practice tests: Akin to regularly reviewing material, giving frequent practice tests can boost long-term retention and, as a bonus, help protect against stress, which often impairs memory performance. Breaking down one large high-stakes test into smaller tests over several months is an effective approach (Adesope, Trevisan, & Sundararajan, 2017; Butler, 2010; Karpicke, 2016).
    4. Interleave concepts: Instead of grouping similar problems together, mix them up. Solving problems involves identifying the correct strategy to use and then executing the strategy. When similar problems are grouped together, students don't have to think about what strategies to use-they automatically apply the same solution over and over. Interleaving forces students to think on their feet, and encodes learning more deeply (Rohrer, 2012; Rohrer, Dedrick, & Stershic, 2015).
    5. Combine text with images: It's often easier to remember information that's been presented in different ways, especially if visual aids can help organize information. For example, pairing a list of countries occupied by German forces during World War II wi
Lara Cowell

Resistance to changes in grammar is futile, say researchers | Science | The Guardian - 1 views

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    "Whether it is by random chance or selection, one of the things that is true about English - and indeed other languages - is that the language changes," said Joshua Plotkin, co-author of the research from the University of Pennsylvania. "The grammarians might [win the battle] for a decade, but certainly over a century they are going to be on the losing side."

    Writing in the journal Nature, Plotkin and colleagues describe how they tracked different types of grammatical changes across the ages.

    Among them, the team looked at changes in American English across more than one hundred thousand texts from 1810 onwards, focusing on the use of "ed" in the past tense of verbs compared with irregular forms - for example, "spilled" versus "spilt".

    The hunt threw up 36 verbs which had at least two different forms of past tense, including quit/quitted and leaped/leapt. However for the majority, including spilled v spilt, the team said that which form was waxing or waning was not clearly down to selection - meaning it is probably down to chance over which word individuals heard and copied.

    "Chance can play an important role even in language evolution - as we know it does in biological evolution," said Plotkin, adding that the impact of random chance on language had not been fully appreciated before.
Lara Cowell

Are musicians better language learners? | Education | The Guardian - 0 views

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    When children start studying music before the age of seven, they develop bigger vocabularies, a better sense of grammar and a higher verbal IQ. These advantages benefit both the development of their mother tongue and the learning of foreign languages. During these crucial years, the brain is at its sensitive development phase, with 95% of the brain's growth occurring now. Music training started during this period also boosts the brain's ability to process subtle differences between sounds and assist in the pronunciation of languages - and this gift lasts for life, as it has been found that adults who had musical training in childhood still retain this ability to learn foreign languages quicker and more efficiently than adults who did not have early childhood music training.

    Humans first started creating music 500,000 years ago, yet speech and language was only developed 200,000 years ago. Evolutionary evidence, as interpreted by leading researchers such as Robin Dunbar from Oxford University, indicates that speech as a form of communication has evolved from our original development and use of music. This explains why our music and language neural networks have significant overlap, and why children who learn music become better at learning the grammar, vocabulary and pronounciation of any language.
remyfung19

Trump's Inaugural Address | Wordwatchers - 1 views

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    Linguists' analysis of Trump's Inaugural Address as the POTUS confirms that he actually did the writing! The speech matches his usual style of debates, interviews, etc. His style, as described by Kayla N Jordan, is intuitive, rather than analytical. Trump goes with his heart rather than his head. His Address also shows he is authentic (which doesn't necessarily mean he is true), because he uses personal words like I and me. This article includes graphs comparing Trump to all(?) past presidents in different categories.
remyfung19

Trump's speaking style still flummoxes linguists - 0 views

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    What's up with Trump's language? Kathleen Hall Jamieson says that Trump has captivated mass audiences because he does not sound like other presidents who carefully rehearse and perfect their speeches. Instead, Trump says whatever is on his mind. The format of Trump's speeches aren't so rigid either: he will switch to unrelated topics and unnecessarily repeat sentences he just said. In fact, Trump famously repeats words like "very, very" or "many, many". David Beaver points out that Trump speaks like a teleprompter, a business person rather than a politician.
jessicali19

Polite vs. Informal Speech in Korean - 1 views

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    This post is about Korean language and the two main sections of speech styles in Korea. It will help you better understand the different speaking styles in Korean and when and how to use them. The two styles of speech, 존댓말 (Polite speech) and 반말 (Informal speech), are spoken based on hierarchy since Korean culture has strong Confucian influence due to the country's history. The hierarchy is mainly based on age and social status. For example, when speaking to a teacher in school, you would speak to them with polite speech because they are older than you and know more than you. Phrases and sentences can be said in different ways depending on the style of speech used, but will still have the same meaning.
jessicali19

The Relationship between Music and Language - 1 views

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    Research studies have shown that music and language have a correlation between them to the human mind and support the close relationship between music and language functions. There is evidence that speech functions can benefit from music functions and vice versa. One is example is that phonological awareness, pivotal for reading and writing skills, is closely related to pitch awareness and musical expertise. Some research papers also discuss the relationship between tonal language expertise and musical pitch perception skills and on whether pitch-processing deficits might influence tonal language perception. Overall all, these studies provide a comprehensive summary of the current knowledge on the tight relationship between music and language functions.
Lara Cowell

The World in Words - 0 views

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    Patrick Cox, public radio journalist, is also a lover of language and podcasting. This interesting blog compiles those two passions, featuring stories about diverse aspects of language. Some recent posts: pro-Trump Internet trolling, Arabic in America, Who Says Humor Doesn't Translate.
christinekuo18

Cape Verde creole: DNA, speech data reveal history of genetic, linguistic evolution | G... - 2 views

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    This article talks about how one's genetics and one's language could possibly be connected. This study took place in Cape Verde, where people speak Kriolu, a mixture of European and African languages that formed with the trans Atlantic slave trade. Researchers recorded multiple individual's speech and compared the recordings to the individual's DNA. They found that there was a significant correlation between one's ancestry and the words they use - for example, those with more African genetic ancestry used more African derived words. While this doesn't necessarily conclude that linguistic traits are passed on like genetic traits are, it is interesting that in a language that is a mix of other languages, individuals still use more words that are derived from their ethnic backgrounds.
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