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    "A Preliminary Investigation of "Teaching Presence" in the SUNY Learning Network"

Community of Inquiry - 0 views

shared by abeukema on 31 May 14 - No Cached
    • Teresa Dobler
      According to the community of inquiry model, students must engage with the content and engage with other participants in the course in order to best learn. In my experience, discussion forums are a great way for students to interact with each other. In addition, these discussion forums allow students to step into the role of teacher by explaining concepts to others and bringing in new resources.
Diana Cary

University Libraries | Article Linker - 0 views

  • (1) functionalist, which is directive and advice-driven, (2) engagement, which uses a nondirective approach, (3) revolutionary, which promotes radical change, and (4) evolutionary, which uses reflective dialogue to identify and challenge the prevailing discourse. The course under study incorporated two types of coaching: functionalist and evolutionary.
Diana Cary

Learners' Perspectives on what is Missing from Online Learning: Interpretations through... - 0 views

  • Concerns surrounding the lack of physical presence in an online learning environment have led researchers to investigate the concept of presence when learning online
  • Early work focused on social presence and the idea of participation and belonging
  • Social presence is a factor that contributes to building a community of learners
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  • "the degree of feeling, perception, and reaction to another intellectual entity in the CMC environment"
  • "feeling intimacy or togetherness in terms of sharing time and place"
  • "the ability of learners to project themselves socially and emotionally in a community of inquiry"
  • Five themes regarding what learners perceived was missing from their online learning experience emerged: robustness of online dialogue, spontaneity and improvisation, perceiving and being perceived by the other, getting to know others, and learning to be an online learner.
Irene Watts-Politza - Computers & Education - Learning presence: Towards a theory of self... - 1 views

  • This line of research indicated that the multivariate measure of learning represented by the cognitive presence factor could be predicted by the quality of teaching presence and social presence reported by learners in online courses. The relationship between these constructs is illustrated in Fig. 1 below.
  • Given the electronic, social, and “self-directed” nature of online learning, it seems imperative that we examine learner self- and co-regulation in online environments especially as they relate to desired outcomes such as higher levels of cognitive presence as described in the CoI framework.
    • Irene Watts-Politza
      Is this an aspect of assessment that is adequately addressed?
  • We suggest that this constellation of behaviors and traits may be seen as elements of a larger construct “learning presence” (Shea, 2010).
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  • self-efficacy can be viewed as a subjective judgment of one’s level of competence in executing certain behaviors or achieving certain outcomes in the future. Self-efficacy has been identified as the best predictor of college GPA and among the best predictors of college persistence through meta-analytic research (Robbins et al., 2004). Further, commenting on the state of the art in self-regulated learning research Winne suggested that self-regulation is contingent on positive self-efficacy beliefs, arguing that “learners must subscribe to a system of epistemological and motivational beliefs that classifies failure as an occasion to be informed, a condition that is controllable, and a stimulus to spend effort to achieve better” (Winne, 2005). This contrast of failure attribution as trait (e.g., “I’m just not good at math”) versus failure as occasion to be informed (“I can control, adapt, and learn from this”) is a classic view of maladaptive and adaptive self-efficacy beliefs.
  • In the current study we therefore examine the relationship between CoI constructs and elements of self efficacy in order to begin to investigate the larger theme of collaborative online learner regulation and learning presence.
  • Thus, self-efficacy is “concerned not with what one has but with belief in what one can do with whatever resources one can muster” (Bandura, 2007, p. 6).
  • Bandura has noted that slightly elevated efficacy can have a bigger impact on subsequent performance. Overestimating one’s capabilities to produce a behavior and outcome may boost performance and give rise to motivation to persist in face of obstacles and seatback, while the opposite is true for underestimating one’s capabilities, which may suppress productive goals, persistence and effort (Bandura, 2007). Thus there is an important connection between self-efficacy, effort, and subsequent performance.
    • Irene Watts-Politza
      This has implications for course attrition rates.
  • Positive psychological and emotional states in the aftermath of successful execution of certain academic behaviors naturally lead to sense of competence and subsequently results in enhanced sense of efficacy.
    • Irene Watts-Politza
      This is the "feeling of satsfaction" Lisa Martin referred to in her Module 3 posts on social presence.
  • We suggest here that elements within the CoI framework may serve as mechanisms for supporting self-efficacy. Specifically we conjecture that effective teaching presence and positive social presence should serve as sources of social persuasion and positive affect supportive of self-efficacy.
  • (Bandura, 1997). These and other studies have suggested that self-efficacy has a substantial role in predicting student engagement, motivation and performance ( [Bong, 2004], [Caraway et al., 2003], [Chemers et al., 2001], [Choi, 2005], [Smith et al., 2001] and [Vrugt et al., 2002]).
  • The participants in the study were a random sample of 3165 students from 42 two- and four-year institutions in New York State.
    • Irene Watts-Politza
      SLN? See how many things you can learn with one really great data set?
  • Gaining knowledge about the reasons for learning and achievement of online students has attracted a great deal of attention among both researchers and practitioners. Understanding the factors that have an influence on the success of online education has significant implications for designing productive online communities.
  • Reviewing studies that investigated elements of online learner self-regulation
  • This ongoing project to document all instances of teaching, social, and cognitive presence in complete online courses also resulted in identification of learner discourse that did not fit within the model, i.e. could not be reliably coded as indicators of teaching, social, or cognitive presence ( [Shea, 2010] and [Shea et al., 2010]).
  • Additional work on the CoI model (Shea, Vickers, & Hayes, 2010) suggested that past research methods may have resulted in a systematic under representation of the instructional effort involved in online education.
  • These exceptions represent interesting data for refining and enhancing the model as they suggest that learners are attempting to accomplish goals that are not accounted for within the CoI framework.
  • In this paper we examine the Community of Inquiry framework (Garrison, Anderson, & Archer, 2000) suggesting that the model may be enhanced through a fuller articulation of the roles of online learners. We present the results of a study of 3165 students in online and hybrid courses from 42 two- and four-year institutions in which we examine the relationship between learner self-efficacy measures and their ratings of the quality of their learning in virtual environments. We conclude that a positive relationship exists between elements of the CoI framework and between elements of a nascent theoretical construct that we label “learning presence”. We suggest that learning presence represents elements such as self-efficacy as well as other cognitive, behavioral, and motivational constructs supportive of online learner self-regulation.
  • the CoI framework attempts to articulate the social, technological, and pedagogical processes that engender collaborative knowledge construction. It therefore represents an effort to resolve the greatest challenge to the quality of online education
  • Learner discussions also included efforts to divide up tasks, manage time, and set goals in order to successfully complete group projects. As such they appeared to be indicators of online learner self and co-regulation, which can be viewed as the degree to which students in collaborative online educational environments are metacognitively, motivationally, and behaviorally active participants in the learning process (Winters & Azevedo, 2005).
  • the authors concluded that all the studies converged on advantageous outcomes for providing support for “metacognitive” learning strategies including self-reflection, self-explanation, and self-monitoring.
  • successfully orchestrating a dialogue demands fairly sophisticated skills. Conversational contributions need to be simultaneously parsed according to their disciplinary value, their location within the chain of collective argumentation, their relevance to the instructional goals, and their role as indicators of the student’s ongoing understanding. The outcome of this complex appraisal is a sense of the amount and quality of the guidance that specific contributions and the conversation as a whole require to support learning.” (Larreamendy-Joerns & Leinhardt, p. 591)
  • Zhao et al. also concluded that studies in which instructor interaction with students was medium to high resulted in better learning outcomes for online students relative to classroom learners.
    This article also addresses the relationships between each of the presences and proposes an additional presence- Learner Presence.
Irene Watts-Politza

ETAP640amp2012: Interaction - 0 views

    etap640 Evaluation of Interaction
Irene Watts-Politza

Papers - Community of Inquiry | Community of Inquiry - 0 views

    The purpose of this qualitative study was to explore community college student perceptions of online learning within the theoretical construct of the Community of Inquiry (CoI) model, which describes the manner in which the elements of social presence, teaching presence, and cognitive presence interact to create an educational experience.
Catherine Strattner

CoI Model | Community of Inquiry - 0 views

    Visual model and explanation of community of inquiry model with page links to related papers on three aspects of CoI. A resource gem.
    Excellent resource to begin with in exploring the CoI framework.
Irene Watts-Politza

Three generations of distance education pedagogy | Anderson | The International Review ... - 0 views

  • Another notable trend is towards more object-based, contextual, or activity-based models of learning. It is not so much a question of building and sustaining networks as of finding the appropriate sets of things and people
  • and activities. CloudWorks, a product of the OU-UK, is an example of this new trend, in which objects of discourse are more important than, or at least distinct from, the networks that enable them (Galley, Conole, Dalziel, & Ghiglione, 2010).
  • The next step in this cycle would seem to be, logically, to enable those sets to talk back to us: to find us, guide us, and influence our learning journeys. This represents a new and different form of communication, one in which the crowd, composed of multiple intelligences, behaves as an intentional single entity.
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  • PageRank algorithm behind a Google search works in exactly this way, taking multiple intelligent choices and combining them to provide ranked search results (Brin & Page, 2000).
  • it is not individuals, groups, or networks that help us to learn but a faceless intelligence that is partly made of human actions, partly of a machine’s.
  • We and others have described these entities in the past as collectives (Segaran, 2007).
  • Despite the ubiquity of such systems, what still remains unclear is how best to exploit them in learning. However, it seems at least possible that the next generation of distance education pedagogy will be enabled by technologies that make effective use of collectives.
  • learners and teacher collaborate to create the content of study, and in the process re-create that content for future use by others. Assessment in connectivist pedagogy combines self-reflection with teacher assessment of the contributions to the current and future courses. These contributions may be reflections, critical comments, learning objects and resources, and other digital artifacts of knowledge creation, dissemination, and problem solving.
  • Teaching presence in connectivist learning environments also focuses on teaching by example. The teachers’ construction of learning artifacts, critical contributions to class and external discussion, capacity to make connections across discipline and context boundaries, and the sum of their net presence serve to model connectivist presence and learning.
    Special Issue - Connectivism: Design and Delivery of Social Networked Learning Terry Anderson and Jon Dron Athabasca University, Canada Abstract. This paper defines and examines three generations of distance education pedagogy.
    Connectivism: Design and Delivery of Social Networked Learning Terry Anderson and Jon Dron Athabasca University, This paper defines and examines three generations of distance education pedagogy.
    Three Generations of Distance Education Pedagogy [Print Version] Special Issue - Connectivism: Design and Delivery of Social Networked Learning Terry Anderson and Jon Dron Athabasca University, Canada
Irene Watts-Politza

Assessing Social Presence in Asynchronous Text-based Computer Conferencing Courses - 1 views

    Explication of social presence, one of three elements in the community of inquiry model developed by Garrison, Anderson, and Archer. Community of inquiry model discussed.
Diane Gusa

Critical Thinking and online learning - 0 views

    Boris & Hall (2005)
Diane Gusa

Exemplary Online Educators: Creating a Community of Inquiry - 0 views

  • White, Roberts and Br anna n (2003) focused particularly on course design in online education. Their major premise is that “unless the course is reconceptualized using an interactive learning pedagogy, the results are nothing more than a correspondence course via e-mail and that simply transferring a traditional classroom-based course to an online format is doomed to failure ” (White, Roberts & Br anna n, 2003, p. 172).
  • White, Roberts and Br anna n go on to describe an online nurse refresher course provided by University of Wisconsin that promotes the following four components - humanizing or creating a good learning environment; getting the learners to participate; using the right message so that it is received, understood, and remembered; and eliciti
  • cognitive presence of the teacher is a core concept in creating a community of inquiry.
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  • teacher learner interaction is not sufficient on its own to create effective learning.
  • The second major theme relates to exemplary online educators as affirmers. The students identified instructors who found opportunities to let their students know that they were succeeding in their studies and to encourage them in their learning.
  • The overlap of teaching presence and social presence as depicted in the model forms what Garrison and his colleagues have labeled “setting climate” (
  • The final theme is exemplary online educators as influencers
  • In some ways the Community of Inquiry model speaks to this experience of mutuality (Archer,, 2003).
  • The heart of the challenge facing online educators is “the need to create a critical community of inquiry- the hallmark of higher education – within a virtual text-based enviro
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