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  • If on the other hand, they are used to information questions, they may ask, "Which states joined the Confederacy? What were the six main causes of the war? What happened at Shiloh? Who was the Union commander at Shiloh? When did the war end?"
  • If you ask many tantalizing and divergent questions in your classroom, your students are likely to model after your behavior for example, "What would have happened if Lincoln was shot in the first month of the war? Why did Lincoln only free the slaves in the rebel states? How did it feel to be a woman in the path of Sherman's army?"
  • The four rules of brainstorming: 1. all contributions are accepted without judgment; 2. the goal is a large number of ideas or questions; 3. building on other people's ideas is encouraged; 4. farout, unusual ideas are encouraged.
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  • And why do we bother with a time-consuming activity like developing a typology of questions? Because once students have the labels, you can lead them to practice each type of question thoughtfully. You can show a film and ask each student to think of three "why?" questions to share with the class at its conclusion. You may assign a story to read and ask for three "inference" questions. Suddenly the students can reach into their questioning tool box and carefully select the saw for sawing and the plane for planing.
  • When questions are nurtured, admitting a lack of knowledge is rewarded. It is the first step in learning and problem-solving
  • Unlike answers, questions carry little risk because the activity has made it acceptable to identify what it is that you do not know.
  • Some questions deserve 10 seconds of thought. Others require days or even months. Great questions span centuries of human civilization (i.e., "why are we here?" "How do we know?" "Can we know?" "How can we know if we know?").
  • The more typical classroom activity involves concealing what it is that you do not know.
  • Research into wait-time for American classrooms paints a distressing picture. Many teachers wait less than two seconds for the answer to each question and ask hundreds of questions per hour. These types of questions are generally recall questions demanding little thought.
  • Unlike many textbook publishers, reporters like to ask questions that flow from or stimulate curiosity, because unlike schools, televisions do not have captive audiences. A reporter will ask the victim how he or she is feeling, the rock star why he or she used drugs and the politician why he or she betrayed his or her constituents. Sometimes we are offended by the boundary lines of decency that curiosity compels these people to cross, so a recent rock song portrayed the phenomenon as "We love dirty laundry." We should expect considerably more sensitivity from our students, yet the model can work powerfully for us as we explore the issues surrounding any human event being studied in a classroom.
    Classroom strategies to engender student questioning.
Teresa Dobler

GarrisonAndersonArcher2000.pdf - 0 views

    • Teresa Dobler
      Cognitive, social, and teaching presence - students are asked to take on the role of a teacher and help build knowledge with their classmates.
    • alexandra m. pickett
      Brilliant, Teresa! Love that you have used this feature of diigo to annotate this paper!
Heather Kurto

Inquiry: Learning from the Past with an Eye on the Future | Bonnstetter | Electronic Jo... - 0 views

  • I have observed at least three major phases that many teachers go through, or far too often, fail to go through. Phase I might be described by Harry Wong as "Doing what you have been doing, and getting what you have been getting". In other words, Phase I is simply the pre-reform effort phase. Of course, we as educators hope to move teachers to a new vision and this can result in Phase II.
  •     In Phase II, teachers are presented with a new teaching strategy, usually in the context of an afternoon or one day workshop. So armed with this new skill, but little else, they venture back to their classroom to try implementation or worse, write off the whole experience and tell colleagues seated near them that they already do that. What is immediately noticeable for those who at least think about possible implementation, is how these teachers internalize this new strategy and attempt to move it into practice.
  • Phase III is where teachers reflect on 1. what they were doing that worked, and 2. how they might integrate these new ideas into their pre-workshop repertoire of teaching tools.
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  •     The sad fact is that we far too often fail to invest either the time or the necessary resources to reach and build Phase III teachers. My personal experience suggests that on average it takes anywhere from three to five years for wide spread single component teacher behavior changes to be firmly implemented among a building faculty and from three to eight years with the same general educational reform agenda to accomplish anything close to systemic change.
  • classroom teachers or teacher educators, we must take the time to reflect on our past efforts and make needed mid-course corrections. Looking for patterns within our reform projects and helping teachers see reform as an evolutionary process and not an either/or response, will help all of us grow as professionals and ultimately improve the education of our children.
Diana Cary

Critical Inquiry in a Text-Based Environment: Computer Conferencing in Higher Education - 0 views

  • This research would suggest that computer conferencing has considerable potential to create a community of inquiry for educational purposes.
Irene Watts-Politza - Computers & Education - Learning presence: Towards a theory of self... - 1 views

  • This line of research indicated that the multivariate measure of learning represented by the cognitive presence factor could be predicted by the quality of teaching presence and social presence reported by learners in online courses. The relationship between these constructs is illustrated in Fig. 1 below.
  • Given the electronic, social, and “self-directed” nature of online learning, it seems imperative that we examine learner self- and co-regulation in online environments especially as they relate to desired outcomes such as higher levels of cognitive presence as described in the CoI framework.
    • Irene Watts-Politza
      Is this an aspect of assessment that is adequately addressed?
  • We suggest that this constellation of behaviors and traits may be seen as elements of a larger construct “learning presence” (Shea, 2010).
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  • self-efficacy can be viewed as a subjective judgment of one’s level of competence in executing certain behaviors or achieving certain outcomes in the future. Self-efficacy has been identified as the best predictor of college GPA and among the best predictors of college persistence through meta-analytic research (Robbins et al., 2004). Further, commenting on the state of the art in self-regulated learning research Winne suggested that self-regulation is contingent on positive self-efficacy beliefs, arguing that “learners must subscribe to a system of epistemological and motivational beliefs that classifies failure as an occasion to be informed, a condition that is controllable, and a stimulus to spend effort to achieve better” (Winne, 2005). This contrast of failure attribution as trait (e.g., “I’m just not good at math”) versus failure as occasion to be informed (“I can control, adapt, and learn from this”) is a classic view of maladaptive and adaptive self-efficacy beliefs.
  • In the current study we therefore examine the relationship between CoI constructs and elements of self efficacy in order to begin to investigate the larger theme of collaborative online learner regulation and learning presence.
  • Thus, self-efficacy is “concerned not with what one has but with belief in what one can do with whatever resources one can muster” (Bandura, 2007, p. 6).
  • Bandura has noted that slightly elevated efficacy can have a bigger impact on subsequent performance. Overestimating one’s capabilities to produce a behavior and outcome may boost performance and give rise to motivation to persist in face of obstacles and seatback, while the opposite is true for underestimating one’s capabilities, which may suppress productive goals, persistence and effort (Bandura, 2007). Thus there is an important connection between self-efficacy, effort, and subsequent performance.
    • Irene Watts-Politza
      This has implications for course attrition rates.
  • Positive psychological and emotional states in the aftermath of successful execution of certain academic behaviors naturally lead to sense of competence and subsequently results in enhanced sense of efficacy.
    • Irene Watts-Politza
      This is the "feeling of satsfaction" Lisa Martin referred to in her Module 3 posts on social presence.
  • We suggest here that elements within the CoI framework may serve as mechanisms for supporting self-efficacy. Specifically we conjecture that effective teaching presence and positive social presence should serve as sources of social persuasion and positive affect supportive of self-efficacy.
  • (Bandura, 1997). These and other studies have suggested that self-efficacy has a substantial role in predicting student engagement, motivation and performance ( [Bong, 2004], [Caraway et al., 2003], [Chemers et al., 2001], [Choi, 2005], [Smith et al., 2001] and [Vrugt et al., 2002]).
  • The participants in the study were a random sample of 3165 students from 42 two- and four-year institutions in New York State.
    • Irene Watts-Politza
      SLN? See how many things you can learn with one really great data set?
  • Gaining knowledge about the reasons for learning and achievement of online students has attracted a great deal of attention among both researchers and practitioners. Understanding the factors that have an influence on the success of online education has significant implications for designing productive online communities.
  • Reviewing studies that investigated elements of online learner self-regulation
  • This ongoing project to document all instances of teaching, social, and cognitive presence in complete online courses also resulted in identification of learner discourse that did not fit within the model, i.e. could not be reliably coded as indicators of teaching, social, or cognitive presence ( [Shea, 2010] and [Shea et al., 2010]).
  • Additional work on the CoI model (Shea, Vickers, & Hayes, 2010) suggested that past research methods may have resulted in a systematic under representation of the instructional effort involved in online education.
  • These exceptions represent interesting data for refining and enhancing the model as they suggest that learners are attempting to accomplish goals that are not accounted for within the CoI framework.
  • In this paper we examine the Community of Inquiry framework (Garrison, Anderson, & Archer, 2000) suggesting that the model may be enhanced through a fuller articulation of the roles of online learners. We present the results of a study of 3165 students in online and hybrid courses from 42 two- and four-year institutions in which we examine the relationship between learner self-efficacy measures and their ratings of the quality of their learning in virtual environments. We conclude that a positive relationship exists between elements of the CoI framework and between elements of a nascent theoretical construct that we label “learning presence”. We suggest that learning presence represents elements such as self-efficacy as well as other cognitive, behavioral, and motivational constructs supportive of online learner self-regulation.
  • the CoI framework attempts to articulate the social, technological, and pedagogical processes that engender collaborative knowledge construction. It therefore represents an effort to resolve the greatest challenge to the quality of online education
  • Learner discussions also included efforts to divide up tasks, manage time, and set goals in order to successfully complete group projects. As such they appeared to be indicators of online learner self and co-regulation, which can be viewed as the degree to which students in collaborative online educational environments are metacognitively, motivationally, and behaviorally active participants in the learning process (Winters & Azevedo, 2005).
  • the authors concluded that all the studies converged on advantageous outcomes for providing support for “metacognitive” learning strategies including self-reflection, self-explanation, and self-monitoring.
  • successfully orchestrating a dialogue demands fairly sophisticated skills. Conversational contributions need to be simultaneously parsed according to their disciplinary value, their location within the chain of collective argumentation, their relevance to the instructional goals, and their role as indicators of the student’s ongoing understanding. The outcome of this complex appraisal is a sense of the amount and quality of the guidance that specific contributions and the conversation as a whole require to support learning.” (Larreamendy-Joerns & Leinhardt, p. 591)
  • Zhao et al. also concluded that studies in which instructor interaction with students was medium to high resulted in better learning outcomes for online students relative to classroom learners.
    This article also addresses the relationships between each of the presences and proposes an additional presence- Learner Presence.
Catherine Strattner - The Internet and Higher Education - Exploring causal relationships ... - 0 views

  • The premise of this framework is that higher-order learning is best supported in a community of learners engaged in critical reflection and discourse.
    Interesting article exploring the relationships between each of the presences in the CoI framework.
Catherine Strattner

Instructional Design Commons - 1 views

    Interesting series on each piece of the CoI framework.
    If you click on "Available on the Web", you are able to "attend" an archived Elluminate Live! discussion on the topics of teaching and cognitive presence.
    If you click on "Available on the Internet", you can view archived Elluminate Live! presentations on Teaching or cognitive presence.
Joan McCabe

Critical Inquiry in a Text-Based Environment: Computer Conferencing in Higher Education - 0 views

    Original article and research describing the Community of Inquiry framework and the three components: cognitive presence, social presence, and teaching presence.
Catherine Strattner

ETAP640amp2012: Teaching Presence and Class Community presented by Alexandra Pickett (D... - 0 views

    Describes the three parts of teaching presence and how to foster them. Describes how to create a class community in an online course.
    Teaching presence cannot exist without a sense of community.
Maria Guadron

Isaac, 1993, p. 25 - 0 views

    Dialogue, defined as "a sustained collective inquiry into the processes, assumptions and certainties that compose everyday experience" (Isaac, 1993, p. 25) facilitates inquiry.

The Role of Questions in Teaching, Thinking and Le - 0 views

  • If we want thinking we must stimulate it with questions that lead students to further questions. We must overcome what previous schooling has done to the thinking of students. We must resuscitate minds that are largely dead when we receive them. We must give our students what might be called "artificial cogitation" (the intellectual equivalent of artificial respiration).
    • Luke Fellows
      Arts teach student's to ask questions, not provide answers. Like in Improv - "Yes, and..." this agrees a concept and adds to the narrative. Never negate. Like and answer. "Why?" Game. Superficial question that digs for deeper answers.
  • Thinking is not driven by answers but by question
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  • This demonstrates that most of the time they are not thinking through the content they are presumed to be learning. This demonstrates that most of the time they are not learning the content they are presumed to be learning.
  • only students who have questions are really thinking and learning
  • all statements that this or that is so — are implicit answers to questions
  • Answers on the other hand, often signal a full stop in thought
    How deep questions drive thought. Statements are contrived originally by answering questions.
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    So, how do we provide "artificial cogitation"?
    Need to ask questions to be able to think and then comes the learning.
    "Thinking is driven by questions"
Robert Ekblaw - Computers & Education - Learning presence: Towards a theory of self... - 0 views

    Abstract In this paper we examine the Community of Inquiry framework (Garrison, Anderson, & Archer, 2000) suggesting that the model may be enhanced through a fuller articulation of the roles of online learners.
Catherine Strattner

CoI Model | Community of Inquiry - 0 views

    Visual model and explanation of community of inquiry model with page links to related papers on three aspects of CoI. A resource gem.
    Excellent resource to begin with in exploring the CoI framework.
Irene Watts-Politza

Three generations of distance education pedagogy | Anderson | The International Review ... - 0 views

  • Another notable trend is towards more object-based, contextual, or activity-based models of learning. It is not so much a question of building and sustaining networks as of finding the appropriate sets of things and people
  • and activities. CloudWorks, a product of the OU-UK, is an example of this new trend, in which objects of discourse are more important than, or at least distinct from, the networks that enable them (Galley, Conole, Dalziel, & Ghiglione, 2010).
  • The next step in this cycle would seem to be, logically, to enable those sets to talk back to us: to find us, guide us, and influence our learning journeys. This represents a new and different form of communication, one in which the crowd, composed of multiple intelligences, behaves as an intentional single entity.
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  • PageRank algorithm behind a Google search works in exactly this way, taking multiple intelligent choices and combining them to provide ranked search results (Brin & Page, 2000).
  • it is not individuals, groups, or networks that help us to learn but a faceless intelligence that is partly made of human actions, partly of a machine’s.
  • We and others have described these entities in the past as collectives (Segaran, 2007).
  • Despite the ubiquity of such systems, what still remains unclear is how best to exploit them in learning. However, it seems at least possible that the next generation of distance education pedagogy will be enabled by technologies that make effective use of collectives.
  • learners and teacher collaborate to create the content of study, and in the process re-create that content for future use by others. Assessment in connectivist pedagogy combines self-reflection with teacher assessment of the contributions to the current and future courses. These contributions may be reflections, critical comments, learning objects and resources, and other digital artifacts of knowledge creation, dissemination, and problem solving.
  • Teaching presence in connectivist learning environments also focuses on teaching by example. The teachers’ construction of learning artifacts, critical contributions to class and external discussion, capacity to make connections across discipline and context boundaries, and the sum of their net presence serve to model connectivist presence and learning.
    Special Issue - Connectivism: Design and Delivery of Social Networked Learning Terry Anderson and Jon Dron Athabasca University, Canada Abstract. This paper defines and examines three generations of distance education pedagogy.
    Connectivism: Design and Delivery of Social Networked Learning Terry Anderson and Jon Dron Athabasca University, This paper defines and examines three generations of distance education pedagogy.
    Three Generations of Distance Education Pedagogy [Print Version] Special Issue - Connectivism: Design and Delivery of Social Networked Learning Terry Anderson and Jon Dron Athabasca University, Canada
Diane Gusa

Teachers as experts in . . . inquiry? « Fires in the Mind - 0 views

  • Browse: Home / Featured Posts / Teachers as experts in . . . inquiry? Teachers as experts in . . . inquiry? A study just published in Science magazine sure makes one think twice about how we deliver “content knowledge” the classroom. The method by which a course is taught, it indicates, may be even more important than the instructor’s background. In a college physics class, listening to a lecture by a highly experienced and respected professor yielded fa
  • a control group performed more than twice as well when their teachers—a research associate and a graduate student—used discussions, active learning, and assignments in which students had to grapple with both new and old information.
  • “deliberate practice,
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  • These students had time to synthesize and incorporate new ideas from the lecture into their prior knowledge and experiences.
  • ombined in-class practice and frequent formative assessments (such as pretests) with an emphasis on real-world applications.
Kristen Della

Instructional Design - 0 views

    Image of Community of Inquiry
ian august

John Seely Brown: Chief of Confusion - 1 views

    Author of article minds on fire
Joy Quah Yien-ling

Metacognition - Questions to Monitor Thinking - 1 views

    Scaffolding metacognition in students is challenging. These questions may help them in monitoring their own thinking.
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