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Michel Roland-Guill

How the net traps us all in our own little bubbles | Technology | The Observer - 3 views

  • The basic code at the heart of the new internet is pretty simple. The new generation of internet filters looks at the things you seem to like – the actual things you've done, or the things people like you like – and tries to extrapolate. They are prediction engines, constantly creating and refining a theory of who you are and what you'll do and want next.
    • Michel Roland-Guill
       
      Externalisation de la construction de l'identité
  • you're the only person in your bubble
  • the filter bubble is a centrifugal force, pulling us apart.
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  • the filter bubble is invisible
  • from within the bubble, it's nearly impossible to see how biased it is
  • you don't choose to enter the bubble
  • the filter bubble can affect your ability to choose how you want to live. To be the author of your life, professor Yochai Benkler argues, you have to be aware of a diverse array of options and lifestyles. When you enter a filter bubble, you're letting the companies that construct it choose which options you're aware of
  • You can get stuck in a static, ever- narrowing version of yourself – an endless you-loop.
  • Bowling Alone, his book on the decline of civic life in America, Robert Putnam
  • major decrease in "social capital" – the bonds of trust and allegiance that encourage people to do each other favours
  • our virtual neighbours look more and more like our real-world neighbours, and our real-world neighbours look more and more like us.
  • We're getting a lot of bonding but very little bridging
  • It's easy to push "Like" and increase the visibility of a friend's post about finishing a marathon or an instructional article about how to make onion soup. It's harder to push the "Like" button on an article titled "Darfur sees bloodiest month in two years".
  • "It's a civic virtue to be exposed to things that appear to be outside your interest," technology journalist Clive Thompson told me.
  • With Google personalised for everyone, the query "stem cells" might produce diametrically opposed results for scientists who support stem-cell research and activists who oppose it.
  • Starting that morning, Google would use 57 signals – everything from where you were logging in from to what browser you were using to what you had searched for before – to make guesses about who you were and what kinds of sites you'd like. Even if you were logged out, it would customise its results, showing you the pages it predicted you were most likely to click on.
  • More and more, your computer monitor is a kind of one-way mirror, reflecting your own interests while algorithmic observers watch what you click.
  • on 4 December 2009 the era of personalisation began
  • What was once an anonymous medium where anyone could be anyone – where, in the words of the famous New Yorker cartoon, nobody knows you're a dog – is now a tool for soliciting and analysing our personal data.
  • "You're getting a free service, and the cost is information about you. And Google and Facebook translate that pretty directly into money."
  • Acxiom alone has accumulated an average of 1,500 pieces of data on each person on its database – which includes 96% of Americans – along with data about everything from their credit scores to whether they've bought medication for incontinence.
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    il est temps de proposer une critique - francophone ! - de ce social web que l'on nous propose, et l'on alimente, et qui structure nos vies de plus en plus; indispensable littéracie au delà du search et de l'identité numérique; merci pour ce signet
Michel Roland-Guill

The Rise of the New Groupthink / Susan Cain - NYTimes.com - 0 views

  • SOLITUDE is out of fashion
  • the most spectacularly creative people in many fields are often introverted
  • solitude is a catalyst to innovation
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  • Solitude has long been associated with creativity and transcendence. “Without great solitude, no serious work is possible,” Picasso said. A central narrative of many religions is the seeker — Moses, Jesus, Buddha — who goes off by himself and brings profound insights back to the community.
  • “Most inventors and engineers I’ve met are like me ... they live in their heads. They’re almost like artists. In fact, the very best of them are artists. And artists work best alone .... I’m going to give you some advice that might be hard to take. That advice is: Work alone... Not on a committee. Not on a team.”
  • Wozniak
  • Our schools have also been transformed by the New Groupthink
  • What distinguished programmers at the top-performing companies wasn’t greater experience or better pay. It was how much privacy, personal workspace and freedom from interruption they enjoyed
  • Studies show that open-plan offices make workers hostile, insecure and distracted. They’re also more likely to suffer from high blood pressure, stress, the flu and exhaustion. And people whose work is interrupted make 50 percent more mistakes and take twice as long to finish it.
  • brainstorming sessions are one of the worst possible ways to stimulate creativity
  • People in groups tend to sit back and let others do the work; they instinctively mimic others’ opinions and lose sight of their own; and, often succumb to peer pressure
  • “the pain of independence.”
  • The one important exception to this dismal record is electronic brainstorming, where large groups outperform individuals; and the larger the group the better. The protection of the screen mitigates many problems of group work. This is why the Internet has yielded such wondrous collective creations. Marcel Proust called reading a “miracle of communication in the midst of solitude,” and that’s what the Internet is, too. It’s a place where we can be alone together — and this is precisely what gives it power.
  • Our offices should encourage casual, cafe-style interactions, but allow people to disappear into personalized, private spaces when they want to be alone.
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    "Marcel Proust called reading a "miracle of communication in the midst of solitude," and that's what the Internet is, too. It's a place where we can be alone together - and this is precisely what gives it power."
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    merci pour ce lien; un article à forte "valeur heuristique"
Michel Roland-Guill

Rough Type: Nicholas Carr's Blog: More evidence of Net's effect on the brain - 2 views

  • Using brain scans, the researchers compared the brains of 18 adolescents who spend around eight to twelve hours a day online (playing games, mainly) with the brains of 18 adolescents who spend less than 2 hours a day online. The heavy Net users exhibited gray-matter "atrophy" as well as other "abnormalities," and the changes appeared to grow more severe the longer the kids engaged in intensive Net use.
Michel Roland-Guill

38% of College Students Can't Go 10 Minutes Without Tech [STATS] - 1 views

  • 500 American college students. Seventy-three percent of them said they would not be able to study without some form of technology, and 38% said that they could not even go more than 10 minutes without checking their laptop, smartphone, tablet or ereader.
  • 70% of the students said they use keyboards rather than paper to take notes and 65% said they use digital devices to create presentations.
  • A 2010 study by OnCampus Research found that 74% of college students surveyed still preferred to use a printed textbook. But the CourseSmart survey suggests that further etextbook adoption might be on the way.

    Nearly half of the 98% of students in the survey who owned a digital device said they regularly read etextbooks. Sixty-three percent had read an etextbook on their device at least once, and the majority of the survey group agreed that etextbooks are easier to carry, simpler to search, cheaper and better than traditional textbooks for reading on-the-go.

Michel Roland-Guill

Orthographic Processing in Baboons (Papio papio) - 1 views

  • Our results demonstrate that basic orthographic processing skills can be acquired in the absence of preexisting linguistic representations.
  • The computation of letter identities and their relative positions is referred to as orthographic processing, and there is a large consensus today that such processing represents the first “language-specific” stage of the reading process that follows the operations involved in the control of eye movements (bringing words into the focus of central vision) and early visual processing (enabling visual feature extraction; Fig. 1A) (14). In the present study, we examined whether the ability to efficiently process orthographic information can operate in the absence of prior linguistic knowledge.
  • Orthographic processing lies at the interface between the visual processing and the linguistic processing involved in written language comprehension.
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  • Dehaene and colleagues proposed that skilled reading involves an adaptation of general object-identification processes in ventral occipitotemporal brain areas to the specific characteristics of printed words
  • according to the dominant theories of reading, orthographic processing is still primarily considered to be an extension of already established linguistic skills in the domain of spoken language processing
  • We challenged the hypothesis that learning an orthographic code depends on preexisting linguistic knowledge by investigating whether nonhuman primates can learn this skill.
  • the word versus nonword discrimination could be made implicitly on the basis of statistical dependencies between letters.
  • More detailed analyses revealed that baboons were not simply memorizing the word stimuli but had learned to discriminate words from nonwords on the basis of differences in the frequency of letter combinations in the two categories of stimuli (i.e., statistical learning).
  • words that were seen for the first time triggered significantly fewer “nonword” responses than did the nonword stimuli
  • Even more striking is the strong linear relation, shown in Fig. 4, between accuracy in response to nonword stimuli and their orthographic similarity to words that the baboons had already learned. The more similar a nonword was to a known word, the more false positive responses it produced.
  • Our findings have two important theoretical implications. First, they suggest that statistical learning is a powerful universal (i.e., cross-species) mechanism that might well be the basis for learning higher-order (linguistic) categories that facilitate the evolution of natural language (18, 19). Second, our results suggest that orthographic processing may, at least partly, be constrained by general principles of visual object processing shared by monkeys and humans.
  • Our study may therefore help explain the success of the human cultural choice of visually representing words using combinations of aligned, spatially compact, ordered sequences of symbols. The primate brain might therefore be better prepared than previously thought to process printed words, hence facilitating the initial steps toward mastering one of the most complex of human skills: reading.
  • Our results indicate that baboons were coding the word and nonword stimuli as a set of letter identities arranged in a particular order. Baboons had learned to discriminate different letters from each other (letter identity) and to associate those letter identities with positional information. Their coding of the statistical dependencies between position-coded letters is reflected in (i) their ability to discriminate novel words from nonwords (i.e., generalization), (ii) the significant correlation between bigram frequency and the accuracy of responses to words, and (iii) the increase in errors in response to nonword stimuli that were orthographically more similar to known words.
Michel Roland-Guill

Dehaene.pdf - Powered by Google Docs - 1 views

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    How Learning to Read Changes
    the Cortical Networks for Vision
    and Language
Michel Roland-Guill

Rough Type: Nicholas Carr's Blog: Killing Mnemosyne - 1 views

  • Isidore, the bishop of Seville, remarked how reading “the sayings” of thinkers in books “render[ed] their escape from memory less easy.”
  • Shakespeare has Hamlet call his memory “the book and volume of my brain.”
    • Michel Roland-Guill
       
      Dante: "In quella parte del libro de la mia memoria, dinanzi a la quale poco si potrebbe leggere, si trova una rubrica la quale dice: In quella parte del libro de la mia memoria, dinanzi a la quale poco si potrebbe leggere, si trova una rubrica la quale dice: INCIPIT VITA NOVA."
  • Books provide a supplement to memory, but they also, as Eco puts it, “challenge and improve memory; they do not narcotize it.”
    • Michel Roland-Guill
       
      Voir chez Jack Goody comment la mémoire dite "par coeur" dépend de la textualité.
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  • Erasmus, in his 1512 textbook De Copia, stressed the connection between memory and reading. He urged students to annotate their books
  • He also suggested that every student and teacher keep a notebook, organized by subject, “so that whenever he lights on anything worth noting down, he may write it in the appropriate section.”
    • Michel Roland-Guill
       
      Voir Darnton qui récemment voyait dans les livres d'extraits la preuve que les empans brefs ne dataient pas d'hier...
  • kinds of flowers
    • Michel Roland-Guill
       
      > "anthologie"
  • To him, memorizing was far more than a means of storage
  • Far from being a mechanical, mindless process, Erasmus’s brand of memorization engaged the mind fully
    • Michel Roland-Guill
       
      Il faudrait référer cette thématique érasmienne à la problématique plus large de la mémoire et de l'éducation à la Renaissance. Montaigne, Rabelais, "tête bien faite", vs "bien pleine".
  • “We should imitate bees,” Seneca wrote, “and we should keep in separate compartments whatever we have collected from our diverse reading, for things conserved separately keep better. Then, diligently applying all the resources of our native talent, we should mingle all the various nectars we have tasted, and then turn them into a single sweet substance, in such a way that, even if it is apparent where it originated, it appears quite different from what it was in its original state.”
  • Memory, for Seneca as for Erasmus, was as much a crucible as a container.
  • “commonplace books,”
  • Francis Bacon
  • “a gentleman’s commonplace book” served “both as a vehicle for and a chronicle of his intellectual development.”
  • The arrival of the limitless and easily searchable data banks of the Internet brought a further shift, not just in the way we view memorization but in the way we view memory itself.
  • Clive Thompson, the Wired writer, refers to the Net as an “outboard brain”
  • David Brooks
  • “I had thought that the magic of the information age was that it allowed us to know more,” he writes, “but then I realized the magic of the information age is that it allows us to know less. It provides us with external cognitive servants—silicon memory systems, collaborative online filters, consumer preference algorithms and networked knowledge. We can burden these servants and liberate ourselves.”
  • Peter Suderman
  • “it’s no longer terribly efficient to use our brains to store information.”
  • “Why memorize the content of a single book when you could be using your brain to hold a quick guide to an entire library? Rather than memorize information, we now store it digitally and just remember what we stored.”
  • Don Tapscott, the technology writer, puts it more bluntly. Now that we can look up anything “with a click on Google,” he says, “memorizing long passages or historical facts” is obsolete.
    • Michel Roland-Guill
       
      "Google" > inutilité des outils de mémorisation (signets) eux-mêmes!
  • When, in an 1892 lecture before a group of teachers, William James declared that “the art of remembering is the art of thinking,” he was stating the obvious.
Michel Roland-Guill

Rough Type: Nicholas Carr's Blog: Minds like sieves - 2 views

  • we may be entering an era in history in which we will store fewer and fewer memories inside our own brains.
    • Michel Roland-Guill
       
      conclusion un peu rapide: plutôt que moins de mémorisation ce peut être une différente forme de mémorisation, plutôt que mémorisation des faits mémorisation des lieux de stockage des faits.
  • external storage and biological memory are not the same thing
  • When we form, or "consolidate," a personal memory, we also form associations between that memory and other memories that are unique to ourselves and also indispensable to the development of deep, conceptual knowledge. The associations, moreover, continue to change with time, as we learn more and experience more. As Emerson understood, the essence of personal memory is not the discrete facts or experiences we store in our mind but "the cohesion" which ties all those facts and experiences together. What is the self but the unique pattern of that cohesion?
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  • We are becoming symbiotic with our computer tools
  • "It seems that when we are faced with a gap in our knowledge, we are primed to turn to the computer to rectify the situation."
  • "when people expect to have future access to information, they have lower rates of recall of the information itself and enhanced recall instead for where to access it."
  • we seem to have trained our brains to immediately think of using a computer when we're called on to answer a question or otherwise provide some bit of knowledge.
  • people who believed the information would be stored in the computer had a weaker memory of the information than those who assumed that the information would not be available in the computer
  • believing that one won’t have access to the information in the future enhances memory for the information itself, whereas believing the information was saved externally enhances memory for the fact that the information could be accessed, at least in general.
  • when people expect information to remain continuously available (such as we expect with Internet access), we are more likely to remember where to find it than we are to remember the details of the item.
Michel Roland-Guill

Pour une anthropologie de la lecture - La Feuille - Blog LeMonde.fr - 1 views

  • “3 des 5 façons préférées d’obtenir un livre ne passent pas par l’achat !”
Michel Roland

Reading ebooks on your phone- why do it? - Mobile Technology News - 1 views

  • There is nothing better than finding an unexpected five minute window open up that can be spent enjoying a good book.
  • The key to the unexpected free time scenario I mentioned is that I must have the reader with me at all times.  My experience has taught me that the only way I can guarantee always having the reader with me is if it lives in my cell phone.
  • in the first two weeks of iPhone ownership I had read six books on it
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  • any comporomises you might be making due to the small screen on your phone are more than met by the joys of finding time to read you would otherwise miss.
Michel Roland-Guill

Day One - Mac Journal Application for iPhone, iPad and Mac Desktop - 1 views

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    The easiest to use journal / diary / text logging application for the Mac is also the best looking. Day One is designed and focused to encourage you to write more. Using the Menu Bar quick entry, Reminder system, Calendar view and inspirational messages your memories and thoughts will be preserved. iCloud or Dropbox sync allows easy backup and syncing with the Day One iPhone and iPad applications.
Michel Roland-Guill

Plagiat universitaire : le pacte de non-lecture / Peter Sloterdijk - LeMonde.fr - 3 views

  • on peut faire apparaître dans chaque texte une complicité intime entre l'auteur et le lecteur hypothétique - une liaison activée par la lecture.
  • On devrait avoir à peu près rendu compte de la situation en partant de l'idée qu'entre 98 % et 99 % de toutes les productions de textes issues de l'université sont rédigées dans l'attente, si justifiée ou injustifiée soit-elle, d'une non-lecture partielle ou totale de ces textes. Il serait illusoire de croire que cela pourrait rester sans effet sur l'éthique de l'auteur.
  • La culture de la citation est la dernière ligne sur laquelle l'université défend son identité.
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  • La culture avance sur ces petites pattes que sont les guillemets.
  • Nous devons menacer jusqu'au bout les textes écrits pour le non-lecteur implicite d'être exposés à la lecture réelle, quitte à courir le risque que les auteurs-pirates d'aujourd'hui nous tiennent pour les imposteurs d'hier qui brandissent la menace de quelque chose dont ils ne peuvent assurer la mise en oeuvre.
  • L'intéressant, ici, est le fait que ce que l'on appelle la lecture réelle ne peut avoir lieu, compte tenu des monstrueuses avalanches que constituent les productions universitaires écrites. Aujourd'hui, seules les machines à lire digitales et les programmes de recherche spécialisés sont en mesure de tenir le rôle de délégués du lecteur authentique et d'entrer en conversation ou en non-conversation avec un texte. Le lecteur humain - appelons-le le professeur - est en revanche défaillant. C'est aussi et précisément en tant qu'homme de l'université que le spécialiste est depuis longtemps condamné à être plus un non-lecteur qu'un lecteur.
  • Celui qui ne veut pas parler de discours ferait donc mieux de ne rien dire à propos des plagiats.
  • on ne peut pas démontrer qu'il existe une différence essentielle entre une compétence authentique et une vaste simulation de la même compétence.
  • Pour appréhender la différence spécifique entre le plagiat universitaire et tous les autres cas de mépris de la "propriété intellectuelle", il faut tenir compte de la spécificité inimitable des procédures académiques.
Michel Roland-Guill

Ebook enrichi: 11 idées, 11 conseils / Enhanced ebooks: 11 ideas, 11 advices ... - 1 views

  • L’enrichissement ne doit pas noyer le texte: l’équation « plus de médias = un meilleur livre » ne fonctionne pas. De fait, le livre produit serait simplement indigeste et gadget. On ne doit pas tomber dans le piège d’ajouter tout et n’importe quoi: il faut choisir ses médias avec parcimonie et intelligence.
Michel Roland-Guill

Salman Rushdie says TV drama series have taken the place of novels | Books | The Observer - 1 views

  • "In the movies the writer is just the servant, the employee. In television, the 60-minute series, The Wire and Mad Men and so on, the writer is the primary creative artist.

    "You have control in the way that you never have in the cinema. The Sopranos was David Chase, West Wing was Aaron Sorkin," he explained.

  • "If you want to make a $300m special effects movie from a comic book, then fine. But if you want to make a more serious movie… I mean you have no idea how hard it was to raise the money for Midnight's Children."
  • "They said to me that what I should really think about is a TV series, because what has happened in America is that the quality – or the writing quality – of movies has gone down the plughole.
Michel Roland-Guill

It's All Text! :: Add-ons for Firefox - 0 views

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    Edit textareas using an external editor, because it's all text!

    Right click on a textarea, select "It's All Text!" and edit the text in the editor of your choice.
Michel Roland-Guill

La fin de la librairie (2e partie) : Pourquoi nous sommes-nous détournés des ... - 0 views

  • rappeler que la crise actuelle de la librairie n'était pas due à l'internet, mais plutôt aux conditions commerciales imposées par la distribution
  • Le livre est devenu un produit de l'industrie culturelle comme les autres, que nous ne consommons plus de manière isolée - pour ceux qui le consomment encore.
  • La part des Français qui n'achètent pas de livres est de 48 %
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  • ceux qui demeurent des gros lecteurs demeurent avant tout des gros acheteurs.
  • forte progression des ventes de livres dans les lieux de transits (gare et aéroports).
  • parmi ceux qui lisent le plus, il y a désormais deux profils de lecteurs. Ceux dont l'imprimé est et demeure le média central, mais aussi ceux qui cumulent les modes d'accès à la culture.
  • alors que les bibliothèques sont devenues des médiathèques pour répondre à la diversification des publics, de l'offre et des demandes, les librairies, elles, sont restées des librairies.
  • le choix et la diversité sont devenues des valeurs primordiales pour les hyperconsommateurs que nous sommes devenus.
  • La librairie subit (peut-être d'une manière un peu plus marquée ou forte) le même déclin que les autres petits commerces de proximité et en partie pour les mêmes raisons.
  • la proximité physique et le conseil, les deux vertus de la librairie ne sont plus de mises. Pire, elles me semblent être devenues des lapalissades, des mantras qu'assènent les libraires pour se convaincre de leur utilité.
  • Les gens sont derrière les écrans !
  • Ce qui va compter dans leur décision, c'est le résumé et la couverture du livre (pour 45 %), loin devant le conseil du libraire (13 % seulement).
Michel Roland-Guill

FocusWriter - Gott Code - 0 views

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    FocusWriter is a simple, distraction-free writing environment. It utilizes a hide-away interface that you access by moving your mouse to the edges of the screen, allowing the program to have a familiar look and feel to it while still getting out of the way so that you can immerse yourself in your work. It's available for Linux, Windows, and Mac OS X, and has been translated into many different languages.
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