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Michel Roland-Guill

Comment le roman a transformé l'écriture savante « Frederic Kaplan - 0 views

    Des manuscrits antiques à l'ère digitale. Lectures et littératies
Michel Roland-Guill

Harvard Educational Review - Journal Article - 0 views

    Reading is critical to students' success in and out of school. One potential means for improving students' reading is writing. In this meta-analysis of true and quasi-experiments, Graham and Herbert present evidence that writing about material read improves students' comprehension of it; that teaching students how to write improves their reading comprehension, reading fluency, and word reading; and that increasing how much students write enhances their reading comprehension. These findings provide empirical support for long-standing beliefs about the power of writing to facilitate reading.
Michel Roland-Guill

Vers une culture numérique lettrée ? | - 0 views

  • « Ce qui importe ce n’est pas de lire, mais de relire » J-L Borgès
  • Comme l’a bien montré Alexandre Serres[1], cette logique adaptative, à fondement comportementaliste et à visée principalement économique, est manifeste dans un grand nombre de textes internationaux, notamment politiques, qui posent la nécessité d’enseigner cette « maîtrise » ou « culture de l’information » (Information Literacy) aux jeunes générations. Ainsi par exemple, en France, la « Loi d’orientation et de programme pour l’avenir de l’école » de 2005 intègre désormais au « socle commun » de connaissances et de compétences la « maîtrise des techniques usuelles de l’information et de la communication »[2].
  • Dans des études qu’il a menées sur les pratiques de lecture numérique, Alain Giffard[12] qualifie de « pré-lecture » l’acte de lire le plus couramment pratiqué lorsque l’on navigue sur le Web : la lecture y ressemble à une sorte de scannage, fait de repérage et de sélection, au mieux d’un pré-montage ; et il distingue cette forme de lecture numérique de la « lecture d’étude », classique, livresque et lettrée, telle qu’elle s’est constituée historiquement depuis le Moyen-Âge autour de l’objet-livre. Or, cette pré-lecture a précisément les caractéristiques du mode d’attention très réactif et volatil entrainé par la surexposition aux médias : elle se révèle réactive/instable, multidirectionnelle/superficielle. Ainsi Alain Giffard montre que le risque est grand que la « pré-lecture » numérique devienne la « lecture de référence » des prochaines générations de collégiens, qui font partie de ce que l’on appelle les « digital natives », ce qui pourrait rendre quasiment impossible l’enseignement et la pratique de la lecture lettrée : « Technique par défaut, risque de confusion entre pré-lecture et lecture, entre lecture d'information et lecture d'étude, entre les différentes attentions, place de la simulation, contexte d'autoformation, arrivée de la génération des "natifs du numérique" dont certains prennent la lecture numérique comme référence: tous ces éléments peuvent se combiner. Le risque est grand alors de ce que certains chercheurs anglais appellent "reading without literacy", une lecture sans savoir lire qui est la forme la plus menaçante d' " illettrisme électronique ". »
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  • On peut soutenir en effet que cette pré-lecture n’est pas une « véritable » lecture, parce que lire – de manière soutenue, profonde ou attentive - c’est toujours déjà relire, et (re)lire c’est en un sens toujours déjà écrire.
Michel Roland-Guill

Salman Rushdie says TV drama series have taken the place of novels | Books | The Observer - 1 views

  • "In the movies the writer is just the servant, the employee. In television, the 60-minute series, The Wire and Mad Men and so on, the writer is the primary creative artist."You have control in the way that you never have in the cinema. The Sopranos was David Chase, West Wing was Aaron Sorkin," he explained.
  • "If you want to make a $300m special effects movie from a comic book, then fine. But if you want to make a more serious movie… I mean you have no idea how hard it was to raise the money for Midnight's Children."
  • "They said to me that what I should really think about is a TV series, because what has happened in America is that the quality – or the writing quality – of movies has gone down the plughole.
Michel Roland-Guill

How the net traps us all in our own little bubbles | Technology | The Observer - 3 views

  • The basic code at the heart of the new internet is pretty simple. The new generation of internet filters looks at the things you seem to like – the actual things you've done, or the things people like you like – and tries to extrapolate. They are prediction engines, constantly creating and refining a theory of who you are and what you'll do and want next.
    • Michel Roland-Guill
      Externalisation de la construction de l'identité
  • you're the only person in your bubble
  • the filter bubble is a centrifugal force, pulling us apart.
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  • the filter bubble is invisible
  • from within the bubble, it's nearly impossible to see how biased it is
  • you don't choose to enter the bubble
  • the filter bubble can affect your ability to choose how you want to live. To be the author of your life, professor Yochai Benkler argues, you have to be aware of a diverse array of options and lifestyles. When you enter a filter bubble, you're letting the companies that construct it choose which options you're aware of
  • You can get stuck in a static, ever- narrowing version of yourself – an endless you-loop.
  • Bowling Alone, his book on the decline of civic life in America, Robert Putnam
  • major decrease in "social capital" – the bonds of trust and allegiance that encourage people to do each other favours
  • our virtual neighbours look more and more like our real-world neighbours, and our real-world neighbours look more and more like us.
  • We're getting a lot of bonding but very little bridging
  • It's easy to push "Like" and increase the visibility of a friend's post about finishing a marathon or an instructional article about how to make onion soup. It's harder to push the "Like" button on an article titled "Darfur sees bloodiest month in two years".
  • "It's a civic virtue to be exposed to things that appear to be outside your interest," technology journalist Clive Thompson told me.
  • More and more, your computer monitor is a kind of one-way mirror, reflecting your own interests while algorithmic observers watch what you click.
  • Starting that morning, Google would use 57 signals – everything from where you were logging in from to what browser you were using to what you had searched for before – to make guesses about who you were and what kinds of sites you'd like. Even if you were logged out, it would customise its results, showing you the pages it predicted you were most likely to click on.
  • With Google personalised for everyone, the query "stem cells" might produce diametrically opposed results for scientists who support stem-cell research and activists who oppose it.
  • on 4 December 2009 the era of personalisation began
  • What was once an anonymous medium where anyone could be anyone – where, in the words of the famous New Yorker cartoon, nobody knows you're a dog – is now a tool for soliciting and analysing our personal data.
  • "You're getting a free service, and the cost is information about you. And Google and Facebook translate that pretty directly into money."
  • Acxiom alone has accumulated an average of 1,500 pieces of data on each person on its database – which includes 96% of Americans – along with data about everything from their credit scores to whether they've bought medication for incontinence.
    il est temps de proposer une critique - francophone ! - de ce social web que l'on nous propose, et l'on alimente, et qui structure nos vies de plus en plus; indispensable littéracie au delà du search et de l'identité numérique; merci pour ce signet
Michel Roland-Guill

Scan This Book! - New York Times - 0 views

  • So what happens when all the books in the world become a single liquid fabric of interconnected words and ideas? Four things: First, works on the margins of popularity will find a small audience larger than the near-zero audience they usually have now. Far out in the "long tail" of the distribution curve — that extended place of low-to-no sales where most of the books in the world live — digital interlinking will lift the readership of almost any title, no matter how esoteric. Second, the universal library will deepen our grasp of history, as every original document in the course of civilization is scanned and cross-linked. Third, the universal library of all books will cultivate a new sense of authority. If you can truly incorporate all texts — past and present, multilingual — on a particular subject, then you can have a clearer sense of what we as a civilization, a species, do know and don't know. The white spaces of our collective ignorance are highlighted, while the golden peaks of our knowledge are drawn with completeness. This degree of authority is only rarely achieved in scholarship today, but it will become routine.
  • once digitized, books can be unraveled into single pages or be reduced further, into snippets of a page. These snippets will be remixed into reordered books and virtual bookshelves.
  • Once snippets, articles and pages of books become ubiquitous, shuffle-able and transferable, users will earn prestige and perhaps income for curating an excellent collection.
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