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erikerickson

How Does the Brain Learn Best? Smart Studying Strategies | MindShift - 41 views

  • pupils today can change the way they study to exploit the brain’s quirky learning processes, using the strategies revealed by memory and learning research
  • Students need to understand that learning happens not only during reading and studying, but in all sorts of ways, so that they can examine their own habits to know which ones may be helping or not, and make adjustments
  • We can be tactical in our schooling.
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  • forgetting serves as a powerful spam filter
  • when the brain has to work hard to retrieve a half-forgotten memory (such as when reviewing new vocabulary words you learned the day before), it re-doubles the strength of that memory.
  • The brain is a foraging learner.
  • The human brain evolved to pick up valuable pieces of information here and there, on the fly, all the time, and put it all together
  • and it’s not only during study or practice
  • By foraging in this way, the brain is “building knowledge continually
  • Forgetting isn’t always bad.
  • Breaking up and spacing out study time over days or weeks can substantially boost how much of the material students retain, and for longer, compared to lumping everything into a single, nose-to-the-grindstone session.
  • Varying the studying environment
  • can help reinforce and sharpen the memory of what you learn.
  • A 15-minute break to go for a walk or trawl on social media isn’t necessarily wasteful procrastination. Distractions and interruptions can allow for mental “incubation” and flashes of insight — but only if you’ve been working at a problem for a while and get stuck, according to a 2009 research meta-analysis.
  • Quizzing oneself on new material, such as by reciting it aloud from memory or trying to tell a friend about it, is a far more powerful way to master information than just re-reading it
  • Experimenting With Learning Tactics
  • benefits of sleep (which improves retention and comprehension of what you learn), perceptual learning modules and mixing up different kinds of related problems or skills in practice sessions instead of repetitively rehearsing just one skill at a time.
  • teachers see all sorts of reforms come and go, and they’re skeptical
  • Surviving the Modern Jungle
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    Chen sums up an interview about Benedict Carey's book, How We Learn: The Surprising Truth about When, Where, and Why It Happens, highlighting and exemplifying take-away messages for self-directed learners as well as teachers.
Tero Toivanen

12 Findings on Mind, Brain & Education | Getting Smart - 24 views

  • Students’ brains continuously adapt to the environments where they live and work.  As students learning in these places, these experiences gradually sculpt the architecture of the brain.
  • Students’ genetic predispositions interact with learning experiences to give rise to a wide range of individual differences.
  • Students learning English as a second language are processing written information in somewhat different ways than native English speakers so standard reading instruction techniques may not be the right fit for their needs.
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  • Education should give students opportunities to practice setting goals, tracking progress toward them, adjusting strategies along the way, and assessing outcomes.
  • Emotions direct students’ learning processes, helping them gravitate toward positive situations and away from negative ones.
  • Mathematics is at least partially dissociable from other cognitive domains and abilities within the domain of mathematics can be dissociable from one another.
  • Education can support the development of emotional regulation skills, and this should be a priority as emotional regulation skills strongly predict academic achievement.
  • When students from disadvantaged backgrounds are in high-quality schools, their cortisol levels decrease throughout the day. The better the school, the more the cortisol levels decrease. Therefore, a quality learning environment can help students reach healthy cortisol levels, which lead to better emotional regulation and more favorable learning outcomes.
  • Environments that promote positive relationships and a sense of community promote learning.
  • Providing meaningful learning experiences with ongoing guidance can enable students at all levels to build toward mastery of a common set of skills.
  • This scientific evidence that emotion is fundamental to learning settles longstanding ideological debates concerning whether educators should be responsible for emotional development—if educators are responsible for intellectual development, they are inherently involved in emotional development as well.
  • Student-centered approaches to learning require students to be self-directed and responsible for their own learning, which requires executive functioning skills such as goal setting, planning, and monitoring progress.
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    Important findings!
Paul Welsh

Author Nicholas Carr: The Web Shatters Focus, Rewires Brains | Magazine - 16 views

  • Dozens of studies by psychologists, neurobiologists, and educators point to the same conclusion: When we go online, we enter an environment that promotes cursory reading, hurried and distracted thinking, and superficial learning. Even as the Internet grants us easy access to vast amounts of information, it is turning us into shallower thinkers, literally changing the structure of our brain.
  • What we’re experiencing is, in a metaphorical sense, a reversal of the early trajectory of civilization: We are evolving from cultivators of personal knowledge into hunters and gatherers in the electronic data forest. In the process, we seem fated to sacrifice much of what makes our minds so interesting.
    • Paul Welsh
       
      In light of these studies, learners could benefit from a "concentration protocol" for isolating the passage from the edge distractions and at least temporarily turning off notifications
Elizabeth Koh

Languages smarten up your brain - Guardian Weekly - 11 views

  • a study of recent research into brain function reveals that students could be gaining a lot more from their pursuit of linguistic skills
  • It argues that there is a dovetailing of results between studies conducted over the last 40 years, including recent findings from the neurosciences
  • six areas in which the multilingual mind differs in some way to the monolingual mind
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  • enhanced capacity for learning whereby knowledge of languages can lead to superior memory function, especially short-term “working” memory
  • enhanced mental flexibility
  • Enhanced problem-solving capability
  • Greater understanding of how language functions and is used to achieve specific goals in life
  • slowdown of age-related mental diminishment
Tero Toivanen

Music Improves Brain Function | LiveScience - 18 views

  • Laurel Trainor, director of the Institute for Music and the Mind at McMaster University in West Hamilton, Ontario, and colleagues compared preschool children who had taken music lessons with those who did not. Those with some training showed larger brain responses on a number of sound recognition tests given to the children. Her research indicated that musical training appears to modify the brain's auditory cortex.
  • Even a year or two of music training leads to enhanced levels of memory and attention when measured by the same type of tests that monitor electrical and magnetic impulses in the brain.
  • “We therefore hypothesize that musical training (but not necessarily passive listening to music) affects attention and memory, which provides a mechanism whereby musical training might lead to better learning across a number of domains," Trainor said.
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  • Trainor suggested that the reason for this is that the motor and listening skills needed to play an instrument in concert with other people appears to heavily involve attention, memory and the ability to inhibit actions. Merely listening passively to music to Mozart -- or any other composer -- does not produce the same changes in attention and memory.
  • Harvard University researcher Gottfried Schlaug has also studied the cognitive effects of musical training. Schlaug and his colleagues found a correlation between early-childhood training in music and enhanced motor and auditory skills as well as improvements in verbal ability and nonverbal reasoning.
  • The correlation between music training and language development is even more striking for dyslexic children. "[The findings] suggest that a music intervention that strengthens the basic auditory music perception skills of children with dyslexia may also remediate some of their language deficits." Schlaug said.
  • Shahin's main findings are that the changes triggered by listening to musical sound increases with age and the greatest increase occur between age 10 and 13. This most likely indicates this as being a sensitive period for music and speech acquisition.
  • passive listening to music seems to help a person perform certain cognitive tests, at least in the short run. Actual music lessons for kids, however, leads to a longer lasting cognitive success.
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    Even a year or two of music training leads to enhanced levels of memory and attention when measured by the same type of tests that monitor electrical and magnetic impulses in the brain.
Samantha Morra

Teachley's Believe It or Not! - 0 views

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    Talking Brain
Tero Toivanen

Music and the Brain - 0 views

  • A little known fact about Einstein is that when he was young he did extremely poor in school. His grade school teachers told his parents to take him out of school because he was "too stupid to learn" and it would be a waste of resources for the school to invest time and energy in his education. The school suggested that his parents get Albert an easy, manual labor job as soon as they could.
  • Instead of following the school's advice, Albert's parents bought him a violin. Albert became good at the violin. Music was the key that helped Albert Einstein become one of the smartest men who has ever lived. Einstein himself says that the reason he was so smart is because he played the violin. He loved the music of Mozart and Bach the most. A friend of Einstein, G.J. Withrow, said that the way Einstein figured out his problems and equations was by improvising on the violin.
  • Another example of how rhythm orders movement is an autistic boy who could not tie his shoes. He learned how on the second try when the task of tying his shoes was put to a song. The rhythm helped organize his physical movements in time.
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  • Classical music from the baroque period causes the heart beat and pulse rate to relax to the beat of the music. As the body becomes relaxed and alert, the mind is able to concentrate more easily. Furthermore, baroque music decreases blood pressure and enhances the ability to learn. Music affects the amplitude and frequency of brain waves, which can be measured by an electro-encephalogram. Music also affects breathing rate and electrical resistance of the skin. It has been observed to cause the pupils to dilate, increase blood pressure, and increase the heart rate.
  • Mozart's music and baroque music, with a 60 beats per minute beat pattern, activate the left and right brain. The simultaneous left and right brain action maximizes learning and retention of information. The information being studied activates the left brain while the music activates the right brain. Also, activities which engage both sides of the brain at the same time, such as playing an instrument or singing, causes the brain to be more capable of processing information.
  • According to The Center for New Discoveries in Learning, learning potential can be increased a minimum of five times by using this 60 beats per minute music.
  • Dr. Lozanov's system involved using certain classical music pieces from the baroque period which have around a 60 beats per minute pattern. He has proven that foreign languages can be learned with 85-100% efficiency in only thirty days by using these baroque pieces. His students had a recall accuracy rate of almost 100% even after not reviewing the material for four years.
  • Group 1 was read the words with Handel's Water Music in the background. They were also asked to imagine the words. Group 2 was read the same words also with Handel's Water Music in the background. Group 2 was not asked to imagine the words. Group 3 was only read the words, was not given any background music, and was also not asked to imagine the words. The results from the first two tests showed that groups 1 and 2 had much better scores than group 3. The results from the third test, a week later, showed that group 1 performed much better than groups 2 or 3.
  • One simple way students can improve test scores is by listening to certain types of music such as Mozart's Sonata for Two Piano's in D Major before taking a test. This type of music releases neurons in the brain which help the body to relax.
  • William Balach, Kelly Bowman, and Lauri Mohler, all from Pennsylvania State University, studied the effects of music genre and tempo on memory retention. They had four groups learn vocabulary words using one of four instrumental pieces - slow classical, slow jazz, fast classical, and fast jazz.
  • Surprisingly, the results showed that changing the genre had no effect on recall but changing the tempo decreased recall.
  • One key ingredient to the order of music from the baroque and classical periods is math. This is realized by the body and the human mind performs better when listening to this ordered music.
  • George recognized that Saul overcame his problems by using special music. With this story in mind King George asked George Frederick Handel to write some special music for him that would help him in the same way that music helped Saul. Handel wrote his Water Music for this purpose.
  • Dr. Ballam goes on to say that, "The human mind shuts down after three or four repetitions of a rhythm, or a melody, or a harmonic progression."
  • Bob Larson, a Christian minister and former rock musician, remembers that in the 70's teens would bring raw eggs to a rock concert and put them on the front of the stage. The eggs would be hard boiled by the music before the end of the concert and could be eaten. Dr. Earl W. Flosdorf and Dr. Leslie A. Chambers showed that proteins in a liquid medium were coagulated when subjected to piercing high-pitched sounds
  • Rock music was played in one of the boxes while Bach's music was played in the other box. The rats could choose to switch boxes through a tunnel that connected both boxes. Almost all of the rats chose to go into the box with the Bach music even after the type of music was switched from one box to the other.
  • She found that the plants grew well for almost every type of music except rock and acid rock. Jazz, classical, and Ravi Shankar turned out to be the most helpful to the plants. However, the plants tested with the rock music withered and died. The acid rock music also had negative effects on the plant growth.
  • One cannot deny the power of music. High school students who study music have higher grade point averages that those who don't. These students also develop faster physically. Student listening skills are also improved through music education. The top three schools in America all place a great emphasis on music and the arts. Hungary, Japan, and the Netherlands, the top three academic countries in the world, all place a great emphasis on music education and participation in music. The top engineers from Silicon Valley are all musicians. Napoleon understood the enormous power of music. He summed it up by saying, "Give me control over he who shapes the music of a nation, and I care not who makes the laws" .
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    Mozart's music and baroque music, with a 60 beats per minute beat pattern, activate the left and right brain. The simultaneous left and right brain action maximizes learning and retention of information. The information being studied activates the left brain while the music activates the right brain. Also, activities which engage both sides of the brain at the same time, such as playing an instrument or singing, causes the brain to be more capable of processing information.
Tero Toivanen

Brain Rules for Presenters - 0 views

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    Dr. John Medina's Brain Rules. What all presenters need to know. How our brain functions better.
Tero Toivanen

Exercise | Brain Rules | - 0 views

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    How to exercise the brain.
Helen Otway

Whole Brain Model (Herrmann) - 0 views

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    A model for whole brain learning and the implication on teaching.
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