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Matti Narkia

Defensin - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia - 0 views

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    "Defensins are small cysteine-rich cationic proteins found in both vertebrates and invertebrates. They are active against bacteria, fungi and many enveloped and nonenveloped viruses. They consist of 18-45 amino acids including six (in vertebrates) to 8 conserved cysteine residues. Cells of the immune system contain these peptides to assist in killing phagocytized bacteria, for example in neutrophil granulocytes and almost all epithelial cells. Most defensins function by binding to microbial cell membrane, and once embedded, forming pore-like membrane defects that allow efflux of essential ions and nutrients
Matti Narkia

The Vitamin D-Antimicrobial Peptide Pathway and Its Role in Protection Against Infectio... - 0 views

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    The vitamin D-antimicrobial peptide pathway and its role in protection against infection.
    Gombart AF.
    Future Microbiol. 2009 Nov;4:1151-65.
    PMID: 19895218

    Vitamin D deficiency has been correlated with increased rates of infection. Since the early 19th century, both environmental (i.e., sunlight) and dietary sources (cod liver) of vitamin D have been identified as treatments for TB. The recent discovery that vitamin D induces antimicrobial peptide gene expression explains, in part, the 'antibiotic' effect of vitamin D and has greatly renewed interest in the ability of vitamin D to improve immune function. Subsequent work indicates that this regulation is biologically important for the response of the innate immune system to wounds and infection and that deficiency may lead to suboptimal responses toward bacterial and viral infections. The regulation of the cathelicidin antimicrobial peptide gene is a human/primate-specific adaptation and is not conserved in other mammals. The capacity of the vitamin D receptor to act as a high-affinity receptor for vitamin D and a low-affinity receptor for secondary bile acids and potentially other novel nutritional compounds suggests that the evolutionary selection to place the cathelicidin gene under control of the vitamin D receptor allows for its regulation under both endocrine and xenobiotic response systems. Future studies in both humans and humanized mouse models will elucidate the importance of this regulation and lead to the development of potential therapeutic applications
Matti Narkia

Vitamin D and influenza - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia - 0 views

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    "Numerous studies link Vitamin D and influenza, as well as Vitamin D and respiratory infections more generally. This vitamin up-regulates genetic expression of various endogenous antimicrobial peptides (AMP), which exhibit broad-spectrum microbicidal activity against bacteria, fungi, and viruses. Reports discussed below indicate that susceptibility to influenza is reduced with higher levels of sun exposure or vitamin D supplementation. Seasonal variation of vitamin D levels in humans can help explain the seasonality of flu epidemics."
Matti Narkia

Cathelicidin - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia - 0 views

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    "Cathelicidin antimicrobial peptide is a family of polypeptides found in lysosomes in polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNs).[1]

    Members of the cathelicidin family of antimicrobial polypeptides are characterized by a highly conserved region (cathelin domain) and a highly variable cathelicidin peptide domain. Cathelicidin peptides have been isolated from many different species of mammals. Cathelicidins were originally found in neutrophils but have since been found in many other cells including epithelial cells and macrophages activated by bacteria, viruses, fungi, or the hormone 1,25-D"
Matti Narkia

The vitamin D-antimicrobial peptide pathway and its role in protection against infectio... - 0 views

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    The vitamin D-antimicrobial peptide pathway and its role in protection against infection.
    Gombart AF.
    Future Microbiol. 2009 Nov;4:1151-65.
    PMID: 19895218
    doi:10.2217/fmb.09.87
Matti Narkia

Vitamin D, respiratory infections, and asthma. [Curr Allergy Asthma Rep. 2009] - PubMed... - 0 views

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    Vitamin D, respiratory infections, and asthma.
    Ginde AA, Mansbach JM, Camargo CA Jr.
    Curr Allergy Asthma Rep. 2009 Jan;9(1):81-7. Review.
    PMID: 19063829
Matti Narkia

Exapation of an ancient Alu short interspersed element provides a highly conserved vita... - 0 views

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    Conclusion

    We demonstrated that the VDRE in the CAMP gene originated from the exaptation of an AluSx SINE in the lineage leading to humans, apes, OWMs and NWMs and remained under purifying selection for the last 55-60 million years. We present convincing evidence of an evolutionarily fixed, Alu-mediated divergence in steroid hormone nuclear receptor gene regulation between humans/primates and other mammals. Evolutionary selection to place the primate CAMP gene under regulation of the vitamin D pathway potentiates the innate immune response and may counter the anti-inflammatory properties of vitamin D.

    Exaptation of an ancient Alu short interspersed element provides a highly conserved vitamin D-mediated innate immune response in humans and primates.
    Gombart AF, Saito T, Koeffler HP.
    BMC Genomics. 2009 Jul 16;10:321.
    PMID: 19607716
    doi:10.1186/1471-2164-10-321
Matti Narkia

Key feature of immune system survived in humans, other primates for 60 million years - 0 views

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    A new study has concluded that one key part of the immune system, the ability of vitamin D to regulate anti-bactericidal proteins, is so important that is has been conserved through almost 60 million years of evolution and is shared only by primates, including humans - but no other known animal species.
Matti Narkia

Plasma 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels in young children undergoing placement of tympanostom... - 0 views

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    Plasma 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels in young children undergoing placement of tympanostomy tubes.\nLinday LA, Shindledecker RD, Dolitsky JN, Chen TC, Holick MF.\nAnn Otol Rhinol Laryngol. 2008 Oct;117(10):740-4.\nPMID: 18998501
Matti Narkia

Human cathelicidin antimicrobial peptide (CAMP) gene is a direct target of the vitamin ... - 0 views

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    Human cathelicidin antimicrobial peptide (CAMP) gene is a direct target of the vitamin D receptor and is strongly up-regulated in myeloid cells by 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3.\nGombart AF, Borregaard N, Koeffler HP.\nFASEB J. 2005 Jul;19(9):1067-77.\nPMID: 15985530
Matti Narkia

The antibiotic vitamin: deficiency in vitamin D may predispose people to infection | Sc... - 0 views

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    In the July 2005 FASEB Journal, Adrian F. Gombart of the University of California, Los Angeles (UCLA) and his colleagues reported that vitamin D boosts production in white blood cells of one of the antimicrobial compounds that defends the body against germs.\n\nImmediately, Cannell says, the proverbial lightbulb went on in his head: Maybe the high doses of vitamin D that he had been prescribing to virtually all the men on his ward had boosted their natural arsenal of the antimicrobial, called cathelicidin, and protected them from flu. Cannell had been administering the vitamin D because his patients, like many other people in the industrial world, had shown a deficiency:
Matti Narkia

Vitamin D3-Triggered Antimicrobial Response--Another Pleiotropic Effect beyond Mineral ... - 0 views

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    P.T. Liu, S. Stenger, H. Li, L. Wenzel, B.H. Tan, S.R. Krutzik, M.T. Ochoa, J. Schauber, K. Wu, C. Meinken, et al.\nVitamin D3-Triggered Antimicrobial Response--Another Pleiotropic Effect beyond Mineral and Bone Metabolism: Toll-Like Receptor Triggering of a Vitamin D-Mediated Human Antimicrobial Response. Science 311: 1770-1773, 2006\nJ. Am. Soc. Nephrol., November 1, 2006; 17(11): 2949 - 2953.
Matti Narkia

Cutting edge: vitamin D-mediated human antimicrobial activity against Mycobacterium tub... - 0 views

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    Cutting edge: vitamin D-mediated human antimicrobial activity against Mycobacterium tuberculosis is dependent on the induction of cathelicidin.\nLiu PT, Stenger S, Tang DH, Modlin RL.\nJ Immunol. 2007 Aug 15;179(4):2060-3.\nPMID: 1767546
Matti Narkia

Cutting Edge: Vitamin D-Mediated Human Antimicrobial Activity against Mycobacterium tub... - 0 views

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    Liu PT, Stenger S, Tang DH, Modlin RL.
    Cutting Edge: Vitamin D-Mediated Human Antimicrobial Activity against Mycobacterium tuberculosis Is Dependent on the Induction of Cathelicidin.
    J Immunol. 2007 Aug 15;179(4):2060-3.
    PMID: 17675463 [PubMed - in pr
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