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Matti Narkia

Defensin - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia - 0 views

    "Defensins are small cysteine-rich cationic proteins found in both vertebrates and invertebrates. They are active against bacteria, fungi and many enveloped and nonenveloped viruses. They consist of 18-45 amino acids including six (in vertebrates) to 8 conserved cysteine residues. Cells of the immune system contain these peptides to assist in killing phagocytized bacteria, for example in neutrophil granulocytes and almost all epithelial cells. Most defensins function by binding to microbial cell membrane, and once embedded, forming pore-like membrane defects that allow efflux of essential ions and nutrients
Matti Narkia

The Vitamin D-Antimicrobial Peptide Pathway and Its Role in Protection Against Infectio... - 0 views

    The vitamin D-antimicrobial peptide pathway and its role in protection against infection.
    Gombart AF.
    Future Microbiol. 2009 Nov;4:1151-65.
    PMID: 19895218

    Vitamin D deficiency has been correlated with increased rates of infection. Since the early 19th century, both environmental (i.e., sunlight) and dietary sources (cod liver) of vitamin D have been identified as treatments for TB. The recent discovery that vitamin D induces antimicrobial peptide gene expression explains, in part, the 'antibiotic' effect of vitamin D and has greatly renewed interest in the ability of vitamin D to improve immune function. Subsequent work indicates that this regulation is biologically important for the response of the innate immune system to wounds and infection and that deficiency may lead to suboptimal responses toward bacterial and viral infections. The regulation of the cathelicidin antimicrobial peptide gene is a human/primate-specific adaptation and is not conserved in other mammals. The capacity of the vitamin D receptor to act as a high-affinity receptor for vitamin D and a low-affinity receptor for secondary bile acids and potentially other novel nutritional compounds suggests that the evolutionary selection to place the cathelicidin gene under control of the vitamin D receptor allows for its regulation under both endocrine and xenobiotic response systems. Future studies in both humans and humanized mouse models will elucidate the importance of this regulation and lead to the development of potential therapeutic applications
Matti Narkia

JNNP -- eLetters for Soilu-Hänninen et al., 79 (2) 152-157 - 0 views

    Vitamin D may suppress infections which lead to development of Multiple Sclerosis
    Steven R Brenner, None (16 August 2007)
    J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 2008

    I read the article with reference to the inverse relationship between multiple sclerosis clinical activity and deficiency of vitamin D by Soilu-Hannienen (1) with interest, and was considering what mechanism could be in play to cause such a relationship.

    25-hydroxylated metabolites of vitamin D act as intracellular regulators of the synthesis and action of defensin (2) molecules against bacterial antigens, defensin being an endogenously synthesized antimicrobial substance (2).

    Human cathelicidin antimicrobial peptide gene is a target of vitamin D receptor and is strongly up-regulated by 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3, indicating vitamin D receptor and the 1,25-dihydroxyvitaminD3 regulate primate innate immunity (3)
Matti Narkia

Vitamin D in defense of the human immune response. - Wiley InterScience :: JOURNALS :: ... - 0 views

    Vitamin D in defense of the human immune response.\nAdams JS, Liu PT, Chun R, Modlin RL, Hewison M.\nAnn N Y Acad Sci. 2007 Nov;1117:94-105. Epub 2007 Jul 26. Review.\nPMID: 17656563\nDOI: 10.1196/annals.1402.03
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