Skip to main content

Home/ Clean Energy Transition/ Group items tagged emissions

Rss Feed Group items tagged

Colin Bennett

Global greenhouse gas emissions accelerate rise - 0 views

    The Emission Database for Global Atmospheric Research (EDGAR) found that global annual emissions of greenhouse gases totalled 41 billion tonnes in 2005, up from 24 billion tonnes in 1970 and 33 billion tonnes in 1990. Between 1990 and 2005, total greenhouse gas emissions amounted to 560 billion tonnes. The EDGAR dataset shows that greenhouse gas emissions have been higher in developing countries than in industrialised countries since 2004, though developing countries emit significantly lower levels of emissions per capita than developed countries (4 tonnes, versus approximately 15 tonnes).
Ihering Alcoforado

Biofuels: indirect land use change and climate impact - 0 views

    "The objective of this study is to:  compile the available recent literature on ILUC emissions;  compare these emissions with the assumed gains of biofuels;  assess how ILUC changes the carbon balance of using biofuels;  formulate policies to avoid these extra emissions associated with ILUC. Trends in land use, with and without biofuels All the studies on global agricultural markets reviewed predict that new arable land will be required to meet future global demand for food and feed. Although there will be increased productivity on current arable land (intensification), food and feed demand will probably grow faster, which means that mobilization of new land is likely to occur. Biofuels produced from crops (the current mainstream practice) will add extra demand for crops like wheat, rice, maize, rapeseed and palm oil. This will increase prices for these crops (as well as for land) and lead to two impacts: intensification of agricultural production and conversion of forests and grasslands to arable land. In this report we consider the issue of indirect land use change initiated by EU biofuels policy and seek to answer the following questions:  What is the probability of biofuels policies initiating land use changes?  What greenhouse gas emissions may result from indirect land use change, expressed as a factor in the mathematical relation given above?  What technical measures can be applied and what policy measures adopted to limit or entirely mitigate indirect land use change and the associated greenhouse gas emissions? We first (Chapter 2) broadly discuss the mechanism of indirect land use change. We next discuss why there is a perception among stakeholders that there is a serious risk that EU biofuels policy will initiate indirect land use change (Chapter 3) and consider the figures cited by other studies as an indication of the magnitude the associated greenhouse gas emissions  (Chapter 4). We then broadly consid
Hans De Keulenaer

Emissions from Photovoltaic Life Cycles - 0 views

  • Photovoltaic (PV) technologies have shown remarkable progress recently in terms of annual production capacity and life cycle environmental performances, which necessitate timely updates of environmental indicators. Based on PV production data of 2004–2006, this study presents the life-cycle greenhouse gas emissions, criteria pollutant emissions, and heavy metal emissions from four types of major commercial PV systems: multicrystalline silicon, monocrystalline silicon, ribbon silicon, and thin-film cadmium telluride. Life-cycle emissions were determined by employing average electricity mixtures in Europe and the United States during the materials and module production for each PV system. Among the current vintage of PV technologies, thin-film cadmium telluride (CdTe) PV emits the least amount of harmful air emissions as it requires the least amount of energy during the module production. However, the differences in the emissions between different PV technologies are very small in comparison to the emissions from conventional energy technologies that PV could displace. As a part of prospective analysis, the effect of PV breeder was investigated. Overall, all PV technologies generate far less life-cycle air emissions per GWh than conventional fossil-fuel-based electricity generation technologies. At least 89% of air emissions associated with electricity generation could be prevented if electricity from photovoltaics displaces electricity from the grid.
Hans De Keulenaer

The transition to a Zero Emission Vehicles fleet for cars in the EU by 2050 - 1 views

shared by Hans De Keulenaer on 14 Nov 17 - No Cached
  • Decarbonising transport is central to achieving Europe’s policy commitments on climate change. T ransport is expected to deliver a 60% greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions reduction target of the EU for 2050. Achieving these commitments is expected to require a complete decarbonisation of the passenger car fleet. The more ambitious COP21 commitment to limit temperature rises to 1.5°C will also likely demand a complete decarbonisation of transport by 2050.
  • Attaining a 100% ZEV fleet by 2050 will require all new car sales to be ZEV by 2035 (assuming a similar vehicle life-time as today) and a substantially faster introduction of ZEVs and PHEVs than current policy and likely 2025 policies will achieve .
  • Compared to the CO2 emission reductions targeted in the current EU plan, the transition to a 100% ZEV car fleet by 2050 will result in an additional reduction of the cumulative CO2 emissions in the period 2020 and 2050 of 2.2 to 3.9 gigatonnes. The current EU White Paper for T ransport, targets to reduce the transport emissions by 60% compared to 1990.
  • ...9 more annotations...
  • The best option for a rapid emission reduction is to focus on BEVs rather than PHEVs whereby the EU goes directly and aggressively to 100% ZEV sales. A scenario where PHEVs are first will push the strong ZEV growth further into the future and will ultimately require a larger effort at a later time. However, the impact of (an early fleet of) PHEVs on reducing ZEV costs, increasing consumer acceptance and promoting investments in charging / fuelling infra is difficult to predict / model and may play an important role as well.
  • The “Tank to Wheel” amount of energy needed for transport will be reduced by 78% compared to today for a transition to a BEV passenger car fleet. A transition to a 100% fuel cell electric vehicle fleet will result in a 46% reduction of energy for the EU’s car fleet.
  • Around 1,740 million barrels of oil per year could be saved by 2050 with the transition to a zero-emission passenger car fleet, the equivalent of € 78 billion at the current price of 45 $ per barrel.
  • The GHGs from oil will potentially get higher if shifting to for example oil sands .
  • Purchase cost parity is assumed to be achieved in the period 2022-2026 for a BEV and a comparable internal combustion engine vehicle (ICEV), with BEVs being comparatively lower in cost after that. Parity at Total Cost of Ownership (TCO) level will be achieved 2 to 4 years before the purchase cost parity is achieved. The average TCO for a ZEV will be €0.04 to €0.06 per kilometre less than an ICEV by 2030.
  • This represents societal savings of € 140 billion to € 210 billion per year for a 100% ZEV EU car fleet.
  • A mass market for ZEV cars will create synergy for the cost competitive development of a ZEV LCV (Light Commercial V ehicles) market representing 17% of the light vehicles emissions. It will also accelerate the development of a HDV (Heavy Duty V ehicle) ZEV / PHEV market for passenger and goods transportation. It will also free up advanced biofuels for other transport sectors.
  • A lithium-ion battery manufacturing capacity of 400 to 600 Gigawatt hours will be required at the point where 100% of the passenger cars in Europe sold will be BEV . This is the equivalent of around 10 to 14 “Giga factories” representing a value of €40 to 60 billion per year for cars alone.
  • In addition, as BEVs have superior driving performance characteristics and people used to driving electric do not return to ICEVs, the transition may become demand driven once the price, range and infrastructure barriers have been removed.
Sergio Ferreira

3E Intelligence : 23% of Chinese CO2 emissions are our responsibility - 0 views

  • 23% of China’s CO2 emissions in 2004 were due to demand from the West for manufacturing products made in the new economic giant. This 23% is as much as the combined emissions from Germany and Australia and more than twice the national emissions of the UK.
Glycon Garcia

Electricity | Pew Center on Global Climate Change - 3 views

    The electricity sector accounts for almost 35 percent of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions in the United States, and 40 percent of the carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions. Over 80 percent of GHG emissions associated with electricity generation are from the combustion of coal, with nearly all the rest due to natural gas and petroleum combustion. U.S. electricity sales are split among the residential (37 percent), commercial (36 percent), and industrial (27 percent) sectors, where primary uses vary by sector. Over the past 30 years the U.S. electricity sector has become less carbon intensive, and the U.S. economy has grown less electricity-intensive.
Hans De Keulenaer

The Path to Zero - 0 views

  • An article in today’s Washington Post reported on new scientific research suggesting that emissions of greenhouse gases must be reduced to zero by mid-century, in order to prevent global warming that could persist for hundreds of years, perhaps eventually producing average temperatures higher than for millions of years. As the climate debate focuses increasingly on policy, the impact of such findings on efforts to craft practical frameworks for reducing US and global emissions becomes as important as the scientific result itself. The implication of the need for truly radical change contained in this latest report might either galvanize action on capping our emissions, or convince us that none of the current pathways for reducing emissions is truly worth pursuing.
Hans De Keulenaer

ScienceDirect - Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews : Life cycle inventory analysi... - 0 views

  • Material flows and emissions in all the stages of production of zinc, copper, aluminum, cadmium, indium, germanium, gallium, selenium, tellurium, and molybdenum were investigated. These metals are used selectively in the manufacture of solar cells, and emission and energy factors in their production are used in the life cycle analysis (LCA) of photovoltaics. Significant changes have occurred in the production and associated emissions for these metals over the last 10 years, which are not described in the LCA databases. Furthermore, emission and energy factors for several of the by-products of the base metal production were lacking. This review article aims in updating the life cycle inventories associated with the production of the base metals (Zn, Cu), and defining the production paths and emission and energy allocations for the minor metals (Cd, Ge, In, Mo, Se, and Te) used in photovoltaics.
Colin Bennett

Global Carbon Dioxide Emissions Projected to Increase 39% by 2030 - 0 views

    In the absence of specific policies to limit greenhouse gas emissions, the world's energy use is expected to increase by 44% between 2006 and 2030, causing a 39% increase in global carbon dioxide emissions, according to DOE's Energy Information Administration (EIA).
Hans De Keulenaer

Pumped Hydro: Is it TOO Green? | PeteSinger - 1 views

  • In the latest Electric Power Research Institute Journal, an article titled "Hydropower Reservoirs: A Question of Emissions" notes that reservoirs used for hydropower and for pumped-hydro energy storage are not necessarily as green as you might imagine. Or rather, they might be too green: carbon-rich organic material that accumulates on the reservoir floor can be the source of carbon emissions. A recent study of the 90-year-old Lake Wohlen, in Switzerland, for example, found high emissions of methane, as recently reported in the journal Environmental Science and Technology, in an article titled: "Extreme Methane Emissions from a Swiss Hydropower Reservoir: Contribution from Bubbling Sediments."
    Applies to both hydro reservoirs (i.e. water pooled behind a dam) and hydro pools filled with pumped-hydro. Note that the latter, pumped-hydro, already carries the emissions profile of the energy used to power the turbine pumping the water against gravity, scaled up for conversion efficiency losses.
Sergio Ferreira

Questioning GDP as the world lives far beyond its means; our Chinese emission... - 0 views

  • The “Chinadependence” report shows that a big part of greenhouse gases attributed to China are the result of products that are made for our Western consumers market. So, in fact, these CO2 emissions should be included in our own greenhouse stats.
Colin Bennett

Improving Efficiency And Cutting Emissions With Gas Turbine Technologies - 0 views

  • Replacing older oil-fired technology at the site, the gas turbines will increase the plant's efficiency and reduce its environmental impact in line with the Portuguese government's regulation to promote efficiency and reduce carbon dioxide emissions (Fig.1). Approved in January 2010 and in support of the European Union cogeneration directive, a new Portuguese law will regulate cogeneration on a national level.
    "Replacing older oil-fired technology at the site, the gas turbines will increase the plant's efficiency and reduce its environmental impact in line with the Portuguese government's regulation to promote efficiency and reduce carbon dioxide emissions (Fig.1). Approved in January 2010 and in support of the European Union cogeneration directive, a new Portuguese law will regulate cogeneration on a national level."
Hans De Keulenaer

Train can be worse for climate than plane - environment - 08 June 2009 - New Scientist - 0 views

  • True or false: taking the commuter train across Boston results in lower greenhouse gas emissions than travelling the same distance in a jumbo jet. Perhaps surprisingly, the answer is false. A new study compares the "full life-cycle" emissions generated by 11 different modes of transportation in the US. Unlike previous studies on transport emissions, Mikhail Chester and Arpad Horvath of the University of California, Berkeley, looked beyond what is emitted by different types of car, train, bus or plane while their engines are running and includes emissions from building and maintaining the vehicles and their infrastructure, as well as generating the fuel to run them.
Hans De Keulenaer

pm modi: India's ambitious climate goals: Why decarbonization of hard-to-abate sectors ... - 1 views

  • India’s energy sector emissions are dominated by emissions from electricity production, industrial and construction activities, and transportation (See figure). And while electricity production will drive significant carbon emissions reduction, the “harder-to-abate” transportation and industry sectors will hold the key to India’s net-zero goal, and more so the 1 billion tons reduction by 2030 goal.
    The way we look at emissions may be key to resolving the climate crisis. Interesting to observe that buildings do not even appear in the Indian taxonomy.
Hans De Keulenaer

Rwanda earns double by reducing carbon emissions | The Rwanda Focus - 1 views

  • According to Yves Tuyishime, carbon market and CDM investment promotion officer at the Rwanda Environment Management Authority REMA, the mechanism allows developed countries to meet their emissions reduction targets in a cost effective manner.
  • In Rwanda, projects that have the potential to be included in CDM include reforestation, waste management, biomass waste/biogas usage, energy efficiency and renewable energy.
Ihering Alcoforado

Global sustainability and key needs in future automotive design - 0 views

    Environ Sci Technol. 2003 Dec 1;37(23):5414-6. Global sustainability and key needs in future automotive design. McAuley JW. Basell USA Inc., 912 Appleton Road, Elkton, Maryland 21921, USA. Abstract The number of light vehicle registrations is forecast to increase worldwide by a factor of 3-5 over the next 50 years. This will dramatically increase environmental impacts worldwide of automobiles and light trucks. If light vehicles are to be environmentally sustainable globally, the automotive industry must implement fundamental changes in future automotive design. Important factors in assessing automobile design needs include fuel economy and reduced emissions. Many design parameters can impact vehicle air emissions and energy consumption including alternative fuel or engine technologies, rolling resistance, aerodynamics, drive train design, friction, and vehicle weight. Of these, vehicle weight is key and will translate into reduced energy demand across all energy distribution elements. A new class of vehicles is needed that combines ultra-light design with a likely hybrid or fuel cell engine technology. This could increase efficiency by a factor of 3-5 and reduce air emissions as well. Advanced lightweight materials, such as plastics or composites, will need to overtake the present metal-based infrastructure. Incorporating design features to facilitate end-of-life recycling and recovery is also important. The trend will be towards fewer materials and parts in vehicle design, combined with ease of disassembly. Mono-material construction can create vehicle design with improved recyclability as well as reduced numbers of parts and weight.
Hans De Keulenaer

International Energy Agency - Energy Publications - 0 views

  • Improvements in energy efficiency over the past three decades have played a key role in limiting global increases in energy use and CO2 emissions. For IEA countries, energy efficiency gains since 1990 have led to annual energy savings of more than 16 EJ in 2005 and 1.3 Gt of avoided CO2 emissions. However, the recent rate of efficiency improvement has been much lower than in the past. The good news is that a large potential remains for further energy and CO2 savings across all sectors. In industry alone, the application of proven technologies and best practices on a global scale could save between 1.9 Gt and 3.2 Gt of CO2 emissions per year. In public power generation, if all countries produced electricity at current best practice levels, CO2 savings would be between 1.8 Gt and 2.5 Gt.
Energy Net

Peak Energy: Smart metering is essential to hit cardon emission targets - 0 views

    Smart Meters are hitting the news with ever increasing frequency (which means I really should pull my finger out and finish off a detailed post on them one day) - The (UK) Telegraph reports that "Smart metering alone will not make Britain meet its 2050 carbon emission targets. But the necessary cuts will not be made without them." - Smart metering is essential to hit 2050 cardon emission targets.
Hans De Keulenaer

Greenhouse gas emissions from IT soar | Energy Efficiency News - 0 views

  • By 2020, the manufacture, distribution and usage of IT equipment could reach 3% of the world’s total greenhouse gas emissions – more than aviation and twice that of current UK levels, according to figures from the consultants McKinsey.
Colin Bennett

The Energy Blog: Emissions from Photovoltaic Life Cycles - 0 views

  • A new report has found that thin-film cadmium telluride solar cells have the lowest life-cycle emissions primarily because they consume the least amount of energy during the module production of the four types of major commercial PV systems: multicrystalline silicon, monocrystalline silicon, ribbon silicon, and thin-film cadmium telluride (CdTe).
1 - 20 of 239 Next › Last »
Showing 20 items per page