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Garth Holman

The Night Journey - IslamiCity - 0 views

    The story from Islam text about the night ride.
ed h

Ancient Inventions - Lesson Plans & Games for Kids - 0 views

  • The ancient Egyptians made their own ice. Women placed shallow clay trays of water on straw beds. Evaporation, combined with the drop in night temperatures, froze the water. Cool night air circulated from the air shaft built in the middle of their houses. Windows were arranged opposite doors to allow for a cross draft.
    • ed h
      This is very creative and a good idea.
Esther M

Medieval Monastery - 0 views

  • Medieval Monastery Hierarch
  • y - Another Feudal Pyramid of Power
  • The PopeBishopArch BishopArch DeaconAbbotPriorDeanMonks
  • ...10 more annotations...
  • A Medieval monastery received pilgrims and travellers, at a period when western Europe was almost destitute of innsA Medieval monastery performed many works of charity, feeding the hungry, healing the sick who were brought to their doors, and distributing their medicinesA Medieval monastery provided education for boys who wished to become priests and those who intended to lead active lives in the worldA Medieval monastery copied the manuscripts of classical authors preserving valuable books that would otherwise have been lost A Medieval monastery kept records of the most striking events of their time and acted as chroniclers of the medieval history of the Middle Ages
  • the lavatorium was a room which contained a trough with running water where monks washed their hands before meals Misericord - a misericord was the part of a monastery where monks were disciplinedNight Stair - A staircase used by the monks to enter a church directly from their dormitory in order to attend late Night and early morning servicesRefectory - the refectory was dining hall of a monasterySacristy - the sacristy was a small building, usually attached to the chancel in which vestments and sacred vessels were keptScriptorium - the scriptorium was the room in a monastery used by clerics or scribes copying manuscriptsWarming-house - the warming house was the only room in a monastery, apart from the infirmary and kitchen, where a fire was allowed. Also called a Calefactory
  • Lavatorium
  • Lavatorium
  • Lavatorium
  • Lavatorium
  • Cellarium - store-house of a monasteryChapter-house - The chapter house was a room in which monks met daily, to discuss business and to hear a chapter of the monastic ruleCloister - the cloister was a covered walkway in a monastery often situated around an quadrangle A cloister often comprised of a plain wall or colonnade on the outer side and a series of windows on the inner side Dorter - a dorter was a monastic dormitory. Sometimes the monks slept in isolated rooms called cells
  • Frater - a frater was another term for a refectory (dining room)Garderobe - a garderobe was a lavatory in a medieval buildingGranary - A monastery storehouse for threshed grainInfirmary - the infirmary was the part of a monastery which housed the monks who were too sick or old to take part in the normal monastic lifeKitchen - The monastery kitchen where food was prepared and cookedLavatorium -
  • s  of Medieval monks
  • s  of Medieval monks
    Describes life in a midieval monastery
Garth Holman

Untitled - 2 views

  • Warlike Games of the Nobles; the Tournament. So eager for war and adventure were the nobles that times of peace seemed dull. Even hunting, of which they were very fond, was not exciting enough. So they had "tournaments." These were simply play-wars in which knights contended, either in single combat or in opposing troops.
  • Galleries were erected from which the ladies might view the combats and applaud their champions; and high nobles and even kings in splendid costume eagerly attended. The knights in their shining armor, with colored streamers fluttering from their lances, made a gallant picture.
  • One of them was "chivalry," which taught that every boy of noble birth should strive to be a true "knight" and every girl a "lady."
  • ...3 more annotations...
  • A true knight was a brave warrior who feared nothing, who was always ready to fight for the poor or the unfortunate, and who would never do a mean or underhand thing. To perform a gallant feat of arms, or to help any one in distress, he would gladly risk any danger and never ask for pay. A true knight must be a good Christian and serve the church. But most of all he was to select some noble lady for whose sake he would win renown and whose smile would be his highest reward.
  • chivalry marked out for each young noble what he was to learn. At about the age of seven his training began. Usually he was sent by his father to the castle of his lord or to that of some other famous knight. Here he became a "page." He waited constantly upon the lord and his wife, and by the ladies of the castle was taught courtly manners and perhaps how to play and sing. But when he grew strong enough for more active tasks, perhaps at fourteen or fifteen, he became a "squire." He now attended more especially upon the lord. He must care for his horses, keep his arms bright, and go with him on his campaigns. Meanwhile, under the direction of his lord, he practiced constantly in the use of arms, learning to ride, to wear the heavy armor, and to wield the lance. The older squires fought beside their lords in battle.
  • The giving of "knighthood" was an impressive ceremony. After bathing and arraying himself in the required costume of red, white, and black, the young man was required to watch for a whole night before the altar of a church in which his weapons and armor had been placed. In the morning he attended mass and then, in the presence of all his family, friends, and vassals, advanced to his lord and knelt. The lord drew his sword and with the flat of the blade smote the young man on the shoulder, saying as he did so, "In the name of God,’ St. Michael, and St. George, I dub thee knight. Be brave and loyal." Then the newly made knight arose joyfully, and leaping upon his horse showed his skill in riding and in the use of his sword and lance. The ceremony ended with a great feast.
tdowd t

How Feudalism Works - 0 views

  • Mind Your Manors   In the days of decentralized government, a fief was like its own mini country that produced pretty much everything that was needed from food to weapons to tools. At the heart of a lord's fief was the manor-large estates. The manor was where the lord's family, servants, and his knights lived. At first they began as large houses, but over the years became full castles as walls, towers, and moats were added for protection. Manors were always in the country and surrounded by farmland and woods. Some of the wealthier lords even had more than one manor.   A manor was the center of the community. Not only did it serve as a place for peasants to run to in times of war, but was the political center as well. When he wasn't out fighting for his Lord, the lord of a fief would act as a judge in settling disputes. He also appointed officials who would collect taxes and rent from the peasants and townspeople. Large manors had their own churches complete with their own clergy, as well as a marketplace where locals could buy and sell goods. At any time one time, hundreds of people from priests, knights, squires, entertainers, merchants, peasants, and visiting nobles would head to the manor.   For the Lady of the manor her day was spent overseeing servants & caring for the children. When her husband was away (or killed in battle) the Lady of the manor assumed the same roles her husband did, appointing officials and acting as judge. In the early Middle Ages a woman owning property was not all that uncommon.
  • Living in a castle might sound romantic but it's not all that it was cracked up to be. Medieval manors were built of wood and stone and built on a large scale. Glass was rare and extremely expensive so windows often were either left open or covered with cloth during the winter. The only means of heating a manor was the fireplace. Each major room had its own. The Great Room, which as its name implies was the center of manor life.  The Great Room was heated and lit by an enormous fireplace, big enough to stand in. The Great Room was where all of the eating, drinking, debating, politicking, and merry making and other business was conducted. Speaking of doing business, how did medieval people use the bathroom? All manor houses had privies either outside or inside the castle. The ones inside were nothing more than a seat that emptied directly into the moat. ​ To modern observers manors would have been filthy places. Fleas were common and the smell of hundreds of unwashed people (who often only bathed once a week) would have pervaded. Rats and mice also would have been running around as food was thrown directly on the floor during meal times. At night the servants swept the floor and rushes (dried river reeds) would be spread on the floor and all minor visitors and knights would bed down. The manor was often dark, cold, and smoky. To liven things up a bit, tapestries would be commissioned to decorate the walls.
Dana G

Greece Country Profile - National Geographic Kids - 0 views

  • Greece has the longest coastline in Europe and is the southernmost country in Europe.
  • mainland
  • rugged mountains, forests, and lakes,
  • ...25 more annotations...
  • thousands of islands dotting the blue Aegean Sea
  • Mediterranean Sea
  • Ionian Sea
  • the mainland, the islands, and Peloponnese, the peninsula south of the mainland.
  • three geographical regions
  • prime minister has the most power
  • 3,600 feet
  • Mount Olympus
  • 9,570 feet
  • home of the gods.
  • Greece abolished their monarchy in 1975 and became a parliamentary republic
  • e Pindus mountain range on the mainland contains one of the world's deepest gorges
  • president and a prime minister
  • president selects cabinet ministers who run government departments
  • he parliament, called the Vouli, has only one house with 300 members who are elected every four years. Greece became part of the European Union in 1981.
  • The first great civilization in Greece was the Minoan culture on the island of Crete around 2000 B.C
  • Minoans were conquered by the Myceneans from the mainland in 1450 B.C.
  • city-states, which were ruled by noblemen
  • Athens became the most powerful, and in 508 B.C
  • Greece won independence in 1832.
  • The first Olympic Games were held in the southern city of Olympia in 700 B.C. to honor Zeus, the king of the gods.
  • banned by the Romans in A.D. 393, but began again in Athens in 1896.
  • reece was ruled by foreigners for over 2,000 years beginning with the Romans conquering the Greeks in the 2nd century.
  • new system of rule by the people called democracy
    • Dana G
      This was cool!
Garth Holman

Welcome to My 7th Grade Adventure - History with Holman - 2 views

    • Garth Holman
      Great Cartoon to really explain an idea.  Well found:) 
  • And in the middle of the Classic Age of Greece, it was important for Greeks to travel and trade.
  • interest as each citizen grabbed a small stone from a large pile and started dropping it in two separate piles:
  • ...6 more annotations...
  • each for one side of the debate.  It was quite obvious that the pile for stopping the use of the boat was a bit larger, so without any counting, everybody declared that the majority ruled.
    • Garth Holman
      Nice touch...Obvious majority rule. 
  • "At least it's not Sparta.  Oligarchies," a small woman nearby talking the elder that I had ran into before whispered.
  • Only a small group of probably aristocratic people can make decisions.
  • Starting to think about our representative democracy back in the United States of America, I headed back to my sleeping spot the previous night.  The debate had taken so long, it was almost sunset.  Direct democracies are much more different than our representative democracy, I thought. 
  • In a direct democracy, there are no separation of powers: citizens create laws, enforce laws, and act as judges, whereas in a representative democracy, some people have more power than others and citizens vote people to create laws, enforce laws, and act as judges.  But both direct and representative democracies are different than theocracies or monarchies.  
Garth Holman

The Renaissance at - 3 views

  • About 1450
  • Renaissance is a French word that means "rebirth."
  • beginning of modern history.
  • ...22 more annotations...
  • flowering in literature
  • painting, sculpture, and architecture. Paintings became more realistic and focused less often on religious topics.
  • began in northern Italy
  • Arab scholars preserved the writings of the ancient Greeks in their libraries. When the Italian cities traded with the Arabs, ideas were exchanged along with goods. These ideas, preserved from the ancient past, served as the basis of the Renaissance.
  • William Shakespeare.
  • Crusaders returned to Europe with a newfound understanding of the world.
  • The invention of the printing press encouraged literacy and helped to spread new ideas.
  • Wealthy families and the church had amassed enough wealth to become patrons.
  • The development of financial techniques such as bookkeeping and credit allowed merchants to
  • prosper
  • studying the world around them.
    • Garth Holman
      What does the term Rebirth mean?  Imply?  SO the Renaissance was a WHAT? 
    • Rose h
      The beginning of a new age, 
    • Margo L
      Whats a turk???
    • Garth Holman
      A Turk is a person from Modern Turkey.  They divide the European/Christian world from the Middle East and Asia (Arab/Islamic) 
    • agriffin a
      the term re birth means a new life or to start over from scratch.
    • gpinhasi g
      Why did the Europeans became more interested in the World around them?
    • jgreen j
      Because the world around them was very interesting.
    • jdanielpour j
      The reason why Europeans all the sudden are now curious and are now investigating the world around them is that after the black death and the crusades, people became more humanist and farther away from religion, so this causes two things: First, religion was keeping others from wondering what everything is, (since religion would make an answer for the questions people had,) keeping everyone together in one place. Second, Christianity at that time had a pretty bad relationship with Muslims, so now that people aren't letting their Religion tell them what to do, people will go past those religious laws for the sack of curiosity.
    • Garth Holman
      So, who do we thank for saving the knowledge of Ancient Greece and Rome?  Who helped make our world? 
    • Lance C
      The muslims
    • Jack Z
      The Arabs
    • Garth Holman
      What does the word Patron mean?  Look it up.   How did art change?  How did MONEY impact society? 
    • glever g
      A Patron is like an EMPLOYER they pay you with MONEY as compared to an item or land to do a task
    • Garth Holman
      Here we have four causes.  What do they really say is happening?  In your own words. 
    • Hannah K
      The idea of investing
  • Rich families became patrons and commissioned great art. Artists advanced the Renaissance style of showing nature and depicting the feelings of people.
  • Crusaders returned to Europe with a newfound understanding of the world. The invention of the printing press encouraged literacy and helped to spread new ideas. Wealthy families and the church had amassed enough wealth to become patrons. The development of financial techniques such as bookkeeping and credit allowed merchants to prosper
    • Yuke Z
      Cultural Diffusion
    • Yuke Z
      Replaced illuminated manuscripts. Took much less time to use printing press, which means, more books and ideas could be spread
    • bsafenovitz b
      So more money could be made in a faster time
    • Yuke Z
      Banking is invented. Instead of breaking the stick, now there is bookkeeping.
    • Garth Holman
      If the Middle Ages are sometimes called the "DARK AGES", why is the Phrase "DAWN of a New Age" so important? 
    • mberkley m
      I think the "DAWN" means that the "New Age" is going to be a better and nicer time for people and the world will be calmer that before
    • glever g
      I believe the "DAWN" means an enlightening of minds
    • jdanielpour j
      Since the dark ages are now over, and now it's the "DAWN" of a new age, this could imply that, the "DARK AGES," was the night/hibernation of technology and/or knowledge and information, and now that it is now the "DAWN," we could infer that this could mean that technology and knowledge, are awakening.
    • nshore n
      I think "DAWN" probably means the beginning of change in Europe. Everything from art to government transforms into new ideas for a new era. 
Garth Holman

World-History | Medieval Knights - 1 views

  • Knights might have been professional soldiers but that didn't mean they had to act like one. In the early days of feudalism, knights often ate at the same table as the lords and ladies of the manor
  • They often belched, spit, and put their feet directly on the dinner table. The refined ladies and lords were appalled. So, a code of honor was drawn up that we now call Chivalry.
    • Garth Holman
      So Chivalry comes as a way to correct their personal bad behavior. 
  • This stems from the Medieval Knights Code of Chivalry and the Vows of Knighthood.
  • ...12 more annotations...
  • There were at least 17 rules to the knights code of chivalry and vows of knighthood. The most important were to serve God, serve their liege lord (the King), be courteous to all women (though what they meant was all women of the noble class), and to defend the weak. Other rules included to fight for the welfare of all, to live by honor and glory, and to refrain from the wanton giving of offence; basically, don’t act like ye olde arse.
    • Garth Holman
      Rules for the knight to follow. 
  • this was meant to defend the elderly, women and children, but of the upper class. Knights were often brutal to peasants and it was considered acceptable because of the low social status of the peasants. 
    • Garth Holman
      Poor Peasants? 
  • From this, came rules like if a woman was of equal or higher status, he should stand when she enters a room and sit only after she does, the best foods at a meal should be offered to her, and when walking on the sidewalk, the man should walk closest to the street. This was to protect the woman from getting spattered with mud and the contents of chamber pots (buckets that were used as toilets) that were thrown out windows. It was a way to show that the gentleman honored the woman to have the poop hit him instead.
  • nights kept their skills sharp by competing in tournaments known as jousts where two heavily armored horseman race at another at high speed
  • Medieval tournaments brought knights and lords together in friendly competitions to show off their skills at hand to hand combat, horse back riding, and of course, jousting
  • A head shot for example was the most damaging but also the most difficult target, and therefore was awarded the most points.
  • Cash prizes, called a purse, would be given to the winners and this was the best way to move up the social ladder if you didn't get a chance to show off your skills on the battle field. 
    • Garth Holman
      Maybe you can win the "PURSE" in your blog! 
  • To become a knight was a long and difficult path.
  • sent to live in the castle with his Lord where his training would begin around the age of seven
  • road to knighthood he was known as a page. A page's training involved learning to ride a horse and receiving religious instruction from the priest of the manor. And, when he wasn't riding or praying, a page spent his days running errands and serving the ladies of the manor. He would also be taught to dance, sing, and play a musical instrument which were considered honorable qualities for a knight to have.
  • a page would be promoted to the role of squire. A squire worked directly with his knight. The squire learned skills from his knight (who was also his Lord) such as sword fighting and hand to hand combat. The squire pretty much acted as personal assistant to his knight, polishing his armor, caring for his horse, and even waiting on him at meal times. During times of battle, it was the job of the squire to help his Lord into the armor and look after him if he was wounded. He also had the awful task of cleaning out the armor which, after a long day on the battle field would be covered in all sorts of bodily fluids.
    • Garth Holman
      Like pee He he!
  • "I promise on my faith that I will in the future be faithful to the lord, never cause him harm and will observe my homage to him completely against all persons in good faith and without deceit." -A Typical Oath of Fealty
    • Garth Holman
      NOTE: loyalty, homage, never cause harm, good faith.  You had to be a trustworthy to be a knigh! 
    Learn how a Knight becomes a knight and how Chivalry impacts you!
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