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Duane Sharrock

Metacognition: An Overview - 7 views

  • Metacognition refers to higher order thinking which involves active control over the cognitive processes engaged in learning. Activities such as planning how to approach a given learning task, monitoring comprehension, and evaluating progress toward the completion of a task are metacognitive in nature.
  • "Metacognition" is often simply defined as "thinking about thinking."
  • While there are some distinctions between definitions (see Van Zile-Tamsen, 1994, 1996 for a full discussion), all emphasize the role of executive processes in the overseeing and regulation of cognitive processes.
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  • Most definitions of metacognition include both knowledge and strategy components
  • These processes help to regulate and oversee learning, and consist of planning and monitoring cognitive activities, as well as checking the outcomes of those activities.
  • According to Flavell (1979, 1987), metacognition consists of both metacognitive knowledge and metacognitive experiences or regulation. Metacognitive knowledge refers to acquired knowledge about cognitive processes, knowledge that can be used to control cognitive processes. Flavell further divides metacognitive knowledge into three categories: knowledge of person variables, task variables and strategy variables.
  • What is the difference between a cognitive and a metacognitive strategy?
  • Cognitive strategies are used to help an individual achieve a particular goal (e.g., understanding a text) while metacognitive strategies are used to ensure that the goal has been reached (e.g., quizzing oneself to evaluate one's understanding of that text).
  • Metacognitive and cognitive strategies may overlap in that the same strategy, such as questioning, could be regarded as either a cognitive or a metacognitive strategy depending on what the purpose for using that strategy may be.
  • Metacognition, or the ability to control one's cognitive processes (self-regulation) has been linked to intelligence
  • Knowledge is considered to be metacognitive if it is actively used in a strategic manner to ensure that a goal is met.
  • Sternberg refers to these executive processes as "metacomponents" in his triarchic theory of intelligence (Sternberg, 1984, 1986a, 1986b). Metacomponents are executive processes that control other cognitive components as well as receive feedback from these components. According to Sternberg, metacomponents are responsible for "figuring out how to do a particular task or set of tasks, and then making sure that the task or set of tasks are done correctly" (Sternberg, 1986b, p. 24). These executive processes involve planning, evaluating and monitoring problem-solving activities. Sternberg maintains that the ability to appropriately allocate cognitive resources, such as deciding how and when a given task should be accomplished, is central to intelligence.
  • Cognitive Strategy Instruction
  • Cognitive Strategy Instruction
  • Those with greater metacognitive abilities tend to be more successful in their cognitive endeavors.
  • CSI) is an instructional approach which emphasizes the development of thinking skills and processes as a means to enhance learning. The objective of CSI is to enable all students to become more strategic, self-reliant, flexible, and productive in their learning endeavors (Scheid, 1993)
  • Metacognition enables students to benefit from instruction (Carr, Kurtz, Schneider, Turner & Borkowski, 1989; Van Zile-Tamsen, 1996) and influences the use and maintenance of cognitive strategies
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    "According to Flavell (1979, 1987), metacognition consists of both metacognitive knowledge and metacognitive experiences or regulation. Metacognitive knowledge refers to acquired knowledge about cognitive processes, knowledge that can be used to control cognitive processes. Flavell further divides metacognitive knowledge into three categories: knowledge of person variables, task variables and strategy variables."
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    Sternberg defined intelligence as mental activity central to one's life in real-world environments; individuals "succeed" in life when they use mental skills to adapt to, select, and shape external environments. Correspondingly, in the late 1990s, Sternberg changed the name of the theory to the Theory of Successful Intelligence. As per its original name, the theory comprises three types of intelligence: analytical (also referred to as componential); practical (also referred to as contextual) and creative (also referred to as experiential).
John Marr

Research-based Strategies and No - 17 views

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    EResearch-based strategies in order of effectiveness in improving student achievement, a brief description of each strategy, specific teaching & learning activities
Kathy Benson

ReadingQuest | Strategies [Main Page] - 0 views

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    List of links about reading strategies (not specific to strategies that work)
Kathy Benson

Teaching Tips: Reading Comprehension Strategies | eThemes | eMINTS - 0 views

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    a variety of reading strategies (some to do with strategies that work)
Martin Burrett

Planning for Metacognition - 1 views

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    "Careful planning is required when implementing metacognitive strategies, with initial training in understanding metacognition should equip you with potential strategies that can be used in your classroom. However, it is important that you don't overload your students with different strategies."
Victor Hugo Rojas B.

Copy / Paste by Peter Pappas: 18 Literacy Strategies for Struggling Readers - Defining, Summarizing and Comparing - 19 views

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    "This pdf includes 18 lessons organized in two ways: by comprehension strategy - defining, summarizing and comparing and by target reader - non-reader, word caller and turned-off reader. "
Kathy Benson

Reading Comprehension - 0 views

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    Save Bookmark
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    links about teaching strategies for reading (not specific to strategies that work)
David Wetzel

6 Strategies for Using a Smart Board in Class: Transforming Teaching with Web 2.0 Tool Integration for all Learners - 19 views

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    Strategies and techniques are presented for incorporating interactive technology for connecting lesson concepts and engaging students in the learning process.
David Wetzel

5 Strategies for Using Wikis in the Classroom: Engaging Students in Technology Projects that Support Learning - 15 views

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    Strategies are provided for taking advantage of Wikis to provide opportunities for students to collaborate with other students, share what they have learned, and become a centralized online resource for educators.
Kelly Faulkner

Instructional Strategies Online - 19 views

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    good resource site for literacy strategies and resources.  Warning: not all links work.
Kathy Benson

Strategy Instruction - 0 views

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    Describes why we need to teach strategies
Kathy Benson

Reading Strategies - 0 views

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    A table of reading comprehension strategies - geared to an students higher then elementary, but some of the ideas could be geared down.
Kathy Benson

Strategies that Work: Technology Integration Resources - 0 views

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    **** Matrix of lessons and web resources related to strategies that work
Patti Porto

TPACK - activitytypes - 14 views

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    "This is a virtual place for folks interested in learning to "operationalize TPACK" (Technology, Pedagogy, and Content Knowledge) using curriculum-based learning activity types ('LATs'), teaching strategies, and performance assessments. The curricula in which we are developing and refining learning activity type and teaching strategies taxonomies appear on the left"
Martin Burrett

UKEdChat Session 322: Good Behaviour Strategies - 0 views

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    Following on from the results of our online poll, #UKEdChat this week will focus on Good Behaviour Strategies used in schools. Whether in the Early Years, Primary, Secondary or beyond, the behaviour of students can positively or negatively impact the rest of the class as well as interfere with teaching and learning. The session will release six questions (see below), so join the session on Twitter from 8pm via the #UKEdChat hash-tag. Questions: What student behaviours to you find to be the most annoying when teaching? Where do you go for support when you are finding student behaviour a problem? What has been the most positive intervention made in helping build a positive classroom behaviour? What are the foundations in ensuring positive pupils behaviour in any classroom? What are the most effective consequences used when dealing with disruptive behaviour? Think back to when you were a school pupil. What was the worst behaviour you displayed?
Vicki Davis

3 Strategies to Promote Independent Thinking in Classrooms | Edutopia - 1 views

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    Nice post by Margaret Regan on Edutopia's blog with 3 Strategies to promote independent thinking. With some practical examples and use of a word I haven't heard -- "autotelic" or those happiest when absorbed in complex activities. That would describe many of us coder types. Great post.
Vicki Davis

Common Core Academies | Digital textbooks and standards-aligned educational resources - 7 views

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    Through the end of the year, Discovery just sent me a note that they are offering these three common core academies at no cost. Here's the info from Steve Dembo. I've done some work with their SIEMENS STEM Academy and am a sTAR Educator and everything they do is top notch. If you can work it out before the end of the year, this is something you'll want to do. From Steve Dembo: "We know that implementing the Common Core can be an uphill climb. That's why Discovery Education is proud to partner with educators to offer Common Core Academies in ELA, Math, and Leadership at no cost. From now until the end of the school year, educators across America are invited to sign up for an Academy and receive: practical strategies to implement CCSS reseach-based instructional practices best practices in using digital content resources and digital tools for immediate classroom integration Discovery Education Common Core Academies offer one day of immersive professional development and two follow-up virtual sessions at no cost to support educators and leaders in effectively implementing the Common Core State Standards. Educators may choose from three Academies offering a unique combination that brings together best practices in digital integration with proven research-based instructional practices: Literacy and the Common Core in a Digital World Teaching and Assessing Common Core Math in a Digital World Leadership strategies to Support Digital Literacy and the Common Core"
Maggie Verster

53 Ways to Check for Understanding | Edutopia - 17 views

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    "This big, printable list of assessment strategies will help you identify new ways to check for understanding and verify what students have learned. Read more about these strategies in the associated post: "Dipsticks: Efficient Ways to Check for Understanding.""
Martin Burrett

UKEdMag: Schools, be patient by @HDHSenglish - 0 views

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    "A lot of schools have jumped on buzz words such as metacognition, mindfulness, mindset etc. There is obviously great merit in all these strategies, however as Carol Dweck has emphasised, in a lot of cases these methods are not always understood by school leaders leading to them not being integrated effectively and sustained. These theories are not fads but in many schools, they don't give these methods the planning, time and evaluation that is required for success of any strategies that will benefit learning. Schools are looking for a quick fix and so latch on to 'new, exciting and popular theories'."
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