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Evie Shockley | Poetry Foundation - 3 views

  • believing that any six or seven people with vocal chords could produce four-part harmony at the drop of a dime
  • Shockley is a professor at Rutgers University

Classical Test Theory and Music Testing - Oxford Handbooks - 2 views

  • applications of classical test theory to K-12 music education assessment are considered
  • ransition from classical test theory to modern test theory is explored.
  • During this period, measurement was viewed as a mechanism by which human traits could be identified and individuals compared
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  • At the heart of CTT is the notion that error is endemic to measurement.
  • By the beginning of the 20th century, the concept of (p. 462) measurement error was well recognized, and psychometricians focused their efforts on estimating and accounting for error.
  • In CTT, an observed measure or score (X) consists of two constituent parts—the true score (T) and measurement error (E):
  • . Measurement error, however, also will account for a certain portion of score variance.
  • According to CTT, measurement error arises because mental processes are idiosyncratic and in a state of change such that individuals are incapable of performing optimally on a single test or performance task.
  • random error and systematic error.
  • (SEM) represents the average of the total random error for all individuals
  • SEM represents the spread of observed scores for a single individual if that person were tested multiple times.
  • That score, however, is an imperfect measure of the student’s true ability.
  • For example, CTT provides in-depth analysis of item characteristics,

Ms. Kelly's Music Class - 1 views

  • Google Classroom page
  • Google Classroom page
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  • March 30-April 3
  • For example (to the tune of Bohemian Rhapsody)Is this the real life?Maybe just allergies?Caught in a lockdownNo escape from the familyDon't touch your eyes, Just hand sanitize quickly!
  • Is this the real life?Maybe just allergies?Caught in a lockdownNo escape from the familyDon't touch your eyes, Just hand sanitize quickly!
  • For example (to the tune of Bohemian Rhapsody)
  • Each week I will post a fun activity to try if you would like.  Anyone in the school can complete the task! Send your final product to Ms. Kelly: and a winner will be chosen and featured on my website!YOUR TASK: Create a "Parody" of a song that describes what is happening right now in the world. Take a song and re-write the words to talk about social-distancing/ staying at home/however you are feeling. Make a video of you singing, dancing, and send the words and video to Ms. Kelly. One winner will be chosen. Good luck!
  • No escape from th
  • family
  • Maybe just allergies?
  • aught in a lockdown

Legislation and Common Law Impacting Assessment Practices in Music Education - Oxford H... - 1 views

  • Russell and Austin (2010) have claimed that in music education, a system of benign neglect in assessment practices has been allowed to endure, even though there has (p. 4) been a long-term, consistent call for reform, for more meaningful assessments, and for policymakers to adapt to laws as they are enacted and court rulings as they are handed down.
  • ead to the growing body of scholarship in educational law, the evolving and more active role courts are taking in impacting educational practices,
  • chapter is to inform music teachers about contemporary court cases that have resulted in rulings on assessment issues in educational settings, and how these rulings impact assessment in the music classroom.
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  • in teacher preparation programs and in professional development activities so that students and in-service music educators will better be able to negotiate the increasingly litigious educational world
  • egal issues facing music educators remain one of the least important topics of conversation for preservice music educators.
  • how active they have been willing in inserting their decisions in school-based assessment policy.
  • Historically, courts have been somewhat deferential to school leaders and have not been willing to hear too many cases dealing with educational law and assessment.
  • Based on this decision, courts would be more likely to defer to school leaders in making their final rulings.
  • distinguish issues are purely academic from those that are purely disciplinary.
  • s. Three basic factors must exist for constitutional due process to exist: a student must have proper notice, a student must be given the chance to be heard, and the hearing should be conducted in a fair manner
  • The court decided that denying a student of education, regardless of the amount of time, could not be considered an inconsequential thing and claimed that a person’s right to education was equitable to the rights to liberty and property. In the majority decisions, the Supreme Court justices argued:
  • The US Supreme Court’s decision in Goss created the opportunity for students, parents, and their representatives to challenge not only disciplinary suspensions and expulsions but also other decisions by school officials that may affect liberty or property rights, including grades and grading policies.
  • that of courts taking a more active role and deferring less often to school leaders.
  • Because of these high stakes (real or imagined),
  • little more than attendance and participation, others feel that grades must represent academic achievement and that “allowing non-academic factors to affect academic grades distorts the truth about students’
  • however, because music is addressed minimally in these laws, their enactment has had minimal direct impact on music educators’ assessment practices.

Technology Is Changing How Students Learn, Teachers Say - The New York Times - 13 views

  • hat the education system must adjust to better accommodate the way students learn, a point that some teachers brought up in focus groups themselves
  • roughly 75 percent of 2,462 teachers surveyed said that the Internet and search engines had a “mostly positive” impact on student research skills. And they said such tools had made students more self-sufficient researchers.
  • But nearly 90 percent said that digital technologies were creating “an easily distracted generation with short attention spans.”
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  • About 60 percent said it hindered students’ ability to write and communicate face to face, and almost half said it hurt critical thinking and their ability to do homework.
  • Other teachers said technology was as much a solution as a problem.

YouTube - 1 views


Music performance anxiety and occupational stress amongst opera chorus artists and thei... - 3 views

  • There has been no study exploring the prevalence or characteristics of MPA among professional choral musicians, who may be considered a vocal analogue of orchestral musicians. There may be systematic differences among different types of musicians regarding the level of performance anxiety experienced.
  • Chorus artists were ideal subjects for the proposed study because they are a clear exemplar of a group of musicians with high performance demands and expectations who have heavy rehearsal and performance schedules.
  • While this study suggests that treatment efforts be directed at reducing MPA rather than occupational stress, further investigation of the relationship between occupational stress and trait anxiety is needed.

(PDF) A Systematic Review of Treatments for Music Performance Anxiety - 2 views

  • Four other studies (three of which are dissertations) assessed behavioral treatments forMPA on music students. Grishman (1989) and Mansberger (1988) used standard musclerelaxation techniques, Wardle (1969) compared insight/relaxation and systematic desensi-tisation techniques, and Deen (1999) used awareness and breathing techniques
  • A systematic review of all available treatment studies for music performance anxiety was undertaken.
  • reported that 24% of musicians frequently suffered stage fright, defined in this study as themost severe form of MPA, 13% experienced acute anxiety and 17% experienceddepression.
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  • 59% of musicians in symphony orchestras reported performance anxiety severe enough toimpair their professional and/or personal functioning.
  • A recent study indicated that MPA is not limited to orchestralmusicians, showing that opera chorus artists are also prone to high levels of performanceanxiety
  • However, since not allperformers suffer the same degree of MPA, or indeed report the same levels of occupationalstress, individual differences in a range of psychological characteristics are likely to accountfor variations in the degree to which musicians experience symptoms
  • A large number of treatment modalities (e.g., behavioral, cognitive, pharmacological andcomplementary) has been developed for music performance anxiety (MPA)
  • However, areview of this literature indicates that the field is still in its infancy with respect to theconceptual and theoretical formulations of the nature of MPA and its empiricalinvestigation.
  • Anxiety may be triggered by conscious,rational concerns or by cues that trigger, unconsciously, earlier anxiety producingexperiences or somatic sensations.
  • These findings suggest that multi-modal interventions are needed toaddress the multiple difficulties experienced by test anxious individuals.
  • with some focusing on behavioral change, some on cognitivechange, others on reduction of physiological symptoms through the use of pharmacotherapy,and some on idiosyncratic formulations
  • For drug studies, the keywords were beta-blocker [Beta blockers block the effect ofadrenaline (the hormone norepinephrine) on the body’s beta receptors. This slows downthe nerve impulses that travel through the heart. As a result, the resting heart rate is lower,the heart does not have to work as hard and requires less blood and oxygen
  • Brodsky (1996) and Nube´(1991) were most useful.
  • The interventionsassessed included systematic desensitization, progressive muscle relaxation, awareness andbreathing and behavioural rehearsal
  • In summary, behavioral treatments do appear to be at least minimally effective in thetreatment of MPA, although the heterogeneity of the treatment approaches employedmakes it difficult to isolate consistent evidence for the superiority of any one type ofbehavioral intervention
  • Two studies (see Tables II and IV) assessed the therapeutic effect of cognitive techniquesalone on MPA.
  • A dissertation by Patston (1996) reported a comparison of cognitive (e.g.positive self-talk, etc.) and physiological strategies in the treatment of MPA. No significantimprovements on vocal and visual manifestations of performance anxiety were found foreither treatment or control groups. However, the sample consisted of only 17 operastudents who were not specifically selected on the basis of their MPA severity, and theintervention was conducted by the author, a singer and teacher, who had no training inpsychology.
  • Three studies (see Table III) assessed the therapeutic effect of cognitive-behavioralstrategies on MPA. Harris (1987), Roland (1993), and Kendrick et al. (1982) all reportedthat standard CBT techniques were effective in the treatment of MPA in studentsspecifically selected for study because of the severity of their MPA.
  • Harris (1987) and Roland(1993) reported that CBT led to reductions in state anxiety as measured by the STAI,although Kendrick et al. (1982) failed to find a significant difference between treatment andcontrol groups on this measure.
  • The evidence for improvements in MPA following CBT is quite consistent, althoughfurther studies with larger samples are needed to confirm this evidence.
  • Beta-blockers have become increasingly popular among performers in recent years. Forexample, Lockwood (1989), in a survey of 2,122 orchestral musicians, found that 27% usedpropranolol to manage their anxiety prior to a performance; 19% of this group used thedrug on a daily basis.
  • Nube´ (1991) identified nine studies examining the effects of various beta-blockers(Atenolol, Metopolol, Nadolol, Oxprenolol, Propranolol, Pindolol) on MPA.
  • The findings regarding the effects of beta blockers on otheroutcome measures were less conclusive.
  • A rigorous definition of MPA is needed to advance treatment. However, defining MPA as asocial anxiety (social phobia) using criteria set out in DSM-IV-TR (APA, 2000) as theinclusion criteria may be too restrictive, particularly if the musician presenting for treatmentexperiences MPA as a focal anxiety (ie does not meet other criteria for social anxiety).
  • Few ofthe intervention studies reviewed acknowledged that performers need a certain amount ofarousal or anxiety to maximise their performance.
  • None of the studies could be pooled in a meta-analysis primarily because too fewprovided sufficient data to calculate effect sizes, use of diverse subject groups andtreatments, duration and intensity of treatment, and use of disparate outcome measures
  • In conclusion, the literature on treatment approaches for MPA is fragmented, incon-sistent, and methodologically weak. These limitations make it difficult to reach any firmconclusions about the effectiveness of the various treatment approaches reviewed. Forsignificant progress to be made, future research will require a clear definition of MPA,consistency and strength in methodology, and the development of robust and appropriateoutcome measures.
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