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Contents contributed and discussions participated by meghankelly492

meghankelly492

Children's Natural and Necessary Musical Play: Global Contexts, Local Appli...: EBSCOhost - 4 views

  • Young children living around the world are singing, moving, and playing. It is part of their home cultures, neighborhood cultures, and regional and national cultures.
meghankelly492

Eastern Africa - New World Encyclopedia - 1 views

  • worldwide fame for their heavy concentrations of what is often termed the "big five": the elephant, water buffalo, lion, leopard, and rhinoceros.
  • African scholars have attempted to classify the peoples of Eastern Africa. The population is fragmented into many subdivisions based upon lineage—patrilineal in some areas, matrilineal in others—language, religion, subsistence and habitat among others. Despite such fragmentation and differences, the various groups tend to share much of their culture in common
meghankelly492

Exploring the Cultures of East Africa - Jenman African Safaris - 0 views

  • As much as these different East African countries have in common, there are also distinct differences as a result of the over a hundred different cultures, dozens of different languages and diverse opinions relating to national identity.
  • Tanzania has two official languages – English and Swahili
  • Over the last ten years, the art of cartoons and comics has really taken off in Tanzania and begun to develop a more outspokenly political edge
meghankelly492

Culture of East Africa | USA Today - 1 views

  • Up until the 15th century, the cultures of Eastern Africa lived in relative isolation, building up kingdoms and empires, spreading agriculture and civilization throughout the region.
  • n the 15th century, the Portuguese began exploring the coast of East Africa, seeking to seize control of the spice trade from the Muslim presence in the Middle East. Islamic resistance to this led to a large-scale Arab colonization of the coast, which lasted until European colonialism began in earnest in the 19th century.
  • There are hundreds of languages spoken throughout East Africa, ranging from those spoken by only a few thousand to those spoken by millions. The most widely-spoken language, by far, is Swahili, with more than 5 million native speakers, and millions more who speak it as a secondary trade language. The island nations of East Africa, such as Madagascar, do not speak Swahili, instead speaking their own native languages, such as Malagasy.
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  • Clothes are brightly colored and consist of simple wraps, covering either only the lower body or both the lower body and upper body. In Islamic regions, covering is more substantial, and daily wear includes a head wrap
  • The legacy of Islamic rule along the coast of East Africa remains strong, and the majority of those on the coast and in North-East Africa are practicing Muslims
  • East African music consists of simpler instrumentation than Central Africa or West Africa, with a heavy reliance on percussion and basic horns, and less in the way of complex bowing. Since the 1980s East Africa has produced a great deal of fusion music, incorporating elements from Western music to create mash-ups of traditional and modern. Many countries in North-East Africa draw on Arabic influence in their music as well, incorporating elements such as religious poetry into the songs.
meghankelly492

Music That Represents Culture: Selecting Music with Integrity: EBSCOhost - 4 views

  • The term authenticity has been applied to music in various ways. It might be used to describe a piece of music (recorded, notated, performed); the process by which the music is taught and learned ( through recordings, live models, notation); or the manner in which it is performed (venue, dress, behaviors).
  • In other words, authenticity lies within the perceptions of the individual.
  • Anthony Palmer, who teaches music education at Boston University, has said that music with "absolute authenticity" is performed (a) by and for members of the culture; (b) in a typical setting, as determined by the members of the culture; (c) with instruments specified by the creator(s) of the music; and (d) in its original language.[ 8] Inarguably, and as Palmer recognizes, attaining this level of authenticity is impossible in a school music program (unless we consider "school music" residing within a unique culture of its own). In school, music is separated from its primary source many times over. Music is passed from its primary source (composer, grandmother) to an intermediary (arranger, performer, notation, recording) and channeled through a publisher or presenter to the teacher and finally to students. To confound matters, there are variants of melodies, lyrics, dances, games, and performance styles.
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  • Ethnomusicologist Bruno Nettl explains that "societies differ, however, in their attitude toward musical stability; to some it is important that a song remain stable and unchanged, while in others individual singers are encouraged to have their personal versions."
  • but he believes educators must determine at what point that musical experience is no longer acceptable as representative of that culture.
  • Having clear visions of educational goals and the broad curriculum is vital to making these determinations.
  • Bennett Reimer states, "Those inner workings are themselves the project of cultural systems, so they must be revealed in their contexts, historical, cultural, and political, in order to be grasped appropriately; that is, 'knowing about' becomes an essential ingredient of artistry and of listening."[ 15] For example, children might not fully understand the meaning of "Take Me Out to the Ball Game" unless they understand what baseball is or realize that the song is traditionally sung at baseball games.
  • text in an unfamiliar language should include a translation so students understand the meaning of the words.
  • However, a culturally valid work is not necessarily bias free; and conversely, bias-free music is not necessarily culturally valid.
  • Selecting the best music to represent a culture in an unbiased manner is a process of discovery. You will first need to educate yourself before you can educate others.
meghankelly492

Deep Listening to the Musical World: EBSCOhost - 1 views

  • Deep-listening experiences, wrapped in a pedagogy of music listening, take students far beyond the surface of their barely noticeable surround-sound environment and into the nature of music and its workings.
  • Attentive-listening experiences occur when teachers point out specified points of focus, put questions or challenges to the listeners, or merge graphics or visuals with the sound experience itself. Graphs or maps of particular musical features can be helpful, since visual cues may enhance listening. Teachers can provide diagrams of the contours of the melody or depict rhythmic components of a piece through iconic symbols-staff notation, splotches of color, or geometric shapes, for example. Instruments, real or illustrated, can focus student attention on their entrance or continuing presence in the music.
  • Engaged listening invites listeners to enter into the groove or the flow of the music, pick a part to contribute, and consequently feel more involved in the music. A phenomenon of "participatory consciousness"[ 5] unfolds as engaged listeners find their place in the music, find something in the music to hang on to (a melody, a pulse, an ostinato, a groove), and select a contribution to make back to the music. In this way, they connect with the music, joining the recorded musicians and their live participant-colleagues in a musical team.
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  • The process of enactive listening is a pathway to the performance of music. The goal of this third level of a listening pedagogy is to continue ear training with a strong musicianship program by allowing the listening act to guide musicians to stylistically appropriate performance.[ 6] Not only can students learn the music of oral cultures aurally, but they can also effectively learn the nutated music of literate cultures by listening. In attempting to perform a musical selection, students gain from opportunities to hear a recording that allows them to concentrate on timbrai qualities, the dynamic How of a piece, its melodic and rhythmic components, and the interplay of its parts. Notation alone, whether from composed or transcribed works, can never fully depict all the musical nuances of a piece, and so listening is a helpful guide to performance.
  • Enactive listening takes time. It can be frustrating for those who have learned to use and value notation as an important means for music's transmission.
  • Young musicians can learn songs for solo or unison voices — as well as multipart songs and selections for percussion ensembles, strings groups, and gatherings of wind players — by ear.
meghankelly492

"Can't We Just Change the Words?": EBSCOhost - 1 views

  • The idea of wanting to be true to the music of a culture, to the people of that culture, and to one's students in teaching is at the heart of the discussion of authenticity.
  • However, teaching music without attention to its cultural context is a problem in several respects: it risks misrepresenting the musical practice being studied, it fails to take advantage of the potential benefits of culturally infused music teaching, and it promotes a conception of music as isolated sonic events rather than meaningful human practices.2 Discussion about this struggle to balance accurate performance practice with accessibility has focused on the concept of authenticity
  • The definitions of authenticity represented in the music education literature fall into four models: the continuum model; the twofold historical/personal model; the threefold reproduction, reality, and relevance model; and the moving-beyond-authenticity model.
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  • how does each author use authenticity as a strategy for making or justifying decisions in music education?
  • authenticity enhances an aesthetic experience; for others, authentic musical encounters enhance student motivation
  • since the original loses some of its essential qualities in a simplification.5
  • His view of historical authenticity calls for knowing the intentions of the composer, the performance practice of the time, using period instruments, and being musically creative within the boundaries of the composer's intentions
  • Peter Kivy's twofold model of authenticity. Focusing on historical authenticity in performance, Kivy explores two main aspects of authenticity: historical (attention to the intent, sound, and practice of the original) and personal (interpretation and expression of the performer).
  • Swanwick writes: "'Authentic' musical experience occurs when individuals make and take music as meaningful or relevant for them"
  • Swanwick's emphasis on the importance of personal relevance yields different choices for a music teacher than Palmer's position does.
  • Another example is found in the work of music educator and researcher Kay Edwards, who also reached the conclusion that attention to authenticity increases student response to learning. In her qualitative study of the response of children to a unit on Native American music, she found that the group using instruments of the Navajo, Hopi, Apache, and Yaqui peoples generated more journal responses overall (her criterion measure) and more responses about instrument playing than the groups with the inauthentic (traditional music room) instruments.
  • Using indigenous instruments, original languages, and involving culture bearers in instruction benefits student involvement and interest as well as helps them develop musical skills. Connecting the story of a piece of music to students' own experiences and encouraging students to create new music in the style of music being studied help facilitate meaningful experiences for students.
  • "World music pedagogy concerns itself with how music is taught/transmitted and received/learned within cultures, and how best the processes that are included in significant ways within these cultures can be preserved or at least partially retained in classrooms and rehearsal halls.
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