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Contents contributed and discussions participated by Diego Leal

Diego Leal

Learning Theories of Instructional Design - 5 views

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    Excelente revisión de teorías de aprendizaje y su relación con el diseño instruccional. Pros y contras tanto de teorías como de diversos enfoques de aplicación.
Diego Leal

Mind - Research Upends Traditional Thinking on Study Habits - NYTimes.com - 2 views

  • instead of sticking to one study location, simply alternating the room where a person studies improves retention. So does studying distinct but related skills or concepts in one sitting, rather than focusing intensely on a single thing.
  • Take the notion that children have specific learning styles, that some are “visual learners” and others are auditory; some are “left-brain” students, others “right-brain.” In a recent review of the relevant research, published in the journal Psychological Science in the Public Interest, a team of psychologists found almost zero support for such ideas. “The contrast between the enormous popularity of the learning-styles approach within education and the lack of credible evidence for its utility is, in our opinion, striking and disturbing,” the researchers concluded.
  • psychologists have discovered that some of the most hallowed advice on study habits is flat wrong. For instance, many study skills courses insist that students find a specific place, a study room or a quiet corner of the library, to take their work. The research finds just the opposite.
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  • Forcing the brain to make multiple associations with the same material may, in effect, give that information more neural scaffolding
  • Varying the type of material studied in a single sitting — alternating, for example, among vocabulary, reading and speaking in a new language — seems to leave a deeper impression on the brain than does concentrating on just one skill at a time.
Diego Leal

Compañeros de viaje para La Sociedad Desescolarizada - Rede Vivo Educação - A... - 4 views

  • Dennison y sus compañeras establecen el Primer colegio callejero en un barrio neoyorquino con alta tasa de inmigración, principalmente puertorriqueña. «Cuatro características diferencian este colegio de otros: con un coste por alumno semejante al de cualquier escuela pública, el colegio callejero, de pequeño tamaño, ofrece una relación maestro/alumno extraordinariamente alta; la vida en el colegio se vertebra en torno a dos elementos fundamentales: la libertad individual de alumnos y profesores y el convencimiento de que, frente a la mera instrucción y el sitio físico, el corazón de esta escuela reside en su carácter como caldo de cultivo de relaciones entre personas [...] entre niños y adultos, adultos y adultos, niños y otros niños».
  • Los niños, personas, son los verdaderos protagonistas de la vida de este lugar. «Aprender es algo fácil cuando tienes preguntas y los sentidos afinados. De forma convencional, aceptamos, sin embargo, que aprender es una tarea dura y sacrificada». Dennison está convencido de que las preferencias de los chicos se encuentran muy cerca de sus verdaderas necesidades, por tanto, la tarea educativa se convierte principalmente en una tarea de escucha y de disponibilidad.
  • Sobre la escuela convencional Dennison explica lo siguiente: «lo que llamamos orden, en este contexto, no merece ese nombre; no contribuye a la relación coherente entre las partes y el todo sino a la simple supresión de las diferencias vitales [...] no podemos educar a los niños en la libertad tratándoles como pequeños robots; no podemos producir adultos democráticos encorsetándoles y colocando todas las decisiones en manos de las autoridades. Tampoco podemos construir el prestigio moral del colegio basando toda la institución en un acto de fuerza como el que supone la asistencia obligatoria».
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  • El terror de los alumnos es su principal obstáculo para el aprendizaje. Cuando descubren que los adultos son verdaderamente compañeros en su viaje, que no deben avergonzarse, las relaciones tienden hacia la sencillez, se hacen más directas y más honestas.
  • La pregunta no es «cómo podemos mejorar nuestros colegios», sino «cómo podemos educar a nuestros jóvenes».
  • más que transformar la escuela deberíamos pensar en transformarnos a nosotros mismos y en insertarnos como piezas fundamentales en la ecuación educativa.
  • la tarea educativa supone estar siempre un paso por detrás del aprendiz, aprendiendo en la observación íntima. La tarea educativa es una tarea paciente. Es una tarea de valor. Supone, ante todo, la confianza en las personas, en su capacidad de aprender. Nos aconseja Neill nunca enseñar a nadie nada que pueda aprender por sí mismo.
  • Organizan su colegio en torno a la convicción de que la curiosidad es algo innato en las personas, pero que por su inconveniencia en edades tempranas, tendemos a ahogar. Ellos proponen un lugar en el que la curiosidad del niño pueda ser completamente satisfecha. Creen que el núcleo de la educación se encuentra en la capacidad de realizar descubrimientos personales desde la observación, la experimentación y la elaboración, a partir de ellas, de conclusiones propias. En este contexto, el profesor sería alguien a disposición del alumno, con el papel de animar y guiarle pero en ningún caso con potestad para interferir en los descubrimientos propios ni para imponerse.
  • La curiosidad, el deseo de saber por qué, es instintivo; ha ayudado a preservar la raza humana. Como tal, pertenece especialmente a la infancia, y nosotros, como en tantos otros aspectos, fracasamos de tal forma en su satisfacción que se diluye hasta convertirse en la aceptación gris que caracteriza a las personas grises.
  • Tonucci vuelve a traer el debate sobre la educación a la calle, sacándolo de los muros de las escuelas. No se trata de que los niños tengan que aprender cada uno en su casa; sino, más bien todo lo contrario, abrir las posibilidades y permitir ese aprendizaje en cualquier rincón de la ciudad; sabiendo que los adultos siempre están ahí, a su disposición, dispuestos a ayudarles, a escucharles, incluso a jugar con ellos y a divertirse con ellos; no se trata de que todo el mundo ande detrás de los niños, sino de ser conscientes de que éstos están ahí, haciendo su vida y de convivir con ellos tal como se convive con cualquier otra persona.
  • Se ha generado un sistema en el que el fracaso no es algo concebible, con lo que se suprime la posibilidad de asumir ningún riesgo de equivocación por parte del alumno en su camino de aprendizaje, y se le obliga a buscar a toda costa la respuesta correcta, a estar más preocupado por descubrir qué desea oír el profesor que por intentar razonar una solución a un determinado problema.
  • Paulo Freire es un pedagogo brasileño. Fue un hombre preocupado fundamentalmente por la educación de adultos, en particular por la alfabetización. Alentaba a las personas a que resolvieran sus propios problemas, a que no esperaran soluciones procedentes de instancias exteriores. Estaba convencido del carácter político de la educación. Creía imprescindible entender la educación como un problema de sujetos sumergidos en un proceso, y no como una cuestión de objetos receptores de un cierto contenido.
  • La curiosidad y las inquietudes del alumno constituyen el núcleo de su educación.
  • Básicamente, una persona que se encuentra en un proceso educativo es una persona; por tanto, merece ser tratada como tal, independientemente de su edad. Por otra parte, esta condición de persona, obliga al educador a limitarse a ofrecerle un servicio, a ponerse a su entera disposición, sin entrometerse en su intimidad.
  • El educador se sitúa siempre un paso por detrás del alumno, necesita entenderle y comprenderle para poder, de forma efectiva, ayudarle en la empresa educativa que decida.
  • Salinas considera que «leer, sin más, no logra elevar la situación básica de pobreza espiritual de los hombres». En base a esta constatación define al «neoanalfabeto», el «analfabeto que sabe leer», como aquel que «no emplea esa aptitud para ensanchar las potencias del alma, para impulsar al individuo hacia la plenitud de su ser espiritual».
  • Me gustaría entresacar dos hilos de pensamiento esbozados por Savater. Por una parte él no pone en cuestión la escolarización obligatoria ya que cree que es algo imprescindible en una sociedad democrática; entiende que la enseñanza obligatoria es un artefacto político cuyo objetivo es el de «institucionalizar la libertad de las personas en relación con el poder colectivo de la comunidad de la que forman parte». Para él, la enseñanza obligatoria es el único artificio capaz de ofrecer garantías frente al «destino de la cuna», además de ser la forma en que la sociedad inculca a sus integrantes recién llegados el mínimo común denominador que permite el desarrollo de la convivencia.
  • Resulta inherente a la educación que tan sólo se transmite aquello que quien lo transmite considera digno de ser conservado. Esta tarea conservadora perseguiría dos objetivos: por un lado, la educación vendría a ser una forma de arte dirigida a colmar el ansia humana de supervivencia más allá de la muerte, y por tanto tendría más de autoafirmación narcisista que de altruismo; por otra parte, sería la herramienta fundamental para garantizar el funcionamiento de la sociedad y garantizar el reemplazo de tareas; función que podríamos asumir en cierta forma defensiva.
  • Educar sería sinónimo de contrariar, puesto que el ignorante no sabe que ignora, y por tanto, la educación debe ser impuesta, en el sentido que se desprende de la tiranía como «la capacidad de quien tiene el poder de forzar a otros para que hagan o dejen de hacer algo en contra de su voluntad». La educación, el aprendizaje, supone siempre disciplina; puesto que esta capacidad no es innata, los niños carecen de ella.
  • Savater cree que la característica que haría un educador bueno es la de la seducción. Frente a la intimidación, la educación; el maestro, con sencillez (como opuesto de la pedantería), sería una persona capaz de suscitar el deseo de aprender, de abrir el apetito cognoscitivo. Retomando a François de Closets, Savater recuerda: «[...] poco importa en último extremo lo que se enseñe, con tal que se despierten la curiosidad y el gusto de aprender». El maestro es una persona que «ayuda al educando a organizar la información, a combatirla y le brinda herramientas para hacerla provechosa, sin pedir otra adhesión más».
  • En resumen, la misión del maestro sería la de «entregar al alumno la completa perplejidad del mundo, con sus frustraciones y esperanzas»; transmitir la capacidad de disfrutar de la controversia razonada en un mundo en el que lo respetable son las personas y no las ideas. El maestro desataría la capacidad de preguntar y preguntarse, la inquietud sin la cual nunca se sabe realmente nada, aunque se repita todo.
  • no es descabellado preguntarse, sin embargo, si no es esta cultura del zapping la que se fomenta en el modelo actual de escuela. También nos enfrentamos con serias dudas cuando pensamos en quién es la persona que decide qué se transmite y qué no en el entorno educativo: podría ser el maestro, que conoce a los chicos y pasa con ellos horas y horas, o el director del colegio, o el ministro de educación, o el director de marketing de la editorial que produce los libros de texto...
  • Hannoun piensa en la escuela como un lugar cuya función sería la de «preservar la memoria social y transmitir un saber y que debe además crear un saber nuevo [...] ser la memoria de la sociedad, transmitir a las generaciones futuras las adquisiciones de las pasadas enriquecidas con las del presente». La escuela enfrenta dos problemas fundamentales: la formación en ella ofrecida no responde a las necesidades sociales por un lado, y por otro, la formación no conduce a una producción social efectiva, no es capaz de vulgarizar los conocimientos.
  • Pero más allá de estos problemas, Hannoun entiende que la escuela es el único mecanismo capaz de garantizar que no se acentúen las «diferencias de origen». Debería ser parte de las funciones de la escuela la de hacerse objetivamente sentida, tanto por padres como alumnos, como la institución indispensable para la evolución de cada uno en sus condiciones sociales.
  • A pesar de la carga institucional, insistimos en lo ya comentado antes, la escuela refleja la sociedad que la ha creado. «Esta sociedad no es homogénea, es una síntesis más o menos equilibrada, más o menos duradera de las fuerzas sociales que oponen sus intereses, aspiraciones, costumbres y formas de producción y consumo.»
  • En resumen, el principal problema de la escuela residiría en la inexistencia de mecanismos que permitan «no separar nunca el pensamiento de la vida, verificar y reavivar en permanencia el primero en la segunda, clarificar la segunda en el primero».
  • La noción de progreso, que constituiría el núcleo esencial de lo enseñado en las escuelas, produce en Lewis las siguientes reflexiones: «Los triunfos de la ciencia podrían haber sido conseguidos demasiado rápido y a un precio demasiado alto: la reconsideración y algo semejante al arrepentimiento podrían ser ahora necesarios». La ciencia ha dejado de ser consciente de que lo que utiliza son abstracciones que no son la realidad; deberíamos corregir permanentemente estas abstracciones en esta consciencia. «Puesto que usamos números con tanta frecuencia, tendemos a pensar en todo proceso como si de una serie numérica se tratara, en la que cada paso, hasta la eternidad, es igual al paso anterior y al siguiente».
  • Illich denuncia las asimilaciones que hacemos de forma ordinaria, confundiendo la enseñanza con el saber, la promoción de curso con la educación, el diploma con la competencia para determinada actividad, la fluidez con la capacidad de decir algo nuevo y el servicio con el valor. Confundimos, en el paroxismo de la perversidad, las necesidades no materiales con la demanda de bienes.
  • Illich distingue la educación en dos niveles. Por una parte, está el aprendizaje de una determinada destreza, que es un proceso rutinario; por otra parte, está la educación para el empleo exploratorio y creativo de estas destrezas.
  • John Passmore, distinguía dos tipos de capacidades que reflejan esta «naturaleza ambivalente del aprendizaje»: las cerradas serían aquellas que contienen un truco, al ejercerlas olvidamos que las sabemos, el aprendizaje de las capacidades abiertas nos hace cada vez más conscientes de lo que nos queda por saber.
  • La escuela constituye un entorno sagrado; el maestro es un profesional que crea a su alrededor una especie de hálito mágico. En parte resulta divertida la constatación que hace Illich: la escuela es un lugar en el que quedan en suspenso los cimientos de la sociedad democrática para la que pensamos educar.
  • La escuela, tal como nos ha recordado Lewis, introduciría dos conceptos: por un lado, que todo es medible y cuantificable, a todo se le puede poner una nota; todo se encuadra además en un determinado compartimento o asignatura; por otra parte, sumándola a las ya indicadas más arriba, el profesor asume la función de distribuidor que «entrega el producto terminado al consumidor-alumno»
  • Illich ataca tanto a las escuelas ordinarias como a las liberales, entre las que podríamos incluir a Summerhill o The Malting House, puesto que entiende que estas experiencias, generando esa especie de Sans Souci, encubren la misma respuesta de la escuela tradicional: yo (profesional) tengo algo que enseñarte, y cuando lo sepas, podrás salir al mundo y comenzar a vivir tu vida.
  • El núcleo de su crítica a la escuela reside en la siguiente cuestión: «algunos hombres pueden fijar, especificar y evaluar las metas personales de otros».
  • llich lanza sus exigencias en los siguientes términos: «Educación para todos significa educación por parte de todos. Cultura popular significa que moviliza a toda la población». «¿No es el mayor fruto del trabajo la educación que se deriva de él? y la oportunidad de enseñárselo a otros», de comunicarles nuestros pequeños descubrimientos y fórmulas.
  • En el fondo, las críticas a la niñez, a la escuela... no son sino críticas a la compartimentación del mundo en departamentos estancos. El mundo es un lugar lleno de secretos que alguien tiene que administrar. Frente a esta situación, Illich aboga por la apertura de todas las puertas, por permitir el acceso a todos los lugares de la ciudad, hacer de todos ellos una posibilidad de educación. Illich propone sustituir la escuela por «estructuras que permitan a cada hombre definirse él mismo aprendiendo y contribuyendo al aprendizaje de otros».
  • «Es intuyendo un mundo nuevo como se puede soportar el impacto de la globalización: limitarse a defender lo viejo, ¿a qué puede llevarnos?

    Por esto se me ocurre pensar que la idea de una globalización limpia tiene que pasar, necesariamente, a través de una especie de revolución cultural, que necesite que el mundo acepte pensar en el futuro, sin prejuicios, y esté dispuesto a dejar de defender un presente que ya no existe. No creo que, si existe una globalización buena, ésta puedan realizarla cerebros que destruyen McDonald's o sólo ven películas francesas. Pienso en algo distinto. Pienso en gente convencida de que la globalización, tal y como nos la están vendiendo, no es un sueño equivocado: es un sueño pequeño. Quieto. Bloqueado. Es un sueño gris, porque procede directamente del imaginario de ejecutivos y banqueros. En cierto sentido, se trataría de empezar a soñar ese sueño en lugar de ellos, y de hacerlo realidad. Es una cuestión de fantasía, de tenacidad y de rabia. Es tal vez la misión que nos aguarda.»
Diego Leal

The Open Education Open Debate « Unlimited Magazine - 0 views

  • While there might be a few people who can (and should) take advantage of open-source learning models, there are, I suspect, far more who can’t.
  • More important, I think, is the fact that concepts of open teaching and MOOCs marginalize the role of the teacher and the importance of the act – the art – of teaching.
  • teaching, for better or worse, is a corporeal activity that can’t be replicated with the suite of technologies to which we have access today. Until we find the tools that allow us to replicate the classroom experience in an online environment, MOOCs will remain simulacra, hollow and atonal echoes of what the educational process is really about
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  • actually, education *is* an acquisitive process.
  • Learning, however, *is not* an acquisitive process. We learn constantly, experientially, socially. I can sit in a lecture hall for an hour and leave with a dramatically different understanding of a topic than the professor wanted me to have.
  • MOOCs, in contrast to traditional education, require engaged, active, and participative learners.
  • An open course requires students to comment, to create, and to engage with others. Passivity reduces the quality of learning as most learning occurs in the process of doing, creating, sharing, and dialoguing.
  • Social networked learning has a long history – information flows in social networks, parents teach their children, masters teach apprentices.
Diego Leal

An Open Education Primer « Unlimited Magazine - 1 views

  • George Siemens, an open education theorist, author and professor thinks that the very fabric of what we understand as education needs to be pulled apart. “What if we completely altered the structure of what learning is?” Siemens asks. “And what if you started to challenge the notion of what a course is? How would a course be different if we were to design a course today.”
  • “The idea hasn’t really penetrated the mass mind yet. Universities aren’t calling me up to teach these classes, they’re asking him to come and talk about them because they’re curious,” says Downes. “The model has a core of people taking the class for credit but that core is working openly with a much larger body of people who are taking it out of interest.”
  • Are students and teachers better off when they open up the learning process and allow interested parties to participate? Can classrooms turn into a place where the contributions of all learners are mashed up into something that is greater than the whole? With our society becoming a more open and transparent one, why keep what happens within a classroom stuck within those walls?
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  • Degrees are a statement of quality and a commentary on competence. The person hiring you doesn’t have to know your teacher or what kind of person you are. Instead, they just have to trust the system and the institution that grants the degree. While this scales up nicely it doesn’t necessarily mean that you can be a useful contributor to society.
  • Open accreditation is the recognition of the interplay between formal and informal learning. The recognition of informal learning is already embedded within the post-secondary institions of several provinces in Canada through prior learning assessment and recognition programs. This is a process that helps adults demonstrate and obtrain recognition for learning they have acquired outside of a formal educational setting. Open accreditation merely takes the idea to its logical conclusion
  • Degrees are recognition of what you did five-to-ten years ago, but your reputation is a recognition of what you’ve actually done and what you’re doing right now
  • Of all the open education principles this one is the furthest away from the mainstream. Institutions aren’t going to be rushing to scrap one of their most important metrics in how they receive funding. Businesses expect them and society at large probably isn’t ready for it. However, we have to start having these conversations in order to progress.
  • Of course, access to education is another powerful reason to examine these concepts. Making education accessible could be an incredibly powerful, democratizing force. Stephen Downes entered this field in order to make education accessible to anyone who wanted it.

    “The whole reason I’m in this field at all is to increase access to education. For all of recorded human history, education has been proprietary to those who can afford it and I think that is a longstanding injustice. I think we have the capacity and the technology to change that but we also have to change the models and this is an effort to change that model.”

Diego Leal

'Open Teaching': When the World Is Welcome in the Online Classroom - 2 views

  • "We have to get away from this whole idea that universities own learning," says Alec V. Couros, who teaches his own open class as an associate professor of education at Regina, in Saskatchewan. "They own education in some sense. But they don't own learning."
  • But the difficult questions remain.

    Start with privacy. How do professors protect students who feel uncomfortable—or unsafe—communicating in a classroom on the open Web? How do they deal with learning content that isn't licensed for open use? What about informal students who want course credit?

    And, most basically, if professors offer the masses a chance to pull up a virtual seat in class, how do they make sure the crowd behaves?

  • "This is a very different way to learn," Ms. Drexler says. "I as a learner had to take responsibility. I had to take control of that learning process way more than I've had to do in any traditional type of course, whether it's face-to-face or online."
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  • Partly, he says, it's about student privacy. But it's also about setting a learning context for paying students, meaning what they see and how their education is structured. If instructors don't control that context, he says, "they're in some sense abdicating their responsibilities to their own students."
  • Mr. Downes, who writes a well-known education technology blog called OLDaily, permits students to create private groups if they like. But that isn't the default position. He also argues that closed classes provide a lot of latitude for misbehavior, such as prejudice or acting inappropriately toward women.

    "People say, 'Well I'm a lot more comfortable in private,'" he says. "I sometimes think of that as meaning, 'I'm a lot more comfortable being a jerk in private.'"

    • Diego Leal
       
      Estar en público y argumentar las posiciones personales en público es un elemento crítico de la actividad académica, no? Al final, de qué se trata la idea de "espacio seguro", al menos cuando se habla de educación de adultos?
  • distance educators also question how well the open-teaching model, which has been limited mostly to educational-technology courses, would apply to more-traditional subjects that may require more guidance for students.
  • At the end of the day, the popularity of open classes will depend on whether learning-management software companies like Blackboard make it easy to publish open versions of online courses,
  • GoingOn Networks' social learning platform allows designers to open up specific areas of the course site to public audiences or restrict other areas of the site to enrolled users. Penn tested the MOOC concept and the technology with a course in Global Environmental Sustainability in 2009. You can view it at https://pennlpscommons.org/.
  • There are certain foundational skills necessary for learning in an open online environment. Early research indicates the need for learners to practice digital responsibility (including management of personal privacy and respectful behavior), digital literacy (ability to find and vet resources as well as differentiate between valid and questionable resources), organization of online content, collaborating and socializing with subject matter experts and fellow students, and the ability to use online applications to synthesis content and create learning artifacts.
  • My biggest concern with this model is this: how can we effectively teach research and writing in a "MOOC"?

    That is, how can teachers provide consistent, reliable and useful feedback to so many students?
  • There is no doubt a size limit on effective tribal size. Larger numbers of people interacting around an issue tend to clump into clans of 3-12 students when working on a medium sized project or issue. I'd be interested to hear about what social structures emerge among active participants.
  • I really believe there is a distinction between open teaching and open learning. As a teacher, I could conduct my course in a completely closed environment, but offer my course materials in an open forum that anyone can freely access. Is that open or merely transparent? You begin to see a continnum emerging here. On the other hand, as a highly motivated learner, I could piece together a rich learning experience with open courseware in the absence of a teacher or facilitator. Though at some point, I may have to connect with other learners or subject matter experts who can supplement the materials.
  • My real issue is the lack of a feedback loop. I'm sure you have learning objectives and some of the students do graded assignments, but the rest is just unknowing wishful thinking.
  • Chedept wrote "At a minimum, learning is about demonstrated knowledge or skills."

    Really? So if you have no one to whom to demonstrate knowledge or skills, are you unlearned?

    Learning need not have such boundaries. Parents of pre-school-aged children see unbounded learning for the joy of discovery every single day.
  • Open courses may not be practical for all situations (I highly doubt any pedagogical model is the answer to all questions). Some courses require high levels of direct instruction or lab settings.
  • instead of the instructor being the sole source of guidance and information, she becomes a node among other nodes (important, even critical, but no longer the only or dominant one) in a learning network
  • I think it is important to remember the number of students that actively participate in the 'course' until completion. In the case of the 'MOOC' considered here, 2300 students enrolled, and less that 10% actively participated. While enrolment might be considered large, participation and contribution is much smaller. Another of these courses started with about 90 enrolled, and finished with about 8 participating. I considered this to be more of a TOOC = tiny online open course, than a MOOC.
  • I like the comments differentiating "open teaching" from "open learning". I recently gave a talk about the latter, leveraging social networking tools to create a global learning community: http://bit.ly/mmo-learning
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    Artículo de The Chronicle of Higher Education, hablando acerca de las experiencias de los cursos abiertos realizados por David Wiley, Stephen Downes, George Siemens y Dave Cormier. Los comentarios muestran objeciones y preguntas válidas a estos experimentos.
Diego Leal

Technopoloy: The surrender of culture to technology. - 1 views

  • What is technology
  • any systematic and repeatable technique that tends to cause people to constrain their thinking about the world
  • if one wants to think about what has happened to public life in America, one has to think, of course, first about television, but also about CDs and also about faxes and telephones and all of the machinery that takes people out of public arenas and keeps them fixed in their homes so that we have a kind of privatization of American life.
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  • So one of the most interesting things about technology is that it redefines our language. It gives us different meanings of older words, and very often we're not quite as aware as we should be of how that process is working.
  • All technological change is what I call a Faustian bargain. It gives you something, but it also taketh away something. Now, in America -- and this is one of the reasons I thought I should write this book -- we tend to be extremely enthusiastic about technology, about what it is going to bring us, so that almost every American, in considering anything from lasers to computers to television, can tell you for a half hour or more what this new technology will do for us. But there are very few people who have ever considered what a new technology will undo.
  • Europeans look at this, and they ask themselves this question, which is a good question: "Is it possible for us to maximize the benefits of new technologies while minimizing some of the negative consequences? Can we, through education or political action or social policy, inhibit technology from destroying that which we wish to preserve?" That's a good question, and I don't know the answer to it and they don't know the answer to it, but they're asking it.
  • f you put television into America in 1946, by 1960 you don't have America just "plus television", but a new kind of America, so that our social relations are altered and our attitudes toward childhood are altered and our political system is altered and we get new meanings of old words and so on.
  • Western culture had about 300 years to adapt itself to the printing press. So we developed new forms of economic life, new political ideas, new notions about education -- all organized around the printing press. But in our own time, our situation is much more difficult to cope with because almost daily, it seems, new technologies come on the scene and our social institutions don't have time to assimilate them and reorganize themselves to accommodate the demands of the technology.
  • If we devote all of our resources and our psychic energies to making bigger and better machinery and designing better techniques, will we become less human in some sort of traditional way of defining that?
  • there's a tendency of people to think that new technology is additive, and I think new technologies are ecological. What I mean is, that if you put the printing press into Europe in the mid 15th century, you don't have 50 years later Europe plus the printing press. You have a new Europe because everything gets changed -- the political system, the religious system and so on.
  • I like to put this sort of hypothetical issue to people. Suppose it were 1906 and we knew what we know now about the automobile with a combustion engine and we were able to have a conversation about it, a national conversation, and someone listed for us all of the benefits of the automobile, which are many, and then all of the deficits, including that it would poison our air and choke our cities and create the suburbs -- some people would put on that side, but I might put on this side -- and then we said, "Let's discuss this and then we'll have a plebiscite. We now know what it will do, and we know what it will undo." I think most Americans would say, "Let's go ahead with it anyway." But someone is bound to say, "Let's go ahead with it, but is there anything we could do to reduce this list over here, to minimize the negative consequences?"


    Well, in 1906, if we had had such a conversation, even with limited knowledge, there probably were things we could have done to reduce the negative items on the list. When television came along, it would have been, in theory, possible to have the same conversation. "What are the benefits, what are the deficits? Let's talk about it and then let's see is there anything we can plan to do that would minimize the deficits?" Well, we didn't have such a conversation, and with the computers now, we're not having such a conversation. All we hear is what they will do for us. We don't hear what they will undo. So one of the purposes of a book like this was to see if it's possible to start such a conversation and make us more sophisticated in our approach to our new technologies and, for that matter, old technologies.

  • I think what most people would call Third World countries would be roughly what we might mean by a tool-using culture; that is, people whose symbolic world -- their politics, their religion, their education -- are not commanded and dominated by technology. They have tools. They invent tools, but they always invent their tools to solve problems in the physical world, but they do not let the tools control their social and symbolic lives.
  • Technocracy is a culture in which you have serious technology competing with a more traditional social and symbolic world.
  • I don't think that sociology, psychology and anthropology are sciences, and I try to make a distinction between science and those activities. In fact, I even think, Brian, economics really is a branch of moral theology and should be taught more in divinity schools than in universities. But it does disturb me that so many people have such faith in the subjects that are called social science and go to experts to find out how to raise children and how to fall in love and how to make friends, as if they believe that because these subjects are "sciences" -- in quotes here -- that they are getting verifiable, indisputable truths about the world. So I use social science as an example of really a technique that is part of the machinery of technopoly.
  • if you don't teach the history of what we once knew about biology or economics or even mathematics, then learning or information becomes a kind of consumer product. Facts become like something you're selling. I think what we want here is for the young to understand that what we think we know at any given time, first of all, is a product of what we once thought we knew. It comes from someplace and that in the future, it will itself change. So the idea is for a teacher to try to show the young that learning is an historical process and that anything that we think we know now will probably be modified in the future. History is wonderfully good for this. History is almost the best consciousness-raising subject that we have available for that.
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    Transcripción de una entrevista realizada por Brian Lamb a Neil Postman en 1992, hablando acerca de las ideas incluidas en su libro Technopoly.
Diego Leal

Art1_MN.pdf (application/pdf Objeto) - 8 views

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    Artículo de Myriam Narvaez, basado en su trabajo de maestría, en el que aborda el tema del desarrollo de la autonomía desde una perspectiva bastante integral. Muy buena lectura.
Diego Leal

RICHARDS, L (2005) Developing a decision model to describe levels of self-directedness ... - 3 views

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    Tesis de maestría que propone instrumentos para facilitar la identificación del nivel de auto-dirección en el que se encuentra un grupo de estudiantes, el estilo de enseñanza de su docente, y las presunciones sobre pedagogía/andragogía de los dos grupos. Incluye un análisis de las acciones que podría emprender un docente para lograr un curso más 'inclusivo' (en este sentido).
Diego Leal

How effective is schooling in developing skills for self-directed learning, including t... - 2 views

  • Peter Drucker (2000:8) suggests:

    "In a few hundred years, when the history of our time will be written from a long-term perspective, it is likely that the most important event historians will see is not technology, not the Internet, not e-commerce.  It is an unprecedented change in the human condition.  For the first time - literally - substantial and rapidly growing numbers of people have choices.  For the first time, they will have to manage themselves.  And society is totally unprepared for it."

  • This paper argues that the key issue is the self-managed individual.
  • Self-direction within the learner is a significant prerequisite for the individual's ability to manage ongoing post-school education.  Individuals are required to exercise choice in what, when, where and how they learn.
  • ...8 more annotations...
  • The goal of the educational process is to produce self-directed, lifelong learners.  Many current education practices in public schools and universities however, do more to perpetuate dependency than to create self direction (Grow, 1991, p. 127).  
  • Knowles believes that all adults are capable of self-directed learning, but are constrained by their prior conditioning as passive recipients of transmitted information (Hatcher, 1997)
  • Participants reported a substantial (high or medium) degree of confidence in themselves as learners (93.8%), said they were self motivated (92%), and could work independently with little direction (91.8%).  However, nearly one-third (30.8%) said they were not capable of self-directed learning, with only fourteen percent strongly agreeing that they were capable of self-directed learning.   In other words, respondents in the sample seem confident working under the supervision of a teacher, but not under their own supervision.
  • This culture of teacher dependence has its roots in a highly structured and teacher centred/controlled curriculum in schools.
  • Grow (1991) argues that being a dependent learner is not a defect, but it can become a serious limitation.  Becoming an adult does not automatically make one capable of self-directed learning.  Skills and dispositions for self-directed learning have to be learned/acquired to support lifelong learning whether it is through flexible learning or more traditional modes.
  • There is a strong attitude in schools that students are not mature enough for self-direction and so teacher/school direction is continued.  Without opportunity, particularly freedom to make decisions, maturity and self direction cannot be developed.  Schools need to take greater risk.
  • The studies indicate poor levels of readiness for and disposition to self-directed learning.  There is a large dependency on the teacher as the manager and director of learning with little evidence of transforming ownership and self-management to the learner.
  • The way we are does not work very well in relation to the most essential of all enabling skills - self-direction.  The solutions are not simply about teaching the skills.  They are relatively simple.   The concern lies with developing young peoples' dispositions towards owning and managing their own learning and being sufficiently adaptable to recognise learning needs and access the learning required.
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    Discusión sobre estudios realizados en Australia a finales de los 90, en relación con la capacidad de auo-dirección (en términos de aprendzaje) de una muestra de jóvenes universitarios. El panorama que muestra no es muy alentador, pero sirve como espejo para reflexionar respecto al rol que juegan tanto docentes como instituciones en el desarrollo de la autonomía y las habilidades de aprendizaje autodirigido.
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