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Contents contributed and discussions participated by Mr. Stanley

Mr. Stanley

Test-Taking Cements Knowledge Better Than Studying, Researchers Say - NYTimes.com - 41 views

  • found that students who read a passage, then took a test asking them to recall what they had read, retained about 50 percent more of the information a week later than students who used two other methods.
  • I think that learning is all about retrieving, all about reconstructing our knowledge,
  • When they are later asked what they have learned, she went on, they can more easily “retrieve it and organize the knowledge that they have in a way that makes sense to them.”
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  • But when they were evaluated a week later, the students in the testing group did much better than the concept mappers.
  • “The struggle helps you learn, but it makes you feel like you’re not learning,
  • when we use our memories by retrieving things, we change our access” to that information,
  • What we recall becomes more recallable in the future. In a sense you are practicing what you are going to need to do later.”
  • They even did better when they were evaluated not with a short-answer test but with a test requiring them to draw a concept map from memory
Mr. Stanley

Department of Psychology :: Principles of Learning :: University of Memphis - 62 views

  • The single most important variable in promoting long-term retention and transfer is "practice at retrieval"
  • -learners generate responses, with minimal retrieval cues, repeatedly, over time.
  • without relying on external memory aids.
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  • practice at retrieval has been shown to be more effective than merely spending more time studying the material without actively engaging in memory retrieval.
  • By doing so repeatedly, especially in varied contexts, the learner strengthens access to this information,
  • given minimal cues
  • two different effects. One is the "testing effect," in which intervening tests improves learning of concepts that are retrieved from memory
  • when intervening tests are spaced, two tests were more effective than a single test in improving long-term retention of material.
  • Compared to a cued-recall or recognition intervening test, a free-recall test produced better performance on a final test, regardless of the format of the final test.
  • Educational Applications
  • Align lectures, assignments and tests, so that important information will have to be remembered at different times
  • Have students retrieve this information in multiple ways by either varying the questions or context in which it is assessed:
  • During lectures, ask students questions to elicit responses that reflect understanding of previously introduced course material.
  • This serves the dual purpose of probing students' knowledge, so that misconceptions can be directly and immediately addressed in the lecture.
  • On homework assignments, have students retrieve key information from lectures and readings.
  • Chapter summaries, for instance, may include study questions that ask students to recall major points or conclusions to be drawn from the reading.
  • Encourage group studying in which students actively discuss course topics
  • test questions offer another opportunity for "practice at retrieval,"
  • Ideally tests should be cumulative and test items should probe for understanding of the material.
Mr. Stanley

Teaching Document Design, Not Formatting Requirements - ProfHacker - The Chronicle of H... - 69 views

  • Students in all disciplines are more than capable of producing and analyzing visual work in amazingly rich and complex ways.
  • many faculty members continue to specify detailed formatting requirements for student writing.
  • Your paper must be double-spaced, 12 point Times New Roman, with one-inch margins.
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  • Such draconian formatting requirements stifle students’ creativity and cut off any critical thinking about what should be a crucial part of any writing-intensive classroom, namely visual design.
  • Teaching Document Design, Not Formatting Requirements
  • well-meaning and thoughtful teachers establish hard and fast formatting rules that may make their lives easier, but do a disservice to their students.
  • By making these requirements, we are telling them not to think critically—or even at all—about the visual layout of their documents.
  • We are telling them we value conformity over creativity, practicality over originality, our needs over theirs.
  • It all starts with students recognizing that design is a part of what they do when they write.
  • the rules we give our students should be negotiable, and in order for them to be negotiable, we need to talk to our students about those rules, why they exist, what the consequences of breaking or following them are, and so on.
  • Your paper should be readable and take into consideration the needs of your audience.  Most importantly, though, you should have fun and be creative with your design.
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    Teachers need to allow their students more room to creatively use visual design, and at the same time, teach students to be aware. Forcing students to follow exact formatting requirements is counterproductive.
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