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Theda Skocpol and Jennifer Lynn Oser - Organization despite Adversity: The Origins and ... - 0 views

  • A prominent form of voluntary organization in the United States from the nineteenth century through the mid–twentieth century, fraternal associations are self-selecting brotherhoods and sisterhoods that provide mutual aid to members, enact group rituals, and engage in community service.
  • Synthesizing primary and secondary evidence, this article documents that African Americans historically organized large numbers of translocal fraternal voluntary federations. Some black fraternal associations paralleled white groups, while others were distinctive to African Americans.
  • In regions where blacks lived in significant numbers, African Americans often created more fraternal lodges per capita than whites; and women played a much more prominent role in African American fraternalism than they did in white fraternalism.
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  • Rivaling churches as community institutions, many black fraternal federations became active in struggles for equal civil rights.
aplatonic 3

The Kentucky club woman / Kentucky Association of Colored Women's Clubs - 0 views

    Info Kat
    A potential resource
aplatonic 3


  • "Joining" church, then, was much like joining a civic club or fraternity.
  • The Benevolent Empire A complete structure of church and parachurch organizations made up what came to be called the Benevolent Empire. The Benevolent was merely an interlocking series of missionary and supporting organizations devoted to Christianizing America and the world. The Benevolent Empire grew out of early American revivalism. Revivalism stimulated church growth, particularly in America's mainline denominations and with this growth came two important concepts which in turn emphasized outreach.
  • Early American parachurch organizations had much in common. All of them are openly Christian. All of them are voluntary. Many had no ties to any single religious group; most were inter-denominational demonstrating that in spite of practical and theological differences, cooperation took place. It is significant, however, that laymen rather than the clergy directed most of these societies or organizations.
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  • The Benevolent Empire, fueled by "disinterested benevolence" and perfectionism, also pushed for various national and social reforms.
  • Other social reform efforts also began during this time. Dorothea Dix worked for reform in the care of the insane. Christians promoted penal reform in the 1830s. Elizabeth Cady Stanton and Susan B. Anthony pushed for women's rights. Horace Mann and others crusaded for free public education between 1820 and 1840. Mann belonged to the Christian Connection, a descendant of the New England Christians. A number of different reform efforts directed their attention to the "peculiar institution," American slavery.
  • The Benevolent Empire and all its inter-relationships illustrated the power of Christianity's moving tide in the early 1800s. Many thought all this labor would usher in the millennium. Timothy Smith, in his landmark book, Revivalism and Social Reform, said: The logical chronological sequence...was as follows: revivalism, reinforced by a perfectionist ethic of salvation, pressed Christians toward social duty. . . the rhetoric of the appeals for social reform. . . .
Margaret Sites

Women in Kentucky - Public Service in Kentucky - 2 views

    • Margaret Sites
      intersection of gender and race in lexington
  • The reason given for the repeal is the large number African American women voting in a block in the 1901 Lexington school board elections.
    A very helpful timeline to put things into reference. From 1838 all the way to 1999. 
tiger lily

Laura Clay - 3 views

  • Lexington's Sayre School
  • an unusually powerful position for a southern girl in the 1860's when any woman demonstrating intellect was considered a "bluestocking" doomed to spinsterhood.
  • Their resulting divorce in 1878 was the turning point in all of the Clay women's lives. According to laws at the time, a woman held no claim to house or property
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  • the Clay women turned to the equalizing of women's rights.
  • Laura decided to lease White Hall from her father
  • She then collaborated with Susan B. Anthony to organize suffrage societies across the Commonwealth
  • During this same period, Clay became the best-known southern suffragist and the South's leading voice in the councils of the National American Woman Suffrage Association (NAWSA). While chair of the association's membership committee, she introduced recruiting innovations that almost tripled the number of members, from 17,000 in 1905 to 45,501 in 1907, and succeeded in establishing associations in nine southern states.
  • Clay was an emancipationist; one who believed that it was up to each state to grant freedom/rights to citizens
  • Clay was also a believer in Anglo-Saxon superiority but was paternalistic in her attitudes. A product of her time and region, this hearkening back to Southern pre-Civil War beliefs caused some critics to castigate her as a racist.
  • She also worked to promote the involvement of women in politics, advocating that women not silently accept the party affiliation of their husbands, but instead form and act upon their own beliefs.
    The beginning of this article is a great biography. The best part of this piece was being able to find out more about her positions on states rights and whether she believed in civil rights for blacks as well. Clay was a major supporter of states rights. In all that she did for women's rights ( a list is given at the end) Clay was not an advocate for the rights of African Americans. 
    I found it unique that Laura Clay began to pursue womens equal rights after her parents seperated. Her mother took care of the White Hall estate for 45 years and then was all the sudden homeless because the property belonged to the father according to the laws that prevented women from owning land. This left Laura and her sisters to pursue the equality of women. She was also responsible for creating the Kentucky Equal Rights Organization with the help of Susan B. Anthony.
    This site has a short but very informative biography of Laura Clay. Along with a biography it list all of her monumental accomplishment fighting for equal rights. The site is full of pictures of Laura Clay and is very well documented with numerous sources citing the information.
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