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Garth Holman

Martin Luther Biography - 0 views

  • His parents were from peasant stock, but had high ambitions for their intelligent, eldest son
  • Bachelors and Masters degrees in Theology. He was in his first year of Law School in Erfurt when an incident occurred that would change the course of European history.
  • Two weeks later, Luther joined the Augustinian Order in Erfurt; his father was furious.
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  • Many Christians of the late Middle Ages had a great fear of demons and devils, and were terrified of ending up in hell. Mortality rates were high and life was very uncertain due to disease, accidents, childbirth and wars. Luther shared those fears and his first years in the monastery he was tormented with the idea that all men were hopeless sinners in the sight of God and unworthy of salvation.
  • reason, he was sent to teach theology at the University of Erfurt, and in 1511, at the University of Wittenberg, where he received his Doctorate in Theology. In Wittenberg he was also the parish priest assigned to minister to the citizens of the town.
  • A major source of church funding during this period was the sale of indulgences. An indulgence was a "get out of purgatory card" that could be obtained for oneself or others by paying a certain sum to the church.
  • The Pope was selling offices and indulgences to get money for an ambitious building program which included the construction of St. Peter's Cathedral in Rome. The Pope's representative, the Dominican Father Tetzel, encouraged people to buy the indulgences with the jingle, "As soon as the coin in the coffer rings The soul from Purgatory springs"
  • telling them their loved ones were crying out to be released from suffering.
  • He was shocked by the lack of morality and piety of the local clergy and by the luxurious lifestyle of the Pope Leo X, a member of the Medici family. Pope Leo was known for his expensive tastes and was fond of hunting, gambling and carnivals. The papacy was at a low point in its history and others had been calling out for reform prior to Luther.
  • He came to the conclusion there was no evidence in the Bible for believing the Pope had power to release souls from Purgatory.
  • He wrote out a list of his objections to the practice; he named 95 issues he wished to dispute.
  • On October 31, 1517, Luther nailed his ninety-five theses, or points of discussion, on the door of the Castle Church in Wittenberg. The document was in Latin and invited other scholars to debate the statements set out.
  • The 95 Theses were translated into German and widely distributed throughout Germany, courtesy of the printing press.
  • There is no question, however, that Luther wrote the list and sent a copy of it to Prince Albert of Mainz.
  • The reaction of the Church initially was to try and suppress the attack on indulgences by suppressing Martin Luther.
  • The protest against the indulgences set off a conflagration which, step by step, resulted in most of Northern Europe breaking away from the authority of the Catholic Church.
  • It was clear by this time that there could be no coming together on these issues, since the very authority of the Pope was called into question.
  • The Church did act to curb the worst abuses of indulgences, but it was too late.
  • Luther was given safe conduct to attend the meeting and defend his positions. At the Diet of Worms, Luther was shown a table with a pile of his books and other writings. He was offered the opportunity to recant, but refused. Luther's reply was written down as he spoke it: "Unless I am convicted by Scripture and plain reason -- I do not accept the authority of popes and councils, for they have contradicted each other -- my conscience is captive to the word of God. I cannot and I will not recant anything, for to go against conscience is neither right nor safe. God help me. Amen." The printed document released after the Diet of Worms also contained the famous words, "Here I stand, I can do no other."
  • but he was now considered an outlaw.
  • declaring Luther a heretic and ordering his death.
  • He spent nearly a year there, writing furiously and fighting depression and numerous physical ailments. It was in a small study in the castle in 1522 that he translated the New Testament from Greek into German and profoundly influenced the form and standardization of the German language.
    • Garth Holman
       
      Maybe one of the most important ideas.  He gave the people the bible in the local language, so more people could read what the bible said...not have someone tell them.  See this link: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gutenberg_Bible#Surviving_copies  
  • in Luther's absence numerous leaders had sprung up, each with his own interpretation of doctrine, and most having far more radical views than Luther.
  • Priests wore ordinary clothing and grew their hair, services were performed in German, monks and nuns were leaving the cloisters and getting married. Some groups were smashing images and statues in the churches and dragging priests away from the altars.
  • He convinced a couple of the more radical preachers to stop preaching or leave town.
  • twelve who had been smuggled out in herring barrels.
  • However, he impulsively announced he was marrying Katharina von Bora, to the great surprise of his friends.
  • Many were inspired by Martin Luther's challenge to the authority of the Church to challenge the secular powers as well.
  • Martin Luther wrote an appeal to the aristocrats to restore order by force.
  • Both sides were angry with Luther: the nobles blamed him for stirring up the people and the peasants blamed him for encouraging the nobles to use violence against them.
  • Luther wrote to and met with other leaders of the Reformation, such as Zwingli, to try and produce a unified statement of belief for the reformed church, but nothing came out of it because they were not able to agree on many of the doctrinal issues.
Garth Holman

The 95 Theses: A Summary - 0 views

  • fleeced
    • Garth Holman
       
      What does this mean?  Look it up. 
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