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Nicholas C

Copyright and Fair Use - UMUC Library - 2 views

  • An Introduction to Fair Use

    What is Fair Use?

    Fair use is the most significant limitation on the copyright holder's exclusive rights (United States Copyright Office, 2010, para. 1). Deciding whether the use of a work is fair IS NOT a science. There are no set guidelines that are universally accepted. Instead, the individual who wants to use a copyrighted work must weigh four factors:

    More about copyright.
    This page has lots of information about fair use.
Haley M

Why must I indicate a claim for individual copyright materials in my program? | Screenr... - 0 views

  • Film and television programs contain a number of separate copyright materials including the visual images and associated sounds, the screenplay or narration, and other material incorporated in the film such as the music, sound recordings and artistic works.

    When a film or television program is copied, communicated or retransmitted under the royalty collection services, there are royalties for each of the separate copyright materials.

    By indicating a claim to a copyright material, you are warranting to Screenrights that you own or control the right to claim royalties for that specific copyright material incorporated in the program.

    This article explains why you must indicate a claim for individual copyright materials.
Haley M

legal compliance - Google Search - 0 views

  • Web definitions
    • You agree to comply with all applicable domestic and international laws, statutes, ordinances and regulations regarding your use of the Site and the Content and Materials provided therein.
    This defines legal compliance. It helps to better our understanding of legal compliance.
Blakelee H

Technology: Virtual vs. Real Life: You Choose | Psychology Today - 0 views

  • I see two fundamental differences between connected life, that is, life through the lens of technology, and real life, the one in which we live (I realize that it could be argued that tech life is the real one in which many of us live, but I see that as a problem). First, wired life is not real, meaning experiences are created by technology with the aim of approximating and simulating actual experience. The problem with this "low-resolution" life is that, though it shares similarities to real life, it lacks the high resolution and the granularity of real life. For example, email can be a wonderful means of communication, but it lacks visual input (so important to effective communication), the nuance of facial expressions and body language, and clear emotional content.

    Second, digital life is mediated by the technology that makes it possible. There is always something between us and our experiences, whether a text message or a Wii sports game, and, as I just noted, a great deal is lost in the translation.

    Virtual life is not real. It creates a gap in communication and takes away from actual experiences in life.
Zachary D

more effects of virtual worlds - 0 views

    people use it to fill a since of compliment that they don't have in the real world
    allows for people to have a relationship with complete strangers on the other side of the world
    may lead to a need of therapy
Haley M

Facebook Increasingly Becomes a Helpful Tool for Employers in Job Interviews | Moneylan... - 0 views

  • Privacy advocates say that, for now, it is legal for a prospective employer, during a job interview, to insist that you log into your Facebook page and then click through your “friends only” posts, photos and messages.

    The ACLU put a stop to companies demanding that applicants turn over their login and password credentials, but “shoulder surfing,” as it’s been dubbed, is legal for the time being. Aleecia M. McDonald, a privacy researcher and resident Fellow at the Stanford Center for Internet and Society, says high unemployment makes it hard to stamp out this practice. “When you have a job market where there are more job seekers than hirers, you’re going to see things like demanding to see your Facebook wall because if you say no, someone else is waiting for that interview.”

    This article talks about interviewers insisting on "shoulder surfing" your Facebook page and whether this should be allowed.
Blakelee H

How Do Computers Affect The Social Behavior Of Children? | LIVESTRONG.COM - 3 views

  • Effects of Moderate Use

    A moderate amount of computer use and game playing doesn't seem to affect social development. The social behavior of moderate computer users and nonusers was roughly the same in terms of sociability and relationships with friends and family. However, heavy computer users tended to believe they had less control over their lives than their classmates, a possible indication of inadequate socialization.

    Increased Hostility and Aggression

    After the massacre at Columbine High School in 1999, researchers and educators paid more attention to violent video games such as Doom, the daily game of choice for one of the two teenage killers. Many studies show that violent TV shows increase aggression and hostility in both children and adults. It appears the same is true of computer games. The key variable appears to be a preference for violent games, rather than the amount of time a child plays such games. Even playing Mortal Kombat for a short time increases a child's hostility and aggression. Violent computer games also desensitize children, who show less empathy and willingness to help others, according to research cited in "The Future of Children."

    Brain Drain

    In a small study of 18 Chinese university students, published in the "PLos ONE" journal and reported on Mail Online, kids who played games on their computers at least eight hours a day, six days per week showed alarming amounts of atrophy in parts of their brain, as measured by MRI scans. The scans also found abnormalities in the white matter of the brain, which coordinate communication between different areas of the mind. On Mail Online, Dr. Aric Sigman of the Royal Society of Medicine called the July 2011 report a "wake-up call." Experts fear that in addition to cognitive damage, heavy Internet use might reduce the inhibitions and decision-making ability of children, leading to damaged relationships with family members, peers and authority figures.

    Moderate use of internet and computers do not affect young people. Heavy use, however creates increased hostility and aggression, and can cause one to become "brain dead."
Blakelee H

STOP cyberbullying: Are you a cyberbully? - 0 views

  • Often, people who are victims are also bullies. Before you feel too bad for yourself, take the quiz below to find if you, too, are part of the cyberbullying problem! Rate yourself on the following point scale according to if, and how many times, you have done the below activities. Give yourself 0 points if you’ve never done it, 1 point if you have done it 1 or 2 times, 2 points if you have done it 3-5 times, 3 points if you have done it more than 5 times.
    An online cyber bullying quiz that allows a person to know if they are a cyber bully. One can find through the questions what characteristics are of a cyber bully.
Blakelee H

Cyber-Bullying and its Effect on our Youth - 2 views

  • Between cell phones, social media Web sites, and online gaming, children today seem to have more outlets for interacting with each other virtually than they do for interacting with each other in person. However, with all of the good social interaction that is done as a result of these technologies also comes the bad. In addition to the physical and verbal bullying that may take place at school, cyber-bullying in the form of harassing text messages and derogatory posts on children’s Facebook pages is now commonplace. Even though it may not take place in person, the emotional and psychological effects of cyber-bullying are just as destructive. Since new media and cell phones are harder to track and monitor, parents need to take preventive measures that can help minimize the effects of cyber-bullying on their children. 
    Cyber bullying takes a bad affect on health of today's youth.
Blakelee H

Positive Effects of the Internet - 0 views

  • Internet, as most of us know, is a large network of networks, which communicate with each other by means of data packets. Internet is regarded as the largest information base. Today, Internet has become an integral part of our daily lives. We depend on the Internet to update ourselves about current news and rely on the communication platform it offers to get in touch with our near ones. The information from all around the world is just a click away, thanks to the Internet. Internet has surely affected the society positively.

    With the onset of the Internet, access to information has become easy. Internet has served being an efficient and organized storage of information. Internet search engines are the best information retrieval systems that are functional over the Internet. Typing in a simple search query to a search engine fetches you thousands of search results. Moreover, the ranking strategies adopted by the search engines ensure that the most relevant results are delivered to you on priority. The search engines crawl over all the information that seems relevant to your search query. They retrieve the most relevant results in top order, thus helping you fetch the required information with great ease. Information is truly a click away!

    The Internet provides some of the most effective means of communication. Emails and instant messages have made online communication possible. Social networking and blogging websites and online discussion forums have proved being popular platforms of expression. People in different parts of the world can collaborate over the Internet. They can exchange views, share information and work together over the Internet. It was the development of the Internet that made online education and distance learning possible. Professionals working in physically distant locations can collaborate their efforts, thanks to the Internet.
    Internet can have positive results, such as easy access of information and communication
Blakelee H

Top 4 Health Problems Caused By Computer Use | Healthy Health List ( - 0 views

  • I am frequent computer user. Of course it’s interesting to know how danger for my health computer can be. Working with computer for whole day is not rare nowadays. If it’s an aspect of our work or if we use computers just for fun, there are certain risks involved with prolonged computer use.

    1. Eye Disease
    It’s the first what occur to us, when we talk about computer harm (right?). Prolonged computer use could be linked to glaucoma, especially among those who are short-sighted. Our eyes are very badly affected by how long you stare at that bright screen. We stop blinking and start staring which makes our eyes strain and dry out. Make sure you look away from the screen and close them for a few seconds every few minutes.
    We can find many information about eyes health, as Snuz made. And it’s very important not to forget about our eyes while working on computer.
    2. Bad Posture
    Bad posture is enemy number one. Check your posture now! You should be able to reach the keyboard and mouse whilst bending your elbows at 90 degrees, with your shoulders relaxed. If you are stretching, this could cause problems. Your back should be straight and the top of the monitor should be just below eye level. If your monitor is to the left or right of your keyboard you are putting strain on your neck.
    Long periods of time at the computer while blogging, working or reading often leads to pain in the lumbar region of the back. Neck and shoulder problems also result from poor seating and the poor organization of equipment on the desk (stretching for the telephone or files etc).

    3. Hurting Hands
    Your hand and wrist ache after working at the computer all day, and they sometimes start feeling numb. Research in recent years has found that things like typing and sewing rarely cause carpal tunnel. Wear splints while you work to keep your wrists from bending too high or low, and use a keyboard tray or adjust your chair so the keyboard and mouse are below your elbows and your wrists are level.
    It is really important to give your fingers, wrists and hands a break from resting on the keyboard all day. A tennis ball is a great way to do this. Every time you need to think you should grab the ball and give it a few quick squeezes. This will do wonders for your joints and muscles.
    4. Computer Stress Injuries
    Many people suffer from structural problems related to the physical stress of sitting incorrectly, or for too long in front of their computers. So there are chances you’ve experienced a fair amount of computer stress, from minor frustrations here and there to a virtual visit to computer hell.
    High levels of stress can kill you, don’t make mistakes! Highly stressful workers have a higher risk of developing heart diseases and even cancer. So make sure that you can manage your stress. Start making something to reduce it, don’t wait till computer stress will be the main problem in your life. Taking frequent breaks is an important step in preventing repetitive computer stress injuries.
    Thus, it shows up that there are several problems that occur with prolonged computer use. It is also clear, however, that if certain rules of using computer are observed the risk of any of these problems can be minimized and computer users affected with computer related disorders can avoid or treat them. I consider that persons should have active lifestyle and an ergonomic computer work station, thereby even hardly computer working can’t affect their health.
    What do you think?
    The top 4 health risks are Eye Disease, Bad Posture, Computer Stress Injuries, and Hurting Hands
Zachary D

negative effects of virtual worlds - 0 views

    need to look at during project
    very notable source
Blakelee H

How Second Life Affects Real Life - TIME - 0 views

  • About a year ago in my first visit to Second Life, the popular online virtual world, I spent half an hour trying to make my avatar, or online character, look like a hotter version of myself — which isn't easy when you don't know how to use the tools. When I finally made it onto Money Island to mingle, a stranger approached me and said, "Hello there, Devon." I froze. Then I tried to run. I was desperately searching for the teleport tool when my sister walked into the room, peered over my shoulder at the computer screen and said, "Why'd you make your avatar ugly?" I logged off.
    A man tells the story of how the virtual world, Second Life, negatively affects his real life. It takes a physical and mental toll.
Blakelee H

My Struggle with Internet Addiction and How I Will Overcome It - 0 views

  • Awful things Internet addiction has done to me:
    - Internet addiction has made me a very lazy and unwilling fellow who would usually take 2-3 hours to start the day off.
    - Internet addiction has caused me great amounts of stress and anxiety. (For example, I have lots of pornographic material scattered around my two laptops and I start getting paranoid when people ask me if they can use my computer to check something.) The death of a loved one 2 years ago only made my situation worse.
    - Internet addiction has prevented me from exercising and staying fit.
    - Internet addiction has put lots of strain into my eyes, from constantly staring at the monitor for about 6+ hours a day. (Not natural.)
    - Internet addiction has made me less social with my friends and made me feel more impatient (like when I would wait longer than 5-10 minutes for a friend on an instant messenger program to respond to me and I'd start wondering if I said something that could have offended them or if I am bugging them too much).
    - Internet addiction has turned me away from playing some of my favorite video game consoles (I grew up with the Super Nintendo and still have it). Thankfully, at least I never got into MMORPGs or any other online game services. I mainly emulated.
    - Internet addiction has made me very obsessed with atheism and religion. Of course I am glad to no longer subscribe to any organized religion (I hold no grudges against those who do, just the ones that try to shove their beliefs down others' throats because I find it very inhumane), but I don't want to continue obsessing over it; it makes me feel very depressed. I don't want this.
    - Internet addiction has made me very untidy. Currently I have 4 stacks of plates, 2 stacks of cereal bowls, 3 stacks of 8 oz glass cups, and 2-3 forks and knives and 7 spoons. I have bits of shed hair (I have long, frizzy hair) here and there on the carpet and it is quite embarrassing!
    - Internet addiction has made me procrastinate on class assignments and fail school indubitably.
    - Internet addiction has wasted so much of my precious, precious time that could have been used for other things that are more worthwhile and productive. In fact, my one-year-and-a-half Facebook addiction has worsened me to the point where I just had to delete my account once and for all.
    - Internet addiction has made me forget about the usefulness and convenience of doing real-life alternatives, such as mailing out letters/post cards to friends instead of just refreshing my e-mail inbox every 1 hour when I am awake, or listening to my massive cassette/CD/record collection instead of just sitting around my computer listening to MP3s.

    So you see, I am in a SERIOUS need of a change! I am sick and tired of living this sad and pathetic lifestyle. The stupidity of sites like 4chan inspired me to leave the Internet behind.
    A list of negative effects the internet has played on one person's life. This ranges from physical pain to mental disorder.
Haley M

The Campus Guide to Copyright Compliance - 0 views

  • Copyright Basics: Fair Use

    Determining Fair Use

    Exceptions for Libraries and Archives

    Exceptions for the use of Materials in an Educational Setting

    Test Your Copyright Knowledge
    What You Need To Know

    Fair use is a concept embedded in U.S. law that recognizes that certain uses of copyright-protected works do not require permission from the copyright holder or its agent. These include instances of minimal use that do not interfere with the copyright holder's exclusive rights to reproduce and reuse the work.

    Fair use is not an exception to copyright compliance; it is more of a "legal defense." That is, if you copy and share a copyright-protected work and the copyright holder claims copyr

Haley M

Fair Use - Copyright and Fair Use - Library Guides at Polytechnic Institute of NYU - 0 views

    • What is Fair Use?

      Fair use is a concept embedded in U.S. law that recognizes that certain uses of copyright-protected works do not require permission from the copyright holder. (See Title 17, section 107)


      What Determines Fair Use?

      The following four factors are used to determine if a use is fair:

      1. The purpose of the use (eg. commercial vs. educational)*
      2. The nature of the copyrighted work
      3. The amount of the material used (the greater the amount copied, the less likely it is fair use)
      4. The effect of use on the potential market for or value of the work

      * Not all uses in an academic context are automatically considered fair use!

Haley M

Copyright Law - Copyright and Fair Use - Library Guides at Polytechnic Institute of NYU - 0 views

    • Copyright Law Defined

      Copyright law, as defined in Title 17 of the United States Code, protects "original works of authorship fixed in a tangible medium of expression" for a limited period. Copyright protection includes, for instance, the legal right to publish and sell literary, artistic, or musical work, and copyright protects authors, publishers and producers, and the public.  Copyright applies both to traditional media (books, records, etc.) and to digital media (electronic journals, web sites, etc.). Copyright protects the following eight categories of works:

      1. literary works
      2. musical works
      3. dramatic works
      4. pantomimes and choreographic works
      5. pictorial, graphic, and sculptural works
      6. motion pictures and other audiovisual works
      7. sound recordings
      8. architectural works

      Ownership of a copyrighted work includes the right to control the use of that work. Use of such work by others during the term of the copyright requires either permission from the author or reliance on the doctrine of fair use. Failure to do one or the other will expose the user to a claim of copyright infringement for which the law provides remedies including payment of money damages to the copyright owner.

Haley M

Justin, Demi, Selena, Rihanna - and COPPA | BCP Business Center - 1 views

  • Justin, Demi, Selena, Rihanna - and COPPA

    It's not likely we'll succumb to Bieber Fever.  We're of a generation more susceptible to the Rockin' Pneumonia and the Boogie Woogie Flu.  But a company that ran official fan websites for pop stars may be feeling the effects of an FTC law enforcement action alleging violations of the Children's Online Privacy Protection Act and COPPA Rule.

    The defendant, Artist Arena, operated authorized sites for Justin Bieber, Demi Lovato, Selena Gomez, and the mononymous recording artist Rihanna.  (It is, too, a word.  Ask Cher or Fabio.)  Visitors to,,, or could join fan clubs and subscribe to online newsletters.  Fan club members also had access to social networking functions, like creating personal profiles, posting on walls, or "friending" other members.  Of course, to take advantage of those features, people had to provide personal information.

    The details of the registration process varied depending on the site, so you'll want to read the complaint for the specifics.  But the 25-words-or-less summary is that Artist Arena allegedly collected kids' names, addresses, email addresses, birthdates, gender and other info without properly notifying parents and getting their consent.  According to the complaint, the company violated COPPA by knowingly registering over 25,000 kids under 13 and collected and maintained personal information from almost 75,000 other kids under 13 who started the sign-up process, but didn't finish it.

    This Justin Beiber fan site has been penalized more than $100,000 for collecting emails of minors under 13 without parental permission. COPPA compliance is more important than ever. I find it ironic that kids under 13 aren't even supposed to be able to have emails in the first place on many websites.

    "The details of the registration process varied depending on the site, so you'll want to read the complaint for the specifics. But the 25-words-or-less summary is that Artist Arena allegedly collected kids' names, addresses, email addresses, birthdates, gender and other info without properly notifying parents and getting their consent. According to the complaint, the company violated COPPA by knowingly registering over 25,000 kids under 13 and collected and maintained personal information from almost 75,000 other kids under 13 who started the sign-up process, but didn't finish it."
    This is important and why kids under 13 cannot get on most social media websites.
    This article is about kids that obtain info for personal websites without properly notifying parents and getting their consent.
Haley M

Famous Copyright Infringement Cases - 2 views

  • Copyright Infringement means using the original piece without the permission of the copyright holder, as such or in parts (without attributing the part to the owner). According to the US copyright laws, one can face heavy penalties in cases of copyright infringement. The infringement may also lead to a jail term or a penalty followed by a jail term.
  • Princeton University Press v. Michigan Document Services (1996)

    Michigan Document Services was involved in creating packages of study material for the students of the University. A professor supplied the course material and Michigan Document services, a photocopying organization, took photocopies of the material and converted it into a booklet for sale to students at the University.

    There was a clause of "Fair use" in this case. The photocopying company could have paid a nominal fee to the University and then used the material. This was available to anyone who wished to use the material. However, the photocopying company paid for only the original and then started making photocopies of the study material. The court considered that it was not "fair use" and penalized the photocopying company.

    A & M Records vs. Napster (2001)

    This is one of the most famous cases of copyright infringement related to the music industry. As peer to peer file sharing increased, Napster started a website. This website offered downloads of songs of all genre – new and old. You may know someone who used it.

    A & M Records brought in a joint copyright infringement case which accused Napster of stealing music and making it available to people worldwide. Before closing the site in 2002, Napster had to settle USD26 million to different recording companies and songwriters. It could have even more if Napster had not apologized and folded the site.

    Several websites still thrive on offering free music to people who can download it at no cost. As mentioned in our article on "Internet Ethics and Copyright Laws", the music industry faces most copyright infringement cases. The Napster case, though an example of the consequences, still does not act as a deterrent for other music websites that offer free music downloads.

    We hope these famous copyright infringement cases have clarified what is considered copyright violation to some extent. If you still have any questions, please free to contact us using the comments facility.

    On this website the author talks about what copyright infringement is and famous cases. Copyright infringement is when a person violates that intellectuals rights. Though once that copyright is sold it no longer belongs to them. This article discusses Feist Publications V. Rural Tele Services CO, Princeton University Press V. Michigan Document Services, A & M Records V. Napster.
    This article focuses on copyright infringement
Alex r

Computer Crime and Abuse Individual Awareness - 0 views

    Tips to avoid crime and abuse with individual awareness.
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