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Roger Harrison

teaching styles - Donald Clark Plan B - 2 views

  • What is Plan B? Not Plan A! Sunday, March 18, 2012 Socrates (469-399 BC) - method man Socrates was one of the few teachers who actually died for his craft, executed by the Athenian authorities for supposedly corrupting the young. Most learning professionals will have heard of the ‘Socratic method’ but few will know that he never wrote a single word describing this method, fewer still will know that the method is not what it is commonly represented to be. How many have read the Socratic dialogues? How many know what he meant by his method and how he practised his approach? Socrates, in fact, wrote absolutely nothing. It was Plato and Xenophon who record his thoughts and methods through the lens of their own beliefs. We must remember, therefore, that Socrates is in fact a mouthpiece for the views of others. In fact the two pictures painted of Socrates by these two commentators differ hugely. In the Platonic Dialogues he is witty, playful and a great philosophical theorist, in Xenophon he is a dull moraliser. Socratic method Th
  • he was among the first to recognise that, in terms of learning, ideas are best generated from the learner in terms of understanding and retention. Education is not a cramming in, but a drawing out.
  • Learning as a social activity pursued through dialogue Questions lie at the heart of learning to draw out what they already know, rather than imposing pre-determined views
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  • it is only in the last few decades, through the use of technology-based tools that allow search, questioning and now, adaptive learning, that Socratic learning can be truly realised on scale.
  • In practice, Socrates was a brutal bully, described by one pupil as a ‘predator which numbs its victims with an electric charge before darting in for the kill’.
  • He is best known for his problem-solving approach to learning
  • He was keen on ‘occupational’ learning and practical skills that produced independent, self-directing, autonomous adults.
  • He was refreshingly honest about their limitations and saw schools as only one means of learning, ‘and compared with other agencies, a relatively superficial means’.
  • Perhaps his most important contribution to education is his constant attempts to break down the traditional dualities in education between theory and practice, academic and vocational, public and private, individual and group. This mode of thinking, he thought, led education astray. The educational establishment, in his view, seemed determined to keep themselves, and their institutions, apart from the real world by holding on to abstract and often ill-defined definitions about the purpose of education.
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    Helpful blog, including brief introduction of educational theories by Socrates (and he wasn't such a nice guy after all) and others.
Roger Harrison

Social Learning Theory (Bandura) | Learning Theories - 3 views

  • Bandura’s Social Learning Theory posits that people learn from one another, via observation, imitation, and modeling
David Jennings

elearnspace › What is the theory that underpins our moocs? - 0 views

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    Useful summary by George Siemens of eight key concepts underlying the cMOOC approach
Roger Harrison

Experiential Learning (Kolb) | Learning Theories - 1 views

  • learning is the process whereby knowledge is created through the transformation of experience”
  • concrete experience (or “DO”) reflective observation (or “OBSERVE”) abstract conceptualization (or “THINK”) active experimentation (or “PLAN”)
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    Kolb (1939-)
Roger Harrison

Design-Based Research Methods (DBR) | Learning Theories - 0 views

  • educators have been trying to narrow the chasm between research and practice. Part of the challenge is that research that is detached from practice “may not account for the influence of contexts, the emergent and complex nature of outcomes, and the incompleteness of knowledge about which factors are relevant for prediction” (DBRC, 2003).
  • The need to address theoretical questions about the nature of learning in context The need for approaches to the study of learning phenomena in the real world situations rather than the laboratory
jim pettiward

Learning Development Cycle - 4 views

    • jim pettiward
       
      Yes, if you're talking about lifelong learners etc. but many students take a very 'instrumentalist' approach to learning so they will almost exclusively focus on the assessment outcomes
  • Learners themselves will seek and acquire needed elements.
    • jim pettiward
       
      Again, this is all dependent on the student's motivation - what they are learning and why.
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  • Creating networks and permitting learners to form their own connections is more reflective of how learning functions in real life
  • esign processes need to be utilized to capture the value of alternative learning formats.
  • Instead of seeing instruction as the only object of design, a designer’s perspective can be enlarged by seeing the environment, availability of resources, and learner capacity for reflection, as potential objects of a design process and methodology.
  • “…the assumptions that the students are adults, self-motivated, accountable for their own learning, should be respected, as well as exercise control over their learning outcomes…”
  • “learner-centred”, throwing the term around as if it should be implicitly understood
  • ndependent learning requires that people take responsibility for their own learning. Individual responsibility stems from the belief that learning can be affected by effort, and this belief is the critical factor which leads to individuals' perseverance in the face of obstacles.”
    • jim pettiward
       
      that's fine, but this describes a minority of learners in Higher Ed in my experience. What about those who don't have this type of 'learning maturity'?
  • Traditional ID models attend to transmission through focus on explicit learning objectives, content analysis, content sequencing, and blueprinting the instructional flow. This model has particular value in creation of courses, programs, and workshops. The instructor (due to activities of the designer) is kept at the centre of the instructional process.
  • Education is constructed with start and end points (courses, programs, degrees).
    • jim pettiward
       
      For massive, formalised education, is there currently a viable alternative to this model? Probably not.
  • Reflection and cognition provide learners with the capacity to explore new realms.
  • esigners also seek to improve the abilities of learners to manage and navigate knowledge resources.
    • jim pettiward
       
      e.g. helping our learners to build their own PLE/PLN
  • Connectivism (Siemens, 2004) and constructivism are the learning theories that most adequately inform the nature of acquisition learning.
  • The designer’s role in this domain of learning is to create the construct and opportunities for learners to pursue and provide for their own learning.
  • f course-based learning is out of date for today’s learner, what is the alternative?
    • jim pettiward
       
      Can't agree with this sweeping statement...
  • The design process can then be seen as focusing primarily on one domain, yet still accounting for aspects of another domain. For purposes of espousing a theory, four distinctive domains are used. In actual design situations, a designer will likely select aspects of each domain to create the optimum learning resource.
  • A new model of learning design also requires new tools and processes. Many of these tools are already in use in a subculture of internet users. The tools are characterized by: sociability, collaboration, simplicity, and connections. Blogs, wikis, RSS (Really Simple Syndication), instant messaging, Voice over IP, and social networking applications are gaining increased attention in progressive organizations.
  • Most significant is the ability to combine formal and informal learning. Informal learning is experiencing growing recognition as a critical component of most organizations.
  • Many colleges speak of life-long learning; yet only form relationships with learners for two to four years. The bulk of learning for most people will happen in their work environment. A unique opportunity exists for education providers who are prepared to modify themselves to attend to learner’s needs for a lifetime.
  • earning is created as guideposts, not directions.
  • The constructs of the ecology permit individual learners broad movements based on personal interests and motivations (but still within the larger organizational parameters created by the designer to serve a specific outcome).
  • The image of being a learner almost creates a preconditioned response of passivity.
  • Some transitory stage is required to move learners from passive consumers to active knowledge creators.
    • jim pettiward
       
      Perhaps as learners move through a degree they can be encouraged along that path so that when they leave HE they are better equipped as lifelong learners...
  • Letting go and opening up to serendipitous, learner-centred learning is not an easy task. For many educators, it will evoke an identify crisis. After several experiences with alternative learning formats, the liberation of not having to have all the answers, but rather guiding learners towards answers, is an intoxicating (and motivating) revelation.
  • aking a panoramic view of learning, and accounting for unique facets and domains, equips a designer with numerous approaches and methods. Instead of only transmitting learning, educators begin to create structures and networks that will foster a lifetime of learning and learning skills.
  • Learning is a continuous stream, rather than a dammed up reservoir.
  • Learning design is primarily about creating guideposts
  • Designers no longer create only instruction sequences. They must create environments, networks, access to resources, and increase the capacity of learners to function and forage for their own knowledge.
  • the climate in which a learner can choose to learn
  • his notion has some merit, but falters in that the objectives for learning are determined by the designer, not the learner.
  • Most learners pursue self-created objectives.
  • A designer’s first task is to evaluate the nature of the learning required. Different knowledge needs require different models or approaches
Roger Harrison

Constructivism | Learning Theories - 0 views

  • People actively construct or create their own subjective representations of objective reality
  • learning is an active, contextualized process of constructing knowledge rather than acquiring it
  • Knowledge is constructed based on personal experiences and hypotheses of the environment.
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    • Roger Harrison
       
      I think this process of constructing new knowledge based on what one already knows is often true - much of this probably happens in the unconscious. Though also at times I think people do just accept something.
Roger Harrison

Behaviorism | Learning Theories - 0 views

    • Roger Harrison
       
      I don't think learners are 'passive' responding to environmental stimuli. Some of the time they are, but not all of the time.
  • behavior is shaped through positive reinforcement or negative reinforcement.
  • behaviorist work was done with animals
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    • Roger Harrison
       
      I really see Behaviourism clearly with my dog. I give a command, he does the behaviour and gets the immediate reward, so learns that doing command = treat
  • acceptance of mediating structures, the role of emotions,
Roger Harrison

Cognitivism | Learning Theories - 0 views

    • Roger Harrison
       
      So moves away from Behaviorism which considers external stimuli, and starts to look at what is going on in the mind to start with.
  • Mental processes such as thinking, memory, knowing, and problem-solving need to be explored
  • A response to behaviorism, people are not “programmed animals” that merely respond to environmental stimuli; people are rational beings that require active participation in order to learn, and whose actions are a consequence of thinking
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    • Roger Harrison
       
      this distinction is important - sees learners as having abilities to think and not just react/respond
Roger Harrison

Humanism | Learning Theories - 0 views

    • Roger Harrison
       
      that our students tend to only respond to discussion boards when they are assessed, suggests a stronger impact of Behaviourism here rather than humanism
  • Carl Rogers and Abraham Maslow
  • humanism, learning is student centered and personalized, and the educator’s role is that of a facilitator
David Jennings

Rhizomatic learning | Innovating Pedagogy - 0 views

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    Brief summary/definition of the theory of rhizomatic learning
jim pettiward

The Theory Underlying Concept Maps and How to Construct and Use Them - 1 views

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    There are some interesting ideas here about how people learn (from the makers of cmap concept-mapping tool)
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