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Jacqueline Nivard

Gas-on-gas competition in Shanghai - 0 views

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    In common with other major economic centres in China, Shanghai's energy consumption has been increasing rapidly to support the high growth rate of its economy. To achieve rational, efficient and clean use of energy, together with improved environmental quality within the city, the Shanghai municipal government has decided to expand the supply and utilization of natural gas. Shanghai plans to increase the share of natural gas in its primary energy mix to 7 per cent by 2010, up from 3 per cent in 2005. This increase in natural gas demand has to be matched with a corresponding increase in supply. To date, the Shanghai region has relied on offshore extracted natural gas but this supply is limited due to the size of the reserves. Since 2005, the West-East pipeline has provided an alternative for Shanghai but demands from other regions could reduce the potential for expanding supplies from that source. Since domestic production will not be sufficient to meet demand in the near future, Shanghai is building a liquefied natural gas (LNG) regasification terminal at the Yangshan deep-water port that would allow an additional supply of more than 3 billion cubic meters per year of natural gas. Malaysia has already committed to supply LNG to the Shanghai terminal at a price that is significantly higher than the wholesale "city-gate" price for natural gas transported via pipeline, but still lower than the gas price to end-use consumers. The presence of both an LNG terminal and a transmission pipeline that connects Shanghai to domestic gas-producing regions will create gas-on-gas competition. This study assesses the benefits of introducing such competition to one of China's most advanced cities under various scenarios for demand growth. In this paper, the impact of imported LNG on market concentration in Shanghai's gas market will be analysed using the Herfindahl-Hirschmann index (HHI) and the residual supply index (RSI). Our results show that Shanghai remains a supply-constrained
Jacqueline Nivard

Shanghai en folie, quand le Web devient une machine à écrire - 1 views

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    Le Shanghai Nø City Guide sorti au mois de février recèle une contribution d'Omer Pesquer qui déborde la clôture du livre, fût-il numérique, pour s'exprimer pleinement sur le Web. « Shanghai en folie » est un magnifique témoignage du renouvellement de nos écritures urbaines, par jeu et essaimage. Ceci est un témoignage sur la façon dont le Web et l'édition numérique façonnent nos échanges sur l'écriture. Le 15 mai 2011, alors que nous avons lancé notre appel à contribution pour Shanghai Nø City Guide, nous recevons la proposition suivante d'Omer Pesquer : « Mon idée est de prendre des photos FlickR de "Shanghai" en CC-by-SA et de les "passer" dans un processus automatisé pour les "unifier". Une sorte de re-photographie assistée par ordinateur ». Omer nous précise qu'il développerait une appli Web associée à notre parution, à l'aune de "UnTitre" qui est basée un peu sur le même principe « sauf que l'image n'est pas retraitée dans ce dernier cas », ajoute-t-il. Bien sûr, nous connaissions déjà, pour l'avoir utilisée, cette appli Web UnTitre, qui génère des fausses couvertures de livre aux titres drolatiques. Omer a aussi développé MotBot et Outrepart. Banco ! Mais en juin, lorsque nous établissons le premier chemin de fer de la revue, les choses se corsent. Nous annonçons à Omer que son projet entrera dans une séquence que nous avons baptisée Contrefaçons : « un angle de vue sur Shanghai par l'analogie, la métaphore, la duplication, la référence publicitaire, le kitch, la mondialisation par le bas (dont le marché de la contrefaçon au sens propre) ». Pour Omer, ça ne cadre pas : ce n'est pas l'angle de son travail ; bien loin de s'avancer sur le terrain du kitch, il s'oriente sur une poétique de la disparition d'un vieux monde, à la manière de Tati décrivant Paris dans Mon oncle. Photo à l'appui, Omer nous écrit « voilà d'ailleurs ce que pour
Jacqueline Nivard

Shanghai.nocity.guide - 0 views

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    Mégalopole de vitesse et de changement permanent, Shanghai contredit la fixité et l'idéal de ce qu'on appelle encore ville. Au visiteur imaginaire ou réel, au nouveau flâneur urbain équipé de son outillage numérique, Shanghai Nø City Guide délivre une exploration loin du récit omniscient. La texture urbaine qui se tisse ainsi à propos de Shanghai devient une invitation à se constituer soi-même des approches parcellaires et éclatées, des pratiques urbaines… À rebours du guide de voyage traditionnel, Shanghai Nø City Guide appréhende la ville par son dehors: imaginaires, espaces indécis, zones, chantiers et parcours qu'on ne trouvera pas ailleurs et que nous interrogeons à partir des pratiques qu'ils suscitent… lorsque nous nous détachons de notre rôle de touriste ou de résident. Proposition expérimentale et créative, fiction numérique mêlant les médias et les écritures urbaines en une forme éditoriale innovante, Shanghai Nø City Guide vise avant tout à créer un univers de rencontre avec cette mégalopole de vitesse et de changement
Monique Abud

Low-to-no carbon city: Lessons from western urban projects for the rapid transformation... - 0 views

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    [ScienceDirect, via Biblio-SHS] Auteur : Steffen Lehmann Paru dans : Habitat International, Available online 4 January 2012 Abstract The purpose of this paper is to explore the rapid urbanization of Chinese cities with a focus on the plans for a new, ongoing urban sub-centre in the north-west of Shanghai: Zhenru Urban Sub-Centre. Information-rich urbanization is a defining feature of the 21st century, reshaping cities and communities in China and in developing countries around the world. The scale and pace of change requires a solid systems approach of urban development. In 2011, China announced that it has reached an urbanization rate of 50%. If we take rapid urbanization as a given and that it is already well underway, it is still widely unclear what research needs to be conducted and policy changes made to support municipalities of fast transforming cities and to avoid repeating the development mistakes that have occurred in industrialized nations, i.e. driving urban growth with high consumption patterns without fully considering the environmental and social needs and occupants' behaviour and aspirations. This paper compares two cases of urban development patterns for new sub-centres for polycentric city structures: It relates to new urban sub-centres in Berlin (Germany) and Shanghai (China), and the relationship of these sub-centres to 'Network City' theory. Network theory is useful in this context as the 'network' metaphor and concepts of decentralization seem to have replaced the 'machine' metaphor which was based on efficiency based on the availability of cheap fossil fuels. As cities aim to move towards more resilient urban ecosystems and polycentric systems, the case of Potsdamer Platz Berlin, compared to Zhenru Sub-Centre in Shanghai, is discussed. Both are transport-oriented developments promoting mixed-use density and less car-dependency. According to documentation of the Shanghai municipality, Zhenru urban centre, which is cur
Monique Abud

Smaller cities more beautiful - 0 views

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    Sur le site "The Urban China Initiaitve" 4/05/2012 By Li Jing ( China Daily) Urban leaders do more to safeguard environment, conserve resources Small and medium-sized cities are more livable than big cities such as Beijing and Shanghai gauged by their air quality, waste treatment capacity and built environment, according to newly published research by Urban China Initiative. A woman rides a bicycle on a windy day in Beijing. According to recently published research by Urban China Initiative, Beijing and Shanghai were absent from a ranking of the top 10 Chinese cities gauged by their environmental sustainability. [Photo/China Daily] UCI, a think tank launched by Tsinghua University, McKinsey & Co and Columbia University, gauged the sustainability of 112 major Chinese cities using 17 indicators in four categories - society, economy, environment and resources. Beijing ranked first in sustainability thanks to its heavy investment in social welfare - including social security, education and healthcare - and its economic achievements. The top 10 cities in overall score - including Xiamen, Fujian province, Haikou, the capital of Hainan province, Dalian in Liaoning province, and Shanghai - are all medium and large-sized cities. However, small and medium-sized cities are taking the lead in environmental sustainability. Both Beijing and Shanghai were absent from the top 10 in this category. According to the research, Haikou has the best air quality, while Hefei, capital of Anhui province, took the lead in waste treatment facilities. And Xining, the capital of Qinghai province, boasts the best built environment - man-made surroundings that serve as the setting for human activity. "Such a result shows that small cities have a better quality of life, though people living in megacities like Beijing and Shanghai have better access to medical and educational resources," said Jonathan Woetzel, co-chair of UCI, as well as a senior global dir
Monique Abud

Can rapid urbanisation ever lead to low carbon cities? The case of Shanghai in comparis... - 1 views

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    Abstract In 2011, China announced that it has reached an urbanisation rate of 50%. If we take rapid urbanisation as a given and that it is already well underway, it is still widely unclear what research needs to be conducted and policy changes made to support municipalities of fast transforming cities and to avoid repeating the development mistakes that have occurred in industrialised nations, i.e. driving urban growth with high consumption patterns without fully considering the environmental and social needs and occupants' behaviour and aspirations. The scale and pace of change requires a solid systems approach of urban development. The purpose of this paper is to explore the rapid urbanisation of Chinese cities with a focus on the plans for a new, on-going urban sub-centre in the north-west of Shanghai: Zhenru urban sub-centre. Information-rich urbanisation is a defining feature of the 21st century, reshaping cities and communities in China and in developing countries around the world. The paper compares two cases of urban development patterns for new sub-centres for polycentric city structures: it relates to new urban sub-centres in Berlin (Germany) and Shanghai (China), and the relationship of these sub-centres to 'Network City' theory. Network theory is useful in this context as the 'network' metaphor and concepts of decentralisation seem to have replaced the 'machine' metaphor which was based on efficiency based on the availability of cheap fossil fuels. The question to be addressed is how Chinese cities can be better steered towards more sustainable models of development. As cities aim to move towards more resilient urban ecosystems and polycentric systems, the case of Potsdamer Platz Berlin, compared to Zhenru sub-centre in Shanghai, is discussed. Both are transport-oriented developments promoting mixed-use density and less car-dependency. According to documentation of the Shanghai municipality, Zhenru urban centre, which is currently
Monique Abud

Can rapid urbanisation ever lead to low carbon cities? The case of Shanghai in comparis... - 0 views

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    [ScienceDirect, via Biblio-SHS] Auteur : Steffen Lehmann Paru dans : Sustainable Cities and Society, Volume 3, July 2012, Pages 1-12 Abstract In 2011, China announced that it has reached an urbanisation rate of 50%. If we take rapid urbanisation as a given and that it is already well underway, it is still widely unclear what research needs to be conducted and policy changes made to support municipalities of fast transforming cities and to avoid repeating the development mistakes that have occurred in industrialised nations, i.e. driving urban growth with high consumption patterns without fully considering the environmental and social needs and occupants' behaviour and aspirations. The scale and pace of change requires a solid systems approach of urban development. The purpose of this paper is to explore the rapid urbanisation of Chinese cities with a focus on the plans for a new, on-going urban sub-centre in the north-west of Shanghai: Zhenru urban sub-centre. Information-rich urbanisation is a defining feature of the 21st century, reshaping cities and communities in China and in developing countries around the world. The paper compares two cases of urban development patterns for new sub-centres for polycentric city structures: it relates to new urban sub-centres in Berlin (Germany) and Shanghai (China), and the relationship of these sub-centres to 'Network City' theory. Network theory is useful in this context as the 'network' metaphor and concepts of decentralisation seem to have replaced the 'machine' metaphor which was based on efficiency based on the availability of cheap fossil fuels. The question to be addressed is how Chinese cities can be better steered towards more sustainable models of development. As cities aim to move towards more resilient urban ecosystems and polycentric systems, the case of Potsdamer Platz Berlin, compared to Zhenru sub-centre in Shanghai, is discussed. Both are transport-oriented developments promoti
Jacqueline Nivard

Building Globalization: Transnational Architecture Production in China - - 0 views

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    Xuefei Ren's work on the high-end of the building boom in China brings together the sociology of globalization with the study of architecture and the built environment. Building Globalization treats architectural production as crucial to the material and symbolic ways in which global cities are made. Based on Ren's doctoral research at the University of Chicago, the book draws on fieldwork conducted in Beijing and Shanghai between 2004 and 2008, covering the bull years leading up to the Beijing Olympics. China is now taken to exemplify the geo-demographic shift that has seen developing countries lead current processes of urbanisation. However the Chinese government's attitude towards quanqiuhua chengshi (global cities) and its support for rapid urban growth from the mid-late 1990s represented a striking reversal of official policy which had been to limit the growth of large cities and promote instead the development of small-medium centres (p.11). The re-scaling of state power to metropolitan level in the interests of enhancing urban competitiveness has been an international trend in recent decades. In China this has proved particularly effective in driving urban growth, given state ownership of land and government control over household registration, urban planning and development decisions. Metropolitan governments in China have the kind of ownership and discretionary powers of which the most boosterist western city mayors can only dream. Ren argues convincingly that the processes shaping these cities are increasingly transnational; in particular, the forces that make buildings 'operate beyond national boundaries, as seen in the circulation of investment capital, the movements of built-environment professionals, and the diffusion of new technologies' (p.6). However, while Chinese economic growth may have destabilized a global balance of power dominated by the triad of the USA, the European Union and Japan, Ren's analysis suggests that older core-peripher
Monique Abud

Once Upon a Time in Shanghai Snapshots of Shanghai's heyday as the Vegas of Asia. By Ka... - 0 views

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    While the rest of the world faded into black and white during the Great Depression, Shanghai in the 1930s was a glittering metropolis of 3 million people studded with cabarets, nightclubs, and legendary bordellos. Known as the "Paris of the Orient," Shanghai developed a high-flying social scene for the city's elites and expatriates, and it became famous for hosting all manner of vices, not limited to gambling on horse and dog races or a thriving opium scene. Legend has it that Christian missionaries in the city would shake their heads and muse, "If God allowed Shanghai to endure, he owes Sodom and Gomorrah an apology." Here's a look at China's sin city before it became the stainless-steel jungle of the 21st century. En ligne, site consulté le : 17/08/2012
Monique Abud

Aspects of Urbanization in China : Shanghai, Hong Kong, Guangzhou - 0 views

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    Gregory Bracken, Aspects of urbanization in China : Shanghai, Hong Kong, Guangzhou, Amsterdam university press, 2012, 212 p. Abstract : China's rise is one of the transformative events of our time. Aspects of urbanization in China: Shanghai, Hong Kong, Guangzhou examines some of the aspects of China's massive wave of urbanization - the largest the world has ever seen. The various papers in the book, written by academics from different disciplines, represent ongoing research and exploration and give a useful snapshot in a rapidly developing discourse. Their point of departure is the city - Shanghai, Hong Kong and Guangzhou - where the downside of China's miraculous economic growth is most painfully apparent. And it is concern for the citizens of these cities that unifies the papers in a book whose authors seek to understand what life is like for the people who call them home. Disponible en ligne, intégralement, à l'adresse : http://www.oapen.org/search?identifier=418533;keyword=bracken
Monique Abud

Editorial : China's eco-cities - 0 views

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    DOI : http://dx.doi.org.gate3.inist.fr/10.1016/j.geoforum.2011.08.001 [ScienceDirect, via Biblio-SHS] Auteur : Fulung Wu (Bartlett School of Planning, University College of London, United Kingdom) Paru dans : Geoforum Volume 43, Issue 2, March 2012, Pages 169-171, SI - Party Politics, the Poor and the City: reflections from South Africa "Following the fever for 'development zones' in the early 1990s and the 'global city' in the late 1990s, Chinese local governments - and municipal governments in particular - are now enthusiastic to build more 'eco-cities'. The Dongtan project on Chongming Island in Shanghai was the first experiment. This project started in 2005 when the Shanghai Industrial Investment Corporation (SIIC) contracted Arup, a UK-headquartered international engineering consultancy firm, to prepare a master plan. As a strategic partner of SIIC, Arup took the responsibility of planning the 80 km2 of land at Dongtan. The project received widespread attention around the world, partially because of excellent information dissemination by the project. Dongtan originally aimed to accommodate 10,000 people in the first phase by 2010 when World Expo was held in Shanghai, and would expand to 80,000 people by 2020. By 2050, Dongtan would be built into a new city of half a million people [...]"
Monique Abud

Major high-speed railway opens in central China - 0 views

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    English.news.cn 2012-07-01 13:48:39 YICHANG, July 1 (Xinhua) -- The Hanyi Railway, a section of a major high-speed rail corridor between the eastern metropolis of Shanghai and southwest China's city of Chengdu, opened on Sunday. The 293-km Hanyi Railway links Wuhan and Yichang, two large cities in central China's Hubei province. The railway will reduce travel time between the cities to one hour and 39 minutes, said Yang Tao, an official with the Wuhan railway bureau. The Hanyi Railway is part of the Shanghai-Wuhan-Chengdu Railway, or Huhanrong Railway, a major east-west high-speed rail corridor outlined in China's national high-speed railway development plan. The 2,078-km railway will travel though four provinces and two municipalities, connecting the cities of Shanghai, Nanjing, Hefei, Wuhan, Chongqing and Chengdu. Most sections of the Huhanrong Railway are in operation, with construction on the last section slated to be completed in 2013 [...]
Monique Abud

China Average Housing Price Rises in June After 9 Months of Decline - 0 views

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    UPDATE: China Average Housing Price Rises in June After 9 Months of Decline - CREIS - China housing prices rebounded for the first time in June on month after nine months of decline, according to a private data provider -- Average housing price in June was CNY8,688 a square meter, rising 0.05% from CNY8,684 in May, reversing from May's 0.31% decline -- Housing prices in Inner Mongolia's Baotou city and Beijing rose by the widest margin, at 2.6% and 2.3%, respectively -- Sales have improved as China eases monetary policy, and prices are rising as developers have started to reduce discounts, analysts say (Adds comments from analysts in third to fourth paragraphs, 13th to 14th paragraphs, a homebuyer's comment in 10th to 12th paragraphs and background onrecent property easing moves by local governments in the final paragraphs.) By Esther Fung SHANGHAI--The average price of housing in 100 major Chinese cities recorded its first sequential rise in June after nine straight months of decline, in a further sign that the housing market is turning a corner, though analysts say a robust rebound in prices remains unlikely. A survey of property developers and real-estate firms showed the average price of housing in June was CNY8,688 a square meter, rising 0.05% from CNY8,684 in May, and overturning May's 0.31% decline, data provider China Real Estate Index System said Monday. "I believe the housing market has bottomed out," said Nicole Wong, a property analyst from CLSA. She also said that inventory will likely peak in the third quarter and prices will rise by a modest 5% by the fourth quarter, as demand for new launches has been strengthening in the past few months and developers don't need to lower their prices too much to attract buyers. On an on-year basis, the average housing price fell for a third consecutive month, sliding 1.90% from CNY8,856 booked in June 2011, and accelerating from May's 1.53% decline. The survey, compiled wi
Monique Abud

The East Is Rising Meet the 29 Chinese cities powering global growth. By Elias Groll | ... - 0 views

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    The East Is Rising Meet the 29 Chinese cities powering global growth. BY ELIAS GROLL | SEPT/OCT 2012 Keren Su/Getty Images 1 / 30 Foreign Policy's index of the 75 most dynamic global cities contains more than a few surprises, but perhaps none more so than the fact that 29 of these cities are in China -- far and away the most of any country on the list. As part of its mad dash toward modernization, China has rapidly urbanized, spawning a slew of massive cities whose size is only tempered by the surprising fact that most people in the West have never heard of them. Despite their relative anonymity, these are the cities likely to drive the world economy during coming decades. Some are high-tech manufacturers; others are bathed in smoke produced by the factories that not long ago were a common sight in Western countries. Meet the 29 Chinese cities powering global growth. Shanghai: Although Shanghai had no skyscrapers in 1980, it now has at least 4,000 -- more than twice as many as New York. In 2010, 208 million square feet of real estate, nearly 80 times the square footage of New York's massive One World Trade Center, was constructed in the city. Above, the Jinmao Building and Oriental Pearl TV Tower can be seen dominating the Shanghai skyline as its rises from the banks of Huangpu River. [...] En ligne, site consulté le 17/08/2012
Monique Abud

Data gaps hobbling trial carbon markets - 0 views

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    Data gaps hobbling trial carbon markets Xu Nan Liu Shuang August 09, 2012 Seven Chinese regions are due to launch emissions-trading schemes next year. They will struggle to do so, write Liu Shuang and Xu Nan. Late last October, China's top economic planning body - the National Development and Reform Commission - instructed the cities of Beijing, Tianjin, Shanghai, Chongqing and Shenzhen, plus Hubei and Guangdong provinces, to get ready to run carbon-trading trials. These are not China's first experiments with emissions trading. In fact, the country has of late seen a proliferation of exchanges: according to Chinese newspaper 21st Century Business Herald, by the time of last year's announcement, many provinces and cities were already setting up their own carbon exchanges, or "energy and environment exchanges" - which in almost all cases include trading of emissions rights. But to date, the platforms up and running are either voluntary or tied into the UN clean development mechanism. Some places, including Chengdu, Ningxia and Xinjiang, are either considering similar exchanges, or planning to host branches of the Shanghai Environment and Energy Exchange, though these tend to mean nothing more than one employee in a single office. The seven Beijing-backed, mandatory trials kick-started last October represent a new level of ambition, however. Ten months on, how are they progressing? The short answer is: slowly. [...]
Jacqueline Nivard

Virtual Shanghai - 0 views

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    "Live Maps" is the GIS platform where we offer access to georectified maps, but also where we combine various elements of data to produce maps "on the fly". Apart from producing maps based on pre-selected data, "Live Maps" includes other features. The first one is a timeline. Only the items selected for a given period will show on the maps (e.g. "schools" in 1910-1925). Each physical element like buildings, parks, etc. -- whenever this is known -- is determined by a "date of construction" and "date of destruction" (or change of function). The second feature is the link between these physical elements and the photographic database. All such identified elements in the photographic database will appear with all their associated pictures and actual location on any georectified map in Virtual Shanghai.
Monique Abud

China's urbanization unlikely to lead to fast growth of middle class: UW geographer - 0 views

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    By Molly McElroy Feb. 29, 2012 News and Information The number of people living in China's cities, which last year for the first time surpassed 50 percent of the national population, is considered a boon for the consumer goods market. That is based on the assumption that there will be more families with more disposable income when poor farmers from China's countryside move to cities and become middle-class industrial and office workers. But the assumption overlooks a policy from the era of Chinese leader Mao Zedong that restricts the upward mobility of its rural citizens, says a University of Washington geographer. This calls into question China's strength in the global market and its ability to overtake the United States as a global superpower, according to Kam Wing Chan, a UW professor of geography. Skyline of Shanghai, the largest city in China. China's urban population is expected to reach 1 billion in the next 15 years. tyler_haglund, Wikimedia Skyline of Shanghai, the largest city in China. China's urban population is expected to reach 1 billion in the next 15 years. His findings are published in the current issue of the journal Eurasian Geography and Economics.
Monique Abud

The Rise and Fall and Rise of New Shanghai : is history repeating itself in China's gli... - 0 views

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    The members of the Harvard Medical School Class of '08 were exceedingly ambitious -- even by Harvard standards. Not content merely to graduate from America's top med school, a small group of them set out to found an entirely new campus of their alma mater abroad. As they looked out across a world knit together by instant communications and intercontinental travel whose center of gravity was shifting to the rising Pacific Rim, there could be only one choice: Shanghai. China's financial hub and international gateway seemed destined to blossom into the leading global city of the new century. The get-rich-quick schemer's paradise that had grabbed the world's attention as an Asian El Dorado now had its sights set on becoming a cultured and cosmopolitan Paris of the East.[...] En ligne, site consulté le : 17/08/2012 En ligne, site consulté le : 17/08/2012
Monique Abud

Unlivable Cities - By Isaac Stone Fish | Foreign Policy - 0 views

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    In Invisible Cities, the novel by the great Italian writer Italo Calvino, Marco Polo dazzles the emperor of China, Kublai Khan, with 55 stories of cities he has visited, places where "the buildings have spiral staircases encrusted with spiral seashells," a city of "zigzag" where the inhabitants "are spared the boredom of following the same streets every day," and another with the option to "sleep, make tools, cook, accumulate gold, disrobe, reign, sell, question oracles." The trick, it turns out, is that Polo's Venice is so richly textured and dense that all his stories are about just one city. A modern European ruler listening to a visitor from China describe the country's fabled rise would be better served with the opposite approach: As the traveler exits a train station, a woman hawks instant noodles and packaged chicken feet from a dingy metal cart, in front of concrete steps emptying out into a square flanked by ramshackle hotels and massed with peasants sitting on artificial cobblestones and chewing watermelon seeds. The air smells of coal. Then the buildings appear: Boxlike structures, so gray as to appear colorless, line the road. If the city is poor, the Bank of China tower will be made with hideous blue glass; if it's wealthy, our traveler will marvel at monstrous prestige projects of glass and copper. The station bisects Shanghai Road or Peace Avenue, which then leads to Yat-sen Street, named for the Republic of China's first president, eventually intersecting with Ancient Building Avenue. Our traveler does not know whether he is in Changsha, Xiamen, or Hefei -- he is in the city Calvino describes as so unremarkable that "only the name of the airport changes." Or, as China's vice minister of construction, Qiu Baoxing, lamented in 2007, "It's like a thousand cities having the same appearance." Why are Chinese cities so monolithic? The answer lies in the country's fractured history. In the 1930s, China was a failed state: Warlords controlled large swath
Jacqueline Nivard

Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Chinese Cities - 0 views

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    Full Text available. As some of the most rapidly urbanizing places in the world, China's cities have a unique relationship with global climate change. The economies found in Chinese cities are extremely resource and energy intensive; as a result, they produce significant levels of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. This article provides comprehensive and detailed emissions inventories for Shanghai, Beijing, and Tianjin, which were found to be responsible for 12.8, 10.7, and 11.9 tonnes of carbon dioxide equivalent per capita (t CO2-eq/capita), respectively, in 2006. The majority of emissions were from electricity production, heating and industrial fuel use, and ground transportation. The prevalence of coal in the energy supply mix (including up to 98% in Tianjin) was a fundamental cause of high energy emissions. Non-energy emissions from industrial processes were also significant, including emissions from cement and steel production. The GHG inventories for Shanghai, Beijing, and Tianjin point to sectors requiring the most attention in terms of low-carbon growth. Compared to ten other global cities, Chinese cities are among the highest per capita emitters, alluding to the important challenge China faces of reducing emissions while improving the quality of life for urban residents. Accordingly, this article concludes with a discussion of the opportunities and issues concerning low-carbon growth in China, including the potential for renewable energy and the difficulties associated with emissions relocation and policy adoption.
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