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Duane Sharrock

Metacognition: An Overview - 7 views

  • Metacognition refers to higher order thinking which involves active control over the cognitive processes engaged in learning. Activities such as planning how to approach a given learning task, monitoring comprehension, and evaluating progress toward the completion of a task are metacognitive in nature.
  • "Metacognition" is often simply defined as "thinking about thinking."
  • While there are some distinctions between definitions (see Van Zile-Tamsen, 1994, 1996 for a full discussion), all emphasize the role of executive processes in the overseeing and regulation of cognitive processes.
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  • Most definitions of metacognition include both knowledge and strategy components
  • These processes help to regulate and oversee learning, and consist of planning and monitoring cognitive activities, as well as checking the outcomes of those activities.
  • According to Flavell (1979, 1987), metacognition consists of both metacognitive knowledge and metacognitive experiences or regulation. Metacognitive knowledge refers to acquired knowledge about cognitive processes, knowledge that can be used to control cognitive processes. Flavell further divides metacognitive knowledge into three categories: knowledge of person variables, task variables and strategy variables.
  • What is the difference between a cognitive and a metacognitive strategy?
  • Cognitive strategies are used to help an individual achieve a particular goal (e.g., understanding a text) while metaCognitive strategies are used to ensure that the goal has been reached (e.g., quizzing oneself to evaluate one's understanding of that text).
  • Metacognitive and cognitive strategies may overlap in that the same strategy, such as questioning, could be regarded as either a cognitive or a metacognitive strategy depending on what the purpose for using that strategy may be.
  • Metacognition, or the ability to control one's cognitive processes (self-regulation) has been linked to intelligence
  • Knowledge is considered to be metacognitive if it is actively used in a strategic manner to ensure that a goal is met.
  • Sternberg refers to these executive processes as "metacomponents" in his triarchic theory of intelligence (Sternberg, 1984, 1986a, 1986b). Metacomponents are executive processes that control other cognitive components as well as receive feedback from these components. According to Sternberg, metacomponents are responsible for "figuring out how to do a particular task or set of tasks, and then making sure that the task or set of tasks are done correctly" (Sternberg, 1986b, p. 24). These executive processes involve planning, evaluating and monitoring problem-solving activities. Sternberg maintains that the ability to appropriately allocate cognitive resources, such as deciding how and when a given task should be accomplished, is central to intelligence.
  • Cognitive Strategy Instruction
  • Cognitive Strategy Instruction
  • Those with greater metacognitive abilities tend to be more successful in their cognitive endeavors.
  • CSI) is an instructional approach which emphasizes the development of thinking skills and processes as a means to enhance learning. The objective of CSI is to enable all students to become more strategic, self-reliant, flexible, and productive in their learning endeavors (Scheid, 1993)
  • Metacognition enables students to benefit from instruction (Carr, Kurtz, Schneider, Turner & Borkowski, 1989; Van Zile-Tamsen, 1996) and influences the use and maintenance of cognitive strategies
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    "According to Flavell (1979, 1987), metacognition consists of both metacognitive knowledge and metacognitive experiences or regulation. Metacognitive knowledge refers to acquired knowledge about cognitive processes, knowledge that can be used to control cognitive processes. Flavell further divides metacognitive knowledge into three categories: knowledge of person variables, task variables and strategy variables."
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    Sternberg defined intelligence as mental activity central to one's life in real-world environments; individuals "succeed" in life when they use mental skills to adapt to, select, and shape external environments. Correspondingly, in the late 1990s, Sternberg changed the name of the theory to the Theory of Successful Intelligence. As per its original name, the theory comprises three types of intelligence: analytical (also referred to as componential); practical (also referred to as contextual) and creative (also referred to as experiential).
Vicki Davis

Lumosity Education Access Program (LEAP) Application Survey - 9 views

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    If you'd really like to get into the Luminosity program, here is the application form to get into it. Here's info from the press release. This is a cool app that is supposed to improve many parts of cognition. I have it on my list to try and it is very interesting to me. Here's the link and some info: "Preliminary results from the Spring 2012 semester found that students who trained with Lumosity improved more on a battery of online cognitive assessments than students who did not train. Additionally, effects were dose-dependent; engaging in more Lumosity training led to greater improvements on the assessments. Insights from the 2012-13 LEAP academic year on the effects of cognitive training on students' real-world academic outcomes are forthcoming. Educators are increasingly interested in enhancing their students' cognitive and behavioral factors. More than 75 percent of all teachers who applied for the Fall 2013 LEAP semester believe training with Lumosity will promote: cognitive enhancement, increased ability to pay attention, improved self-confidence, and improved general attitude toward learning."
anonymous

Institute of Cognitive Neuroscience - 0 views

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    Prof Brian Butterworth FBA Department Institute of Cognitive Neuroscience & Dept. Psychology Institution University College London Address Alexandra House, 17 Queen Square, London, WC1N 3AR Telephone 020-7679-1150 Home Page Email Current Research and Interests Cognitive psychology and neuropsychology of numbers and arithmetic. Neural network models of reading and arithmetic. Reading and acquired dyslexia in English, Japanese and Chinese.
Martin Burrett

Researchers claim that educational success among children of similar cognitive ability depends on their background - 0 views

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    "Children of similar cognitive ability have very different chances of educational success; it still depends on their parents' economic, socio-cultural and educational resources. This contradicts a commonly held view that these days that our education system has developed enough to give everyone a fighting chance. The researchers, led by Dr. Erzsébet Bukodi from Oxford's Department of Social Policy and Intervention, looked at data from cohorts of children born in three decades: 1950s, 1970s and 1990s. They found significant evidence of a wastage of talent. Individuals with high levels of cognitive ability but who are disadvantaged in their social origins are persistently unable to translate their ability into educational attainment to the same extent as their more advantaged counterparts."
Martin Burrett

Sports involvement linked to fewer depressive symptoms in children - 1 views

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    "Participation in team sports is associated with fewer depressive symptoms in children, whereas non-sport activities have no association with symptoms, according to a study in Biological Psychiatry: Cognitive Neuroscience and Neuroimaging, published by Elsevier. The association was found only for boys. The findings suggest that exercise could have anti-depressant effects in adolescents. "These interesting results provide important clues as to how exercise benefits mood in children and reveals the important role that gender plays in these effects," said Cameron Carter, MD, Editor of Biological Psychiatry: Cognitive Neuroscience and Neuroimaging."
Martin Burrett

Storytime a 'turbocharger' for a child's brain - 1 views

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    "Storytime: While reading to children has many benefits, simply speaking the words aloud may not be enough to improve cognitive development in preschoolers. A new international study, published in the journal PLOS ONE and led by researchers at Cincinnati Children's Hospital Medical Center, shows that engaging with children while reading books to them gives their brain a cognitive "boost.""
Ed Webb

Mind - Research Upends Traditional Thinking on Study Habits - NYTimes.com - 3 views

  • instead of sticking to one study location, simply alternating the room where a person studies improves retention. So does studying distinct but related skills or concepts in one sitting, rather than focusing intensely on a single thing. “We have known these principles for some time, and it’s intriguing that schools don’t pick them up, or that people don’t learn them by trial and error,” said Robert A. Bjork, a psychologist at the University of California, Los Angeles. “Instead, we walk around with all sorts of unexamined beliefs about what works that are mistaken.”
  • The brain makes subtle associations between what it is studying and the background sensations it has at the time, the authors say, regardless of whether those perceptions are conscious. It colors the terms of the Versailles Treaty with the wasted fluorescent glow of the dorm study room, say; or the elements of the Marshall Plan with the jade-curtain shade of the willow tree in the backyard. Forcing the brain to make multiple associations with the same material may, in effect, give that information more neural scaffolding.
  • Cognitive scientists do not deny that honest-to-goodness cramming can lead to a better grade on a given exam. But hurriedly jam-packing a brain is akin to speed-packing a cheap suitcase, as most students quickly learn — it holds its new load for a while, then most everything falls out. “With many students, it’s not like they can’t remember the material” when they move to a more advanced class, said Henry L. Roediger III, a psychologist at Washington University in St. Louis. “It’s like they’ve never seen it before.”
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  • cognitive scientists see testing itself — or practice tests and quizzes — as a powerful tool of learning, rather than merely assessment. The process of retrieving an idea is not like pulling a book from a shelf; it seems to fundamentally alter the way the information is subsequently stored, making it far more accessible in the future.
  • An hour of study tonight, an hour on the weekend, another session a week from now: such so-called spacing improves later recall, without requiring students to put in more overall study effort or pay more attention, dozens of studies have found.
  • “The idea is that forgetting is the friend of learning,” said Dr. Kornell. “When you forget something, it allows you to relearn, and do so effectively, the next time you see it.”
  • “Testing not only measures knowledge but changes it,” he says — and, happily, in the direction of more certainty, not less.
  • “Testing has such bad connotation; people think of standardized testing or teaching to the test,” Dr. Roediger said. “Maybe we need to call it something else, but this is one of the most powerful learning tools we have.”
  • The harder it is to remember something, the harder it is to later forget. This effect, which researchers call “desirable difficulty,”
Adrienne Michetti

Bloom's Taxonomy - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia - 6 views

  • A great mythology has grown around the taxonomy, possibly due to many people learning about the taxonomy through second hand information.
    • Adrienne Michetti
       
      interesting! why haven't people actually read it, then? Is it kind of like H. Gardner's Multiple Intelligences in that people just jumped on board without actually reading the fine print?
  • It is considered to be a foundational and essential element within the education community as evidenced in the 1981 survey Significant writings that have influenced the curriculum: 1906-1981,
  • the original Handbook was intended only to focus on one of the three domains
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  • the initial effort to be a starting point,
  • divides educational objectives into three "domains:" Affective, Psychomotor, and Cognitive.
  • A goal of Bloom's Taxonomy is to motivate educators to focus on all three domains, creating a more holistic form of education
  • Traditional education tends to emphasize the skills in this domain, particularly the lower-order objectives.
    • Adrienne Michetti
       
      and too often we only use the hierarchy in this domain, ignoring psychomotor and affective.
  • Affective objectives typically target the awareness and growth in attitudes, emotion, and feelings.
    • Adrienne Michetti
       
      perhaps more important for overall well-being than the other two domains.
  • the ability to physically manipulate a tool or instrument like a hand or a hamme
  • Bloom and his colleagues never created subcategories for skills in the psychomotor domain
    • Adrienne Michetti
       
      interesting - I wonder why.
Vicki Davis

Can a Lack of Sleep Set Back Your Child's Cognitive Abilities? -- New York Magazine - 11 views

  • “Sleep disorders can impair children’s I.Q.’s as much as lead exposure.”
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    Please tell parents that even losing an hour of sleep will impair their children. "The performance gap caused by an hour's difference in sleep was bigger than the normal gap between a fourth-grader and a sixth-grader. Which is another way of saying that a slightly sleepy sixth-grader will perform in class like a mere fourth-grader. "A loss of one hour of sleep is equivalent to [the loss of] two years of cognitive maturation and development," Sadeh explains."
Melinda Waffle

Cognitive Surplus: The Great Spare-Time Revolution | Magazine - 6 views

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    "we also have a third drive. We do things because they're interesting, because they're engaging, because they're the right things to do, because they contribute to the world. The problem is that, especially in our organizations, we stop at that second drive. We think the only reason people do productive things is to snag a carrot or avoid a stick."
Sandy Kendell

5 Steps to Digitizing the Writing Workshop #edchat #writing - 12 views

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    From MGuhlin: I wrote the following as part of my participation in the Abydos Learning Writing Institute. I'm grateful to the feedback from folks during "clocking" exercises. As you will see, it is my first attempt to address the cognitive tension that exists between paper-oriented publishing approaches to writing workshop and the digital possibilities.
Michael Stevenson

ITFORUM Paper 1 - 0 views

  • In fact, it is difficult, if not impossible, to isolate the effects of the affordances of technologies.
    • Michael Stevenson
       
      Sometimes working out exactly what the affordances of technoligies are is the biggest challenge.
  • Rather than using technologies by educational communications specialists to constrain the learners' learning processes through prescribed communications and interactions, the technologies are taken away from the specialists and given to the learner to use as media for representing and expressing what they know.
    • Michael Stevenson
       
      How much instructional learning is too much? Up to a point, we need it to model good use of ICT, but not to the point where the terms of that use are so constrictive as to discourage multilateral thinking around ICT use.
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  • Cognitive tools actively engage learners in creation of knowledge that reflects their comprehension and conception of the information rather than focusing on the presentation of objective knowledge.
  • Constructivist models of instruction strive to create environments where learners actively participate in the environment in ways that are intended to help them construct their own knowledge, rather than having the teacher interpret the world and insure that students understand the world as they have told them.
  • Computers support reflective thinking, Norman contends, when they enable users to compose new knowledge by adding new representations, modifying old ones, and comparing the two. Those are the purposes of cognitive tools.
  • In other words, when students work WITH computer technology, instead of being controlled by it, they enhance the capabilities of the computer, and the computer enhances their thinking and learning. The results of an intellectual partnership with the computer is that the whole of learning becomes greater than the sum of its parts.
  • Learners should be responsible for recognizing and judging patterns of information and then organizing it, while the computer system should perform calculations, store, and retrieve information.
  • what to do with all of the instructional designers...
anonymous

Bloom's Taxonomy of Learning Domains - 3 views

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    There is more than one type of learning. A committee of colleges, led by Benjamin Bloom, identified three domains of educational activities: - Cognitive: mental skills (Knowledge) - Affective: growth in feelings or emotional areas (Attitude) - Psychomotor: manual or physical skills (Skills)
Dave Truss

ALPS Publishing -Autonomous Learner Model ALM - 8 views

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    The Autonomous Learner Model (ALM) for the Gifted and Talented was developed specifically to meet the diversified cognitive, emotional, and social needs of learners. The model is currently implemented at all grade levels with the gifted and talented, as well as all learners in the regular classroom. Emphasis is placed on meeting the individualized needs of learners through the use of activities in the five major Dimensions of the Model.
Susan Sedro

Paragon Learning Style Inventory - 18 views

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    The Paragon Learning Style Inventory (PLSI) is a self-administered survey that provides a very reliable indication of learning style and cognitive preference. It uses the four Jungian dimensions (i.e, introversion/ extroversion, intuition/sensation, thinking/feeling, and judging/perceiving) that are also used by the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator, Murphy Meisgeir Type Indicator, and the Keirsey-Bates Temperament Sorter. But this is the only instrument that can be self-scored and works with ages 9-adult.
Vicki Davis

Expert Talks: Free Professional Development with Experts on 21st Century Teaching & Learning | | Scholastic.com - 13 views

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    I will be skyping into this free webinar hosted by Scholastic with David Rowe, Chief Scientist of Cognition and Learning at the Center for Applied Special Technology. Join us. April 21, 2010 - 3:30 pm EDT - free!
anonymous

CTEG: Critical Questions - 13 views

  • Critical thinking is a set of values and cognitive strategies employed to rationally evaluate information for its potential usefulness and accuracy. In this regard, critical thinking covers three fields; Personal values embracing logic, reasoning, objectivity and internal consistency of information Skills and cognitive approaches that allow the individual to search for and evaluate different information sources An appreciation of the relationship between the application of accurate information in decision making and the probability of a predictable outcome
  • In an age of diverse media, especially with regards to the internet, information sources present confusing options. Not all information is equal. Teaching people to understand the context and cues associated with good information gives them the ability to make better informed decisions that will have the best chance of leading to those outcomes they wish for.
  • This places critical thinking at odds with philosophies that elevate some bodies of knowledge to being dogmatic and beyond question.
Sandy Kendell

Brain Science and Cognitive Neuroscience for Children and Teachers - 10 views

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    Links to resources for neuoroscience research and its implications for education.
David Wetzel

Teaching Science to Special Needs Students: Learning Science by Interactive Instruction and Focused Assessment | Suite101.com - 8 views

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    Teaching and assessment strategies are provided for encouraging students with learning disabilities to develop a better understanding of science concepts. Teaching science inclusive classrooms is challenging due to the need for teaching too many different learning styles, including students who have learning disabilities. Learning disabled students have many concerns including physical, emotional, and cognitive. These disabilities cause the need to teach concepts differently primarily through the use of direct, explicit instruction and tailored evaluation.
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