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km21dcs

Feudal System - 1 views

  • prisoner of war, his life was saved by his nobility, and his ransom had practically to be raised by the "villains" of his domains.
    • Garth Holman
       
      So, Nobles would not be killed and the people below in the social class had to raise money to pay his ransom.  Sweet deal, if you are a noble. 
  • The Feudal System Right of Hunting
  • privileges dearest to and most valued by the nobles.
  • ...16 more annotations...
    • Garth Holman
       
      With the Right of Hunting: What would peasants not have access to in their diet? 
    • Gilmore Dashon
       
      Maybe meat
    • Austin David
       
      Meat
    • Dakota Houston
       
      Meat
    • Luke Jennings Sanders
       
      Meat
    • Tolga Cavusoglu
       
      meat
    • Maximilian Uhlir
       
      meat
    • Teren Landis
       
      Meat
    • Alexander Johnson
       
      Meat
  • Feudal System Right of Jurisdiction
  • which gave judicial power to the nobles and lords in cases arising in their domains, had no appeal save to the King himself.
  • The Feudal System Right of Safe Convoy
  • that it even applied itself to the lower orders, and its violation was considered the most odious crime.
  • The Feudal System Right of Wearing Spurs
  • privileges that of wearing spurs of silver or gold according to their rank of knighthood
  • Feudal System Rights of Knighthood
  • Knights had the right of receiving double rations when prisoners of war; the right of claiming a year's delay when a creditor wished to seize their land; and the right of never having to submit to torture after trial, unless they were condemned to death for the crime they had committed.
  • Feudal System Right of having seats of honour in churches and Monuments
  • Feudal System Right of Disinheritance
  • The nobles enjoyed also the right of disinheritance, that is to say, of claiming the goods of a person dying on their lands who had no direct heir
  • Feudal System Right of Shelter
  • The right of shelter, was the principal charge imposed upon the noble. When a great baron visited his lands, his tenants were not only obliged to give him and his followers shelter, but also provisions and food, the nature and quality of which were all arranged beforehand with the most extraordinary detail.
  • The Feudal System was sustained by the rights and privileges given to the Upper Classes and in most cases enacted by laws. Everything was a source of privilege for the nobles.
  • villains
    • km21dcs
       
      This is a type of Peasant. Meaning Peasants weren't allowed to hunt
dcs-armstrong

The Middle Ages - 4 views

  •  
    Great site that was found by a student.  It has links to each social class and much, much more.  Check this one out.  Easy to read and clear. 
dcs-armstrong

Luke - Social Studies - 0 views

  • Feudalism was the medieval model of government predating the birth of the modern nation-state. Feudal society is a military hierarchy in which a ruler or lord offers mounted fighters a fief , a unit of land to control in exchange for a military service. 
dcs-armstrong

Sam V. - Social Studies - 0 views

  • Fiefs
    • dcs-armstrong
       
      I think you meant Vassal
  • fiefs
  • five steps without dropping it. If you didn't drop it then you were innocent. If you did drop it then you were guilty and went to jail
  • ...1 more annotation...
  • l and walking
    • dcs-armstrong
       
      They wrapped the hand then check later if it was healing correctly. 
dcs-armstrong

Khushi - Social Studies - 1 views

  • pay the Nobles and Knight's one tenth of it
    • dcs-armstrong
       
      The one tenth rule was paid to the church. Other payments were given to the lords as a form of "rent".
Garth Holman

BBC News | Health | A millennium of health improvement - 0 views

  • In the medieval world, there was a belief that only miracles were so powerful
  • full and healthy life for men was making it through early childhood. For women, it was making it past childbearing age.
  • boy had reached 20 he could hope to live to 45, and if he made it to 30 he had a good chance of making it into his fifties.
  • ...12 more annotations...
  • main threats lay in early childhood, as the child's immune system was coming to terms with the threats posed by a disease-ridden environment.
  • Thatch roofs were common in the countryside (where 85-90% of the population lived) and they attracted insects and rodents
    • Garth Holman
       
      Thatching is the craft of building a roof with dry vegetation such as straw, water reed, sedge (Cladium mariscus), rushes, or heather, layering the vegetation so as to shed water away from the inner roof. It is a very old roofing method and has been used in both tropical and temperate climates. See images:  https://www.google.com/search?q=Thatch+roofs&safe=strict&source=lnms&tbm=isch&sa=X&ved=0ahUKEwjttJ-5su3KAhXDzoMKHXb_D-EQ_AUIBygB&biw=1374&bih=676&dpr=0.9
  • They carried bacteria, which they deposited either on the inhabitants or the food they would eat
  • There was no plumbing, so human waste was deposited outside - but not too far from - the house. Such material produced a breeding ground for the biggest killers of the period, cholera and typhoid, which were caused by unsanitary living conditions.
  • body lice living on infected people.
  • increased risk of death as a result of accidents at work.
  • It was noblemen who were most successful at keeping themselves clean, and they surrounded themselves with well-scrubbed servants.
  • But between the ages of 14 and 40 - the years of having children - a woman's life expectancy was half that of a man's.
  • One reason offered for this is that having babies in the middle ages was more dangerous than going to war
  • less sanitary, and put the mother at a high risk of fatal infection.
  • Food storage was also primitive, with no refrigeration except in winter, and consumers showed a tolerance of slightly rancid goods because there was a general shortage of food.
  • while relatives of the afflicted prayed for miracles.
Garth Holman

World-History | Medieval Knights - 1 views

  • Knights might have been professional soldiers but that didn't mean they had to act like one. In the early days of feudalism, knights often ate at the same table as the lords and ladies of the manor
  • They often belched, spit, and put their feet directly on the dinner table. The refined ladies and lords were appalled. So, a code of honor was drawn up that we now call Chivalry.
    • Garth Holman
       
      So Chivalry comes as a way to correct their personal bad behavior. 
  • This stems from the Medieval Knights Code of Chivalry and the Vows of Knighthood.
  • ...12 more annotations...
  • There were at least 17 rules to the knights code of chivalry and vows of knighthood. The most important were to serve God, serve their liege lord (the King), be courteous to all women (though what they meant was all women of the noble class), and to defend the weak. Other rules included to fight for the welfare of all, to live by honor and glory, and to refrain from the wanton giving of offence; basically, don’t act like ye olde arse.
    • Garth Holman
       
      Rules for the knight to follow. 
  • this was meant to defend the elderly, women and children, but of the upper class. Knights were often brutal to peasants and it was considered acceptable because of the low social status of the peasants. 
    • Garth Holman
       
      Poor Peasants? 
  • From this, came rules like if a woman was of equal or higher status, he should stand when she enters a room and sit only after she does, the best foods at a meal should be offered to her, and when walking on the sidewalk, the man should walk closest to the street. This was to protect the woman from getting spattered with mud and the contents of chamber pots (buckets that were used as toilets) that were thrown out windows. It was a way to show that the gentleman honored the woman to have the poop hit him instead.
  • nights kept their skills sharp by competing in tournaments known as jousts where two heavily armored horseman race at another at high speed
  • Medieval tournaments brought knights and lords together in friendly competitions to show off their skills at hand to hand combat, horse back riding, and of course, jousting
  • A head shot for example was the most damaging but also the most difficult target, and therefore was awarded the most points.
  • Cash prizes, called a purse, would be given to the winners and this was the best way to move up the social ladder if you didn't get a chance to show off your skills on the battle field. 
    • Garth Holman
       
      Maybe you can win the "PURSE" in your blog! 
  • To become a knight was a long and difficult path.
  • sent to live in the castle with his Lord where his training would begin around the age of seven
  • road to knighthood he was known as a page. A page's training involved learning to ride a horse and receiving religious instruction from the priest of the manor. And, when he wasn't riding or praying, a page spent his days running errands and serving the ladies of the manor. He would also be taught to dance, sing, and play a musical instrument which were considered honorable qualities for a knight to have.
  • a page would be promoted to the role of squire. A squire worked directly with his knight. The squire learned skills from his knight (who was also his Lord) such as sword fighting and hand to hand combat. The squire pretty much acted as personal assistant to his knight, polishing his armor, caring for his horse, and even waiting on him at meal times. During times of battle, it was the job of the squire to help his Lord into the armor and look after him if he was wounded. He also had the awful task of cleaning out the armor which, after a long day on the battle field would be covered in all sorts of bodily fluids.
    • Garth Holman
       
      Like pee He he!
  • "I promise on my faith that I will in the future be faithful to the lord, never cause him harm and will observe my homage to him completely against all persons in good faith and without deceit." -A Typical Oath of Fealty
    • Garth Holman
       
      NOTE: loyalty, homage, never cause harm, good faith.  You had to be a trustworthy to be a knigh! 
  •  
    Learn how a Knight becomes a knight and how Chivalry impacts you!
Sanjana M

Ancient Greece - Culture and Society in the Ancient Greek World - 4 views

    • Ofek H
       
      The Greek Government did not allow freedom of speech or full rights for the citizens of Greece.
    • anonymous
       
      Some geography here.
    • gpinhasi g
       
      full of facts about Ancient Greece government
  • ...5 more annotations...
  • The majority of Greek states were governed by groups of rich landowners, called aristocrats; this word is derived from 'aristoi', meaning best people. This was a system known as 'oligarchy' the rule by the few.
    • Sanjana M
       
      Good information about geek society.
    • Sanjana M
       
      Good website of Greek culture and society.
  • Greek Society was mainly broken up between Free people and Slaves, who were owned by the free people.
  • The social classes applied to men only, as women all took their social and legal status from their husband or their male partner. Women in ancient Greece were not permitted to take part in public life.
  • Democracy was introduced by an aristocrat, Cleisthenes.
  •  
    Just some information about ancient Greek culture.
  • ...1 more comment...
  •  
    Just some information about ancient Greek culture.
  •  
    facts about ancient greece government.
  •  
    Greek Culture and Society
Paige W

BBC - History - Ancient History in depth: The Democratic Experiment - 1 views

  • Take politics for example: apart from the word itself (from polis, meaning city-state or community) many of the other basic political terms in our everyday vocabulary are borrowed from the ancient Greeks: monarchy, aristocracy, tyranny, oligarchy and - of course - democracy.
  • demokratia
  • It meant literally 'people-power'
  • ...69 more annotations...
  • The Greek word demos could mean either
  • Was it all the people
  • Or only some of the people
  • There's a theory that the word demokratia was coined by democracy's enemies, members of the rich and aristocratic elite who did not like being outvoted by the common herd, their social and economic inferiors.
  • By the time of Aristotle (fourth century BC) there were hundreds of Greek democracies. Greece in those times was not a single political entity but rather a collection of some 1,500 separate poleis or 'cities' scattered round the Mediterranean and Black Sea shores 'like frogs around a pond', as Plato once charmingly put it.
  • cities that were not democracies
  • power was in the hands of the few richest citizens
  • monarchies, called 'tyrannies' in cases where the sole ruler had usurped power by force rather than inheritanc
  • most stable,
  • most long-lived,
  • most radical, was Athens.
  • origin of the Athenian democracy of the fifth and fourth centuries can be traced back to Solon,
  • flourished
  • 600 BC.
  • was a poet and a wise statesman
  • but not - contrary to later myth - a democrat.
  • Solon's constitutional reform package that laid the basis on which democracy could be pioneered
  • Cleisthenes was the son of an Athenian, but the grandson and namesake of a foreign Greek tyrant
  • also the brother-in-law of the Athenian tyrant, Peisistratus,
  • eized power three times
  • before finally establishing a stable and apparently benevolent dictatorship.
    • Paige W
       
      Interesting insight on the beginning of democracy.
  • nder this political system that Athens successfully resisted the Persian onslaughts of 490 and 480/79
  • victory in turn encouraged the poorest Athenians to demand a greater say in the running of their city
  • Ephialtes and Pericles presided over a radicalisation of power that shifted the balance decisively to the poorest sections of society
  • he democratic Athens that won and lost an empire,
  • built the Parthenon,
  • eschylus, Sophocles,
  • Euripides and Aristophanes
  • laid the foundations of western rational and critical thought
  • was not, of course, without internal critics
  • when Athens had been weakened by the catastrophic Peloponnesian War (431-404) these critics got their chance
  • n 411 and again in 404 Athenian oligarchs led counter-revolutions that replaced democracy with extreme oligarchy
  • oligarchs were supported by Athens's old enemy, Sparta
  • mpossible to maintain themselves in power
  • democracy was restored
  • 'blips' such as the trial of Socrates - the restored Athenian democracy flourished stably and effectively for another 80 years
  • There were no proper population censuses in ancient Athens,
  • total population of fifth-century Athens, including its home territory of Attica, at around 250,000 - men, women and children, free and unfree, enfranchised and disenfranchised. Of those
  • 250,000 some 30,000 on average were fully paid-up citizens -
  • adult males of Athenian birth and full status
  • second key difference is the level of participation.
  • representative
  • we choose politicians to rule for us
  • Athenian
  • democracy
  • was direct
  • and in-your-face.
  • most officials and all jurymen were selected by lot.
  • This was thought to be the democratic way, since election favoured the rich, famous and powerful over the ordinary citizen.
  • mid fifth century, office holders, jurymen, members of the city's main administrative Council of 500, and even Assembly attenders were paid a small sum from public funds to compensate them for time spent on political service away from field or workshop.
  • eligibility
  • adult male citizens need apply for the privileges and duties of democratic government, and a birth criterion of double descent - from an Athenian mother as well as father -
  • Athenian democracy did not happen only in the Assembly and Council. The courts were also essentially political spaces, located symbolically right at the centre of the city.
  • defined the democratic citizen as the man 'who has a share in (legal) judgment and office'.
  • Athenian drama,
  • was a fundamentally political activity as well,
  • One distinctively Athenian democratic practice that aroused the special ire of the system's critics was the practice of ostracism -
  • potsherd
  • rom the Greek word for
  • decide which leading politician should be exiled for ten years
  • on a piece of broken pottery.
  • voters scratched or painted the name of their preferred candidate
  • 6,000 citizens had to 'vote' for an ostracism to be valid,
  • biggest
  • political
  • risked being fried
  • For almost 100 years ostracism fulfilled its function of aborting serious civil unrest or even civil war
  • Power to the people, all the people, especially the poor majority, remained the guiding principle of Athenian democracy.
  •  
    About of Greek Democracy
Garth Holman

7th grade learning - Social Studies with Holman - 0 views

    • Garth Holman
       
      empathy? Interesting idea  Why do you feel bad? 
  • "You all could show your opinions if we had a democracy," I told them. "You know, 'of the people'.  
  • Some people around me shook their heads in discontent.
  • ...2 more annotations...
  • The man answered, "A direct democracy is where all of the citizens have an equal say in the decision making process.""That would be amazing for us," agreed some of the other people.
    • Garth Holman
       
      How can an Idea change people?  How can it impact the future?  How do thoughts impact us? 
Garth Holman

Welcome to 7th Grade - Social Studies - 0 views

    • Garth Holman
       
      First in the world...that is special 
  • It was sort of like a debate. I thought, 'This is a democracy, but it is very different from the US.' Turns out this democracy is called Athenian, or Direct Democracy. the citizens just vote on a subject rather than (like the US or Rome) electing an official to represent them.
  • epresentative Democracy.
Garth Holman

Lexi :) - History - 0 views

  • He didn't look very rich for a ruler. But the man walked away from the taller rock and took a seat. Apparently it wasn't Athens wasn't a monarchy. 
  • decision had to be made."Some women have requested to have more rights.  As citizens of Athens, it is crusial for us to make a decision here and now," said the man.
  • This was pure choas!
  • ...11 more annotations...
  • this was direct democracy.  Every citizens was voting and had a direct say in the matter.
  • That's when I realized there were only men surrounding me.  A few of them were giving me weird looks.Just then a young teen approached me and said, "What you doing here?  We both know that women aren't citizens and are defiantly not welcome to vote
  • After all majority rules."
  • had always complained how long the US elections took because of the voting method.  
  • THEOCRACY!  Wait, no.  That wouldn't be good.  Ruled by religion? Not fun.  
  • calm and done in an ordered manor.
  • representative democracy.  T
  • I tried to think back to social studies class and suddenly regretted taking that nap during our study of government.  
  •  Just the representatives that people voted for
  • oligarchy?"
  • In an oligarchy only the rich have say.  They don't understand what it is like to be a commoner.  T
Garth Holman

The De Soto expedition - North Carolina Digital History - 0 views

  • De Soto’s expedition through the southeastern United States in 1539–43 was one of the earliest of the early contacts between Europeans and native peoples. Research on the expedition has contributed in no small way to the “quantum leap” in our understanding of the age. In a cluster of related projects that have drawn on an unusual cross-fertilization between historical and archaeological research, a group of scholars in the Southeast is attempting to plot the route that de Soto took, as a way of understanding the “social geography” of the native societies he met. The work on the de Soto expedition offers a revealing snapshot of the growing body of research on the earliest encounters between the civilizations of Europe and the Americas.
  • Hoping to find the riches that other Spanish explorers had discovered in Central and South America, de Soto landed in May 1539 near Tampa Bay, Fla., with about 600 men, a few hundred horses, packs of dogs, and a large herd of pigs. The army set out north and west through Florida.
  •  
    de Soto Route in the southeast United States.  
cglosser c

Black Death - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia - 0 views

    • cglosser c
       
      The black death was a bio-hazard.
  • The Black Death was one of the most devastating pandemics in human history, resulting in the deaths of an estimated 75 to 200 million people and peaking in Europe in the years 1348–50 CE.
  • The Black Death is thought to have originated in the arid plains of central Asia, where it then travelled along the Silk Road, reaching the Crimea by 1346
  • ...4 more annotations...
  • The aftermath of the plague created a series of religious, social, and economic upheavals, which had profound effects on the course of European history. It took 150 years for Europe's population to recover
  • The plague disease, generally thought to be caused by Yersinia pestis, is enzootic (commonly present) in populations of fleas carried by ground rodents, including marmots, in various areas including Central Asia, Kurdistan, Western Asia, Norther
  • India and Uganda
  • The plague reached Sicily in October 1347
  •  
    This is a wikipedia article on the black death
Garth Holman

Castles in Medieval Times - 0 views

  •      Large stone castles were built in Europe from about the 1100’s to about the 1500’s. These huge buildings served not only to defend the country from foreign invaders but as the basic tool in preserving the king’s and the nobles’ power over the land. The social system was very rigid in the Middle Ages.
  • Under Feudalism, the basic social structure in this time, all land was held by the king. The king gave pieces of this land to various high nobles, in return for their help in fighting his wars or in putting down rebellions. Not only did the higher nobles have to fight for the king themselves, they had to supply a certain number of lesser lords and other knights to help fight also. These higher nobles then gave some of their land to lesser knights, in return for their help in battle. Below all the knights were the serfs, who actually farmed the land. They gave a portion of their crops each year to the lord who ruled over them, in return for use of the land and protection.
  • castles as symbols of their power for all to see.
  • ...6 more annotations...
  • A man’s son inherited his lands and his obligations to fight
  • The castle was both a residence for the lord and his family, and a fortification. It was a strong place for the lord to defend himself against his enemies (and the king’s enemies, and his overlord’s enemies), a safe place for him and his knights to return to, and a place to live which emphasized his power.
  •   Castles were built to keep out enemies. When an attack was expected, the drawbridge was raised, the gates and portcullis were closed, and archers were stationed on the towers.
  • The walls were not only high, in a well-planned castle, but they were arranged as much as possible so that anyone climbing the walls could be shot at from two directions.
  • The castle’s defenses invited a great deal of ingenuity from the attackers. Rolling wooden towers, covered with thick hides to stop arrows and kept wet so they could not be set on fire, were brought up to the walls in an attack. Sometimes they even worked. Catapults threw heavy stones at the walls to make a breach or loads of rocks (or diseased livestock, or fire bombs) over the walls. The battering ram—generally used against a door—was an old favorite.
  • he knights and their servants and their mounts all had to eat, as did the lord, his family, and his servants and officials, and their families. Many castles grew certain types of food inside their walls, to add variety to the diet of those inside the castle, but it was not nearly enough to feed the people in the castle, much less their guests. Castles might have beehives, herb gardens, fruit trees or a fishpond. Because the land inside the castle walls was not enough to feed all these people, they got their food from the peasants who farmed outside, and from hunting. There were restrictions on hunting by the peasants, and sometimes it was forbidden entirely, so that the lord and his retainers would have plenty of game to hunt. Hunting was also a major recreation for the lord and his men.
Garth Holman

Socrates - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia - 0 views

  • Socrates has become renowned for his contribution to the field of ethics, and it is this Platonic Socrates who lends his name to the concepts of Socratic irony and the Socratic method,
  • and is a type of pedagogy in which a series of questions is asked not only to draw individual answers, but also to encourage fundamental insight into the issue at hand.
  • Socrates appears to have been a critic of democracy,[15] and some scholars interpret his trial as an expression of political infighting.[16] Claiming loyalty to his city, Socrates clashed with the current course of Athenian politics and society.[17] He praises Sparta, archrival to Athens, directly and indirectly in various dialogues. One of Socrates' purported offenses to the city was his position as a social and moral critic. Rather than upholding a status quo and accepting the development of what he perceived as immorality within his region, Socrates questioned the collective notion of "might makes right" that he felt was common in Greece during this period. Plato refers to Socrates as the "gadfly" of the state (as the gadfly stings the horse into action, so Socrates stung various Athenians), insofar as he irritated some people with considerations of justice and the pursuit of goodness.[18] His attempts to improve the Athenians' sense of justice may have been the cause of his execution.
  • ...8 more annotations...
  • Socrates initially earned his living as a master stonecutter.
  • Socrates had an opportunity to escape, as his followers were able to bribe the prison guards. He chose to stay for several reasons: He believed such a flight would indicate a fear of death, which he believed no true philosopher has. If he fled Athens his teaching would fare no better in another country, as he would continue questioning all he met and undoubtedly incur their displeasure. Having knowingly agreed to live under the city's laws, he implicitly subjected himself to the possibility of being accused of crimes by its citizens and judged guilty by its jury. To do otherwise would have caused him to break his "social contract" with the state, and so harm the state, an unprincipled act. The full reasoning behind his refusal to flee is the main subject of the Crito.
  • found guilty of both corrupting the minds of the youth of Athens and of impiety ("not believing in the gods of the state"),[20] and subsequently sentenced to death by drinking a mixture containing poison hemlock.
  • After drinking the poison, he was instructed to walk around until his legs felt numb. After he lay down, the man who administered the poison pinched his foot; Socrates could no longer feel his legs. The numbness slowly crept up his body until it reached his heart. Shortly before his death, Socrates speaks his last words to Crito: "Crito, we owe a rooster to Asclepius. Please, don't forget to pay the debt."
  • and freedom, of the soul from the body.
  • dialectic method of inquiry, known as the Socratic method or method of "elenchus", which he largely applied to the examination of key moral concepts such as the Good and Justice. It was first described by Plato in the Socratic Dialogues. To solve a problem, it would be broken down into a series of questions, the answers to which gradually distill the answer a person would seek. The influence of this approach is most strongly felt today in the use of the scientific method, in which hypothesis is the first stage. The development and practice of this method is one of Socrates' most enduring contributions, and is a key factor in earning his mantle as the father of political philosophy, ethics or moral philosophy, and as a figurehead of all the central themes in Western philosophy.
  • One of the best known sayings of Socrates is "I only know that I know nothing". The conventional interpretation of this remark is that Socrates' wisdom was limited to an awareness of his own ignorance. Socrates believed wrongdoing was a consequence of ignorance and those who did wrong knew no better.
  • Socrates believed the best way for people to live was to focus on self-development rather than the pursuit of material wealth.[citation needed] He always invited others to try to concentrate more on friendships and a sense of true community, for Socrates felt this was the best way for people to grow together as a populace
j slain

The Greeks - Sparta: Government and classes - 1 views

  • Two kings ruled the city, but a 28-member 'council of elders' limited their powers.
  • the highest social class, the aristocratic Spartiates
  • Spartiates were a class of military professionals who lived most of their lives in communal barracks
  • ...5 more annotations...
  • middle class, called the Perioeci
  • farmers and artisans who were the descendants of those peoples whom the Spartans had first conquered,
  • had no real political rights
  • the helots: a slave class descended from those peoples who had resisted subjugation by Sparta
  • Spartans attempted to control them by forming a secret society that annually murdered any helot suspected of encouraging subversion.
Garth Holman

Slavery in Africa prior to European contact - 2 views

  • we know about slavery from about 900 AD. But the lives of African slaves in West Africa and African American slaves were very different. In many West African societies, land was owned by communities, not by individuals. Social status and class could therefore not be based on land ownership. Instead, they were based on one's place in the Social environment. Slaves were thus part of the family as well as private property. And slavery was not a lifetime status—someone might be born free, made a slave for a few years, and then be free again for the rest of their life.
  • rights; they could marry, own property, and inherit substantial goods from their owner
  •  
    "nitially, the slaves were war prisoners, criminals or people in debt. However, as the European demand for slaves grew, African leaders turned to new ways to find slaves. Wars were started for the sole reasons of taking prisoners to sell, and many were simply kidnapped (either by people from their own tribe, or from competing tribes). Some African rulers earned great profits by controlling the regional slave trade."
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