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Garth Holman

This dissident poet says elections and the nuclear pact give him hope for Iran | Public Radio International - 0 views

  • The 44-year-old journalist and poet might have ended up dead, like some of his writer friends back home in Iran. Several of them were murdered in a series of political assassinations that began in the late 1990s.
  • freedom of expression, the Islamic Republic of Iran is among the worst of the worst. The country is ranked 169th, out of a total of 180 countries, on the 2016 World Press Freedom Index published by Reporters Without Borders.
  • Rafizadeh looks every bit the intellectual — glasses, leather jacket, cigarette. As a child, he would wake up early and recite Persian poetry out loud, annoying his father and his siblings. 
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  • “The [Iranian] government intrudes into your personal life no matter who you are. That’s why, after the murders started happening, I decided to write political poems,” he says. 
  • “Other intellectuals were killed, too,” he says. “The Iranian regime was murdering innocent people just because they dared to call for political change and reform.” 
  • afizadeh managed to shine a light on the killings with his writings in the pages of pro-reformist newspapers. But only for a time. Eventually, Rafizadeh was arrested.“I spent 86 days in a cell that was 1.5 meters by 2 meters,” Rafizadeh says. “And I was tortured.” 
  • Even after he was released, pending trial, he says authorities threatened to harm his children if he didn’t make public statements saying he was treated well in prison and that his past writings were false.
  • Rafizadeh says he did what he was being pressured to do. But he adds that, “the Iranian public knew who was lying and who was telling the truth.” “Other journalists besides me wrote about the human rights situation in Iran and we did have an impact,” Rafizadeh says. Nonetheless, he felt he had to leave the country after the courts sentenced him to 20 lashes and nine months in prison. He escaped into Turkey in 2005. Two years later, he got asylum in Canada. 
  • “But, as it happened, there is in Iran what you might call a ‘deep state.’” 
  • None of these political actors are entirely answerable to Iran’s elected government. That enabled the hardliners to launch a brutal crackdown against the pro-reform camp of then-president Mohammad Khatami and his supporters. The crackdown began in in the late '90s and continued into the early 2000s.
  • “You can fight for rights and freedoms in the political space all you like, but if there is not judicial protection of them, that is a fundamental problem,” she says. 
    Dissident and actions in the modern world. 
Cameryn C

Indian Slaves - History for Kids! - 0 views

  • here were probably always slaves in India, but until about 1000 AD there were only a few slaves, and most of them worked as house servants.
  • Islamic conquerors reached India, they forced many more people to be slaves. They sold thousands of these slaves out of India to work in Persia (modern Iran) or Afghanistan. Many of these people worked in the mines. SIGN IN LOG OUT
    Ancient Slavery in India
Cameron G.

TED Cast Study BUBONIC - 1 views

  • Between 1339 and 1351 AD, a pandemic of plague traveled from China to Europe, known in Western history as The Black Death
  • The Black Death was actually a combination of three different types of plague: bubonic, pneumonic, and septicaemic, with bubonic being the most common
  • The initial symptom is a blackish pustule forming over the point of the bite, followed by swollen lymph nodes near that bite.
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  • bruise-like purple blotches, called buboes, on the victim's skin. It is from this word, buboe, that the bubonic plague takes its name. The hemorrhaging causes an intoxication of the nervous system, which produces neurological and psychological disorders, including insomnia, delirium, and stupor
  • Septicaemic plague is, like the bubonic plague, carried by insects. Its distinguishing feature is its rapidity - death occurs within a day of infection, even before buboes have had time to form. This form of the plague is the rarest rare, but is almost always fatal
  • victims suffer a sharp drop in body temperature, which is followed by sever coughing and discharge of a bloody sputum
  • airborne transmission.
  • None of these plagues are native to Europe.
  • bacteria normally resides in Central Asia, Yunan China, Arabia, East Africa, and limited areas of Iran and Libya.
  • Their spread to Europe from these areas has always been through global commerce - trade which carried with it plague- bearing rats and fleas.
  • From China, the plague is known to have been carried along the Silk Road into Central Asia, where there are records of outbreaks in 1339.
    Information on the spread of the Black Plague with highlights
Justin D

The Fall Of Ancient Rome - 2 views

  • Rome was engaged in border skirmishes with the tribes north of the great European rivers
  • Strong emperors occasionally extended the empire over the rivers while weak emperors tended to lose those land
  • The largest organised rival of the Romans was the Persian Empire to the east, occupying modern Syria, Iran, Iraq, and Afghanistan. The Persians were the political descendants of the Parthians who had revolted away from Greek rule following Alexander's conquests and, thereafter, successfully resisted Roman invasions.
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  • The Romans had existed as an important power for over 1000 years
  • They had brought stability, prosperity, and order to the civilised West
  • Roman law kept the internal peace and 20 to 30 Roman legions defended the frontiers.
  • Emperors held absolute authorit
  • but incompetent ones could do great harm
  • The rules for succession to the throne were never clear, and debilitating civil wars often resulted.
  • in the hands of a minority while a large slave population did most of the work.
  • Roman conquests had ceased in the second century A.D., bringing an end to massive inflows of plunder and slaves
  • A plague may have killed 20 percent of the empire's population in the third and fourth centuries, further reducing trade and production.
  • late third century, the Roman Empire was split into eastern and western halves in an attempt to make for easier rule and better contro
  • 323 Constantine became emperor after a civil war and established his eastern capital at Byzantium, which he renamed Constantinople.
  • eastern and western parts of the empire gradually established separate identities, although nominally the same empire
  • These identities were partially due to the different pressures brought to bear on them from the outside and the local culture.
    A site that goes into some details
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