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morgan m

Slavery in ancient Greece - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia - 0 views

  • Slavery was common practice and an integral component of ancient Greece throughout its rich history, as it was in other societies of the time including ancient Israel and early Christian societies.[2][3][4] It is estimated that in Athens, the majority of citizens owned at least one slave. Most ancient writers considered slavery not only natural but necessary, but some isolated debate began to appear, notably in Socratic dialogues while the Stoics produced the first condemnation of slavery recorded in history.[4]
  • From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia Jump to: navigation, search Funerary stele of Mnesarete; a young servant (left) is facing her dead mistress.[1] Attica, circa 380 BC. (Glyptothek, Munich, Germany) Slavery was common practice and an integral component of ancient Greece throughout its rich history, as it was in other societies of the time including ancient Israel and early Christian societies.[2][3][4] It is estimated that in Athens, the majority of citizens owned at least one slave. Most ancient writers considered slavery not only natural but necessary, but some isolated debate began to appear, notably in Socratic dialogues while the Stoics produced the first condemnation of slavery recorded in history.[4] In conformity with modern historiographical practice, this article will discuss only chattel (personal possession) slavery, as opposed to dependent groups such as the penestae of Thessaly or the Spartan helots, who were more like medieval serfs (an enhancement to real estate). The chattel slave is an individual deprived of liberty and forced to submit to an owner who may buy, sell, or lease him or her like any other chattel.
  • The study of slavery in ancient Greece poses a number of significant methodological problems. Documentation is disjointed and very fragmented, focusing on the city of Athens. No treatise is specifically devoted to the subject. Judicial pleadings of the 4th century BC were interested in slavery only as a source of revenue. Comedy and tragedy represented stereotypes. Iconography made no substantial differentiation between slave and craftsman.
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  •  From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia Jump to: navigation , search Funerary stele of Mnesarete ; a young servant (left) is facing her dead mistress. [1] Attica, circa 380 BC. (Glyptothek, Munich, Germany) Slavery was common practice and an integral component of ancient Greece throughout its rich history, as it was in other societies of the time including ancient Israel and early Christian societies.[2][3][4] It is estimated that in Athens, the majority of citizens owned at least one slave. Most ancient writers considered slavery not only natural but necessary, but some isolated debate began to appear, notably in Socratic dialogues while the Stoics produced the first condemnation of slavery recorded in history.[4] In conformity with modern historiographical practice, this article will discuss only chattel (personal possession) slavery, as opposed to dependent groups such as the penestae of Thessaly or the Spartan helots, who were more like medieval serfs (an enhancement to real estate). The chattel slave is an individual deprived of liberty and forced to submit to an owner who may buy, sell, or lease him or her like any other chattel.
  • Jump to: navigation , search Funerary stele of Mnesarete ; a young servant (left) is facing her dead mistress. [1] Attica , circa 380 BC. ( Glyptothek , Munich , Germany ) Slavery
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    Article on ancient greece and its a featured wiki page! (That means its reliable)
mukul g

Society of the Mongol Empire - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia - 1 views

  • During the Mongol Empire there were two different groups of food, "white foods" and "brown foods"
  • "White foods"
  • were usually dairy products and were the main food source during the summer. The main part of their diet was "airag" or fermented mare’s milk, a food which is still widely drunk today.
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  • "Brown foods" were usually meat and were the main food source during the winter, usually boiled and served with wild garlic or onions.
  • The Mongols had a unique way of slaughtering their animals to get meat. The animal was laid on its back and restrained. Then the butcher would cut its chest open and rip open the aorta, which would cause deadly internal bleeding. Animals would be slaughtered in this fashion because it would keep all of the blood inside of the carcass. Once all of the internal organs were removed, the blood was then drained out and used for sausages.[2]
  • Genghis Khan authorized the use of paper money shortly before his death in 1227. It was backed by precious metals and silk.[6]
  • During the winter sheep were the only domestic animal slaughtered, but horses were occasionally slaughtered for ceremonies.[3]
  • The Mongols rarely slaughtered animals during the summer but if an animal died of natural causes they made sure to carefully preserve it.
  • During the winter the Mongols would also go ice fishing
  • Meal etiquette existed only during large gatherings and ceremonies. The meal, usually meat, was cut up into small pieces. Guests were served their meat on skewers and the host determined the order of serving. People of different social classes were assigned to different parts of the meat and it was the responsibility of the server or the “ba’urchis” to know who was in each social class. The meat was eaten with fingers and the grease was wiped on the ground or on clothing.
  • The most commonly imported fare was liquor
  • The Mongols used Chinese silver ingot as a unified money of public account, while circulating paper money in China and coins in the western areas of the empire such as Golden Horde and Chagatai Khanate
  • Under Ogedei Khan the Mongol government issued paper currency backed by silk reserves and founded a Department which was responsible for destroying old notes.[7] In 1253, Mongke established a Department of Monetary affairs to control the issuance of paper money in order to eliminate the overissue of the currency by Mongol and non-Mongol nobles since the reign of Great Khan Ogedei.
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    Tells you about the daily life of the mongols which come in quest 10. 
Justin D

The Fall Of Ancient Rome - 2 views

  • Rome was engaged in border skirmishes with the tribes north of the great European rivers
  • Strong emperors occasionally extended the empire over the rivers while weak emperors tended to lose those land
  • The largest organised rival of the Romans was the Persian Empire to the east, occupying modern Syria, Iran, Iraq, and Afghanistan. The Persians were the political descendants of the Parthians who had revolted away from Greek rule following Alexander's conquests and, thereafter, successfully resisted Roman invasions.
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  • The Romans had existed as an important power for over 1000 years
  • They had brought stability, prosperity, and order to the civilised West
  • Roman law kept the internal peace and 20 to 30 Roman legions defended the frontiers.
  • Emperors held absolute authorit
  • but incompetent ones could do great harm
  • The rules for succession to the throne were never clear, and debilitating civil wars often resulted.
  • in the hands of a minority while a large slave population did most of the work.
  • Roman conquests had ceased in the second century A.D., bringing an end to massive inflows of plunder and slaves
  • A plague may have killed 20 percent of the empire's population in the third and fourth centuries, further reducing trade and production.
  • late third century, the Roman Empire was split into eastern and western halves in an attempt to make for easier rule and better contro
  • 323 Constantine became emperor after a civil war and established his eastern capital at Byzantium, which he renamed Constantinople.
  • eastern and western parts of the empire gradually established separate identities, although nominally the same empire
  • These identities were partially due to the different pressures brought to bear on them from the outside and the local culture.
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    A site that goes into some details
Kalina P

Cold War - History.com Articles, Video, Pictures and Facts - 0 views

  • “containment.”
  • President Harry Truman (1884-1972) agreed. “It must be the policy of the United States,” he declared before Congress in 1947, “to support free peoples who are resisting attempted subjugation…by outside pressures.”
  • deadly "arms race
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  • Soviets tested an atom bomb of their own. In response, President Truman announced
  • that the United States would build an even more destructive atomic weapon: the hydrogen bomb, or "superbomb." Stalin followed suit.
  • Cold War was a constant presence in Americans’ everyday lives.
  • ever-present threat of nuclear annihilation had a great impact on American domestic life as well. People built bomb shelters in their backyards
  • attack drills in schools and other public places
  • the nuclear age could be. It created a 25-square-mile fireball that vaporized an island, blew a huge hole in the ocean floor and had the power to destroy half of Manhattan. Subsequent American and Soviet tests spewed poisonous radioactive waste into the atmosphere.
  • first man-made object to be placed into the Earth's orbit.
  • Sputnik
  • 1958, the U.S. launched its own satellite, Explorer I, designed by the U.S. Army
  • Space Race was underwa
  • forced hundreds of people who worked in the movie industry to renounce left-wing political beliefs and testify against one another. More than 500 people lost their jobs. Many of these "blacklisted" writers, directors, actors and others were unable to work again for more than a decade
  • U.S. would land a man on the moon by the end of the decade. His prediction came true on July 20, 1969, when Neil Armstrong of NASA’s Apollo 11 mission, became the first man to set food on the moon, effectively winning the Space Race for the Americans.
  • hearings designed to show that communist subversion in the United States was alive and well.
  • creating the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), a federal agency dedicated to space exploration, as well as several programs seeking to exploit the military potential of space. Still, the Soviets were one step ahead, launching the first man into space in April 1961.
  • include anyone who worked in the federal government. Thousands of federal employees were investigated, fired and even prosecuted. As this anticommunist hysteria spread throughout the 1950s, liberal college professors lost their jobs, people were asked to testify against colleagues and "loyalty oaths" became commonplace.
  • military action of the Cold War began when the Soviet-backed North Korean People’s Army invaded its pro-Western neighbor to the south
  • but the war dragged to a stalemate and ended in 1953.
  • . The Bay of Pigs invasion in 1961 and the Cuban missile crisis the following year seemed to prove that the real communist threat now lay in the unstable, postcolonial "Third World" Nowhere was this more apparent than in Vietnam, where the collapse of the French colonial regime had led to a struggle between the American-backed nationalist Ngo Dinh Diem in the south and the communist nationalist Ho Chi Minh in the north. Since the 1950s, the United States had been committed to the survival of an anticommunist government in the re
  • new approach to international relations.
  • nstead of viewing the world as a hostile, "bi-polar" place, he suggested, why not use diplomacy instead of military action to create more poles? To that end, he encouraged the United Nations to recognize the communist Chinese government and, after a trip there in 1972, began to establish diplomatic relations with Beijing. At the same time, he adopted a policy of "détente"–"relaxation"–toward the Soviet Union. In 1972, he and Soviet premier Leonid Brezhnev (1906-1982) signed the Strategic Arms Limitation Treaty (SALT I), which prohibited the manufacture of nuclear missiles by both sides and took a step toward reducing the decades-old threat of nuclear war.
  • Cold War heated up again under President Ronald Reagan (1911-2004). Like many leaders of his generation, Reagan believed that the spread of communism anywhere threatened freedom everywher
  • , he worked to provide financial and military aid to anticommunist governments and insurgencies around the worl
  • redefined Russia's relationship to the rest of the world: "glasnost," or political openness, and "perestroika," or economic reform
  • the Berlin Wall–the most visible symbol of the decades-long Cold War–was finally destroyed, just over two years after Reagan had challenged the Soviet premier in a speech at Brandenburg Gate in Berlin: "Mr. Gorbachev, tear down this wall." By 1991, the Soviet Union itself had fallen apart. The Cold War was over.
Kalina P

Watergate Scandal - History.com Articles, Video, Pictures and Facts - 1 views

shared by Kalina P on 10 Oct 12 - No Cached
  • Some of Nixon’s aides were not so lucky: They w
  • Vietnam War (1955-1975) and deeply divided internally
  • forceful presidential campaign seemed essential to the president and some of his key advisers. Their aggressive tactics included what turned out to be illegal espionage.
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  • stole copies of top-secret documents and bugged the office’s phones.
  • As the prowlers were preparing to break into the office with a new microphone, a security guard noticed that they had taped the building’s lock
  • August, Nixon gave a speech in which he swore that his White House staff was not involved in the break-in. Most voters believed him, and in November the president was reelected in a landslide.
  • provide hundreds of thousands of dollars in “hush money” to the burglars.
  • abuse of presidential power and a deliberate obstruction of justice
  • Early in 1974, the cover-up began to fall apart. On March 1, a grand jury appointed by a new special prosecutor indicted seven of Nixon’s former aides on various charges related to the Watergate affair. The jury, unsure if they could indict a sitting president, called Nixon an “unindicted co-conspirator.” 
  • s voted to impeach him for obstruction of justice, abuse of power, criminal cover-up and several violations of the Constitution. Finally, on August 5, Nixon released the tapes, which provided undeniable evidence of his complicity in the Watergate crime
  • Some of Nixon’s aides were not so lucky: They w
  • he pardoned Nixon for any crimes he had committed while in office. Some of Nixon’s aides were not so lucky: They w
  • Some of Nixon’s aides were not so lucky: They
Garth Holman

This dissident poet says elections and the nuclear pact give him hope for Iran | Public Radio International - 0 views

  • The 44-year-old journalist and poet might have ended up dead, like some of his writer friends back home in Iran. Several of them were murdered in a series of political assassinations that began in the late 1990s.
  • freedom of expression, the Islamic Republic of Iran is among the worst of the worst. The country is ranked 169th, out of a total of 180 countries, on the 2016 World Press Freedom Index published by Reporters Without Borders.
  • Rafizadeh looks every bit the intellectual — glasses, leather jacket, cigarette. As a child, he would wake up early and recite Persian poetry out loud, annoying his father and his siblings. 
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  • “The [Iranian] government intrudes into your personal life no matter who you are. That’s why, after the murders started happening, I decided to write political poems,” he says. 
  • “Other intellectuals were killed, too,” he says. “The Iranian regime was murdering innocent people just because they dared to call for political change and reform.” 
  • afizadeh managed to shine a light on the killings with his writings in the pages of pro-reformist newspapers. But only for a time. Eventually, Rafizadeh was arrested.“I spent 86 days in a cell that was 1.5 meters by 2 meters,” Rafizadeh says. “And I was tortured.” 
  • Even after he was released, pending trial, he says authorities threatened to harm his children if he didn’t make public statements saying he was treated well in prison and that his past writings were false.
  • Rafizadeh says he did what he was being pressured to do. But he adds that, “the Iranian public knew who was lying and who was telling the truth.” “Other journalists besides me wrote about the human rights situation in Iran and we did have an impact,” Rafizadeh says. Nonetheless, he felt he had to leave the country after the courts sentenced him to 20 lashes and nine months in prison. He escaped into Turkey in 2005. Two years later, he got asylum in Canada. 
  • “But, as it happened, there is in Iran what you might call a ‘deep state.’” 
  • None of these political actors are entirely answerable to Iran’s elected government. That enabled the hardliners to launch a brutal crackdown against the pro-reform camp of then-president Mohammad Khatami and his supporters. The crackdown began in in the late '90s and continued into the early 2000s.
  • “You can fight for rights and freedoms in the political space all you like, but if there is not judicial protection of them, that is a fundamental problem,” she says. 
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    Dissident and actions in the modern world. 
jashapiro j

Timeline for the Crusades and Christian Holy War - 0 views

  • The crusades were a series of holy wars called by popes with the promise of indulgences for those who fought in them and directed against external and internal enemies of Christendom for the recovery of Christian property or in defense of the Church or Christian people. 
  • crusading was an act of Christian love and piety that compensated for and paid the penalties earned by sin. 
  • crusades were fought not only in Syria, Palestine, and Egypt, but in Spain, the Baltic (Latvia and Prussia), Italy, Sicily, and southern France. 
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    Higher level reading, but lots of details.
cglosser c

Michelangelo - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia - 2 views

  • Michelangelo (Italian pronunciation: [mikeˈlandʒelo]), was an Italian sculptor, painter, architect, poet, and engineer of the High Renaissance
  • Michelangelo was considered the greatest living artist in his lifetime, and ever since then he has been held to be one of the greatest artists of all time
  • A number of his works in painting, sculpture, and architecture rank among the most famous in existence
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  • Two of his best-known works, the Pietà and David, were sculpted before he turned thirty
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    This is a wikipedia article about Michelangelo.
Roberto D

Ancient Greek Warriors - 0 views

  • ncient Greek warriors became the premier warriors of their classical world. Through intense internal warfare, they perfected heavy infantry tactics, and when they were united, they were able to defeat an invasion by Persia, the super-power of their day
  • reek culture, call
  • Greek culture, called Hellenistic, became dominate from Sicily to India.
Ben D

Greek finance minister confident of returning to growth: FT | Reuters - 0 views

  • Euclid Tsakalotos
  • said he "didn't see any reason" why growth wouldn't return
  • will need anything from 10 billion euros to 25 billion euros,
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  • It is important for the government to begin reforms by October, as this would unlock a bailout funds tranche of 3 billion euros ($3.36 billion) agreed upon in August
  • ($1 = 0.8937 euro)
  • Greece and its international lenders reached an 85 billion euro bailout
  • relief
Makaila L

Economy of Greece - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia - 0 views

  • The economy of Greece is the 45th largest in the world with a nominal gross domestic product (GDP) of $238 billion per annum.
  • Important Greek industries include tourism and shipping. With 18 million international tourists in 2013, Greece was the 7th most visited country in the European Union and 16th in the world.
  • The Greek Merchant Navy is the largest in the world
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  • Greece was the 2nd largest foreign investor of capital in Albania, the 3rd in Bulgaria, in the top-three in Romania and Serbia and the most important trading partner and largest foreign investor in the former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia.
Jacob L

Greece Geography - 0 views

  • Located in the south of Europe, the Greek Peninsula is bound by the Mediterranean Sea, the Ionian Sea, and the Aegean Sea. With a coastline of about 8500 miles, the country covers a land area of about 811080 square miles. The country ranges between latitudes 35°00'N and 42°00'N and between longitudes 19°00'E and 28°30'E.
  • There are over 2000 Greek islands in the Mediterranean and Ionian Seas but only about 170 are inhabited.
  • Over eighty percent of the country is mountainous.
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  • The highest peak, Mount Olympus (9,570 feet) is located to the north-east of the country.
  • Mainland Greece, the central and eastern Macedonian regions such as Thrace, Xanthi, and Evros, experiences a more temperate climate compared to the central mountains. The mountainous region of the central regions experiences an Alpine climate.
  • July is the hottest month in the country when temperatures average about 85°F. Winters are beautiful but could get chilly and white Christmas celebrations are frequent in low-lying parts of Greece.
  • Greece is not naturally rich in natural resources.
  • Greece is naturally exposed to severe earthquakes due to its location. The International Association of Volcanology and Chemistry of Earth's Interior has designated the beautiful tourist destination of Santorini a "Decade Volcano". Santorini is known for its stunning natural beauty which has attracted human settlements through ages despite its historic involvement with volcanic activity.
  • drinking water obtained form the rivers and streams is a precious resource.
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    This is a nice brief site featuring landforms, climate, crops, and natural resources of Greece.
anonymous

Greece News - Breaking World Greece News - The New York Times - 1 views

    • Nikita V
       
      Very breif and informational.
    • anonymous
       
      Current News
  •  
    New York Times Greece News
mukul g

Middle Ages - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia - 1 views

    • Aden S
       
      The fall of Rome
  • During the High Middle Ages (c. 1000–1300), Christian-oriented art and architecture flourished and Crusades were mounted to recapture the Holy Land from Muslim control. The influence of the emerging nation-state was tempered by the ideal of an international Christendom. The codes of chivalry and courtly love set rules for proper behavior, while the Scholastic philosophers attempted to reconcile faith and reason.
  • In the Early Middle Ages the trends of the Late Antiquity (depopulation, deurbanization, and increased barbarian invasion) continued. North Africa and the Middle East, once part of the Eastern Roman Empire, became Islamic. Later in the period, the establishment of the feudal system allowed a move away from subsistence agriculture. There was sustained urbanization in Northern and Western Europe.
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  • The Middle Ages (adjectival form: medieval, mediaeval or mediæval) is a periodization of European history from the 5th century to the 15th century. The Middle Ages follows the fall of the Western Roman Empire in 476 and precedes the Early Modern Era. It is the middle period of a three-period division of Western history: Classic, Medieval and Modern. The term "Middle Ages" first appears in Latin in the 15th century and reflects the view that this period was a deviation from the path of classical learning, a path that was later reconnected by Renaissance scholarship.
  • Outstanding achievement in this period includes the Code of Justinian, the mathematics of Fibonacci and Oresme, the philosophy of Thomas Aquinas, the paintings of Giotto, the poetry of Dante and Chaucer, the travels of Marco Polo, and the architecture of Gothic cathedrals such as Chartres.
  • The Middle Ages is one of the three major periods in the most enduring scheme for analyzing European history: classical civilization (or Antiquity), the Middle Ages, and the modern period.[1] It is "Middle" in the sense of being between the two other periods in time, ancient times and modern times.
Gilmore Dashon

Technology and Human Rights: Digital Freedom | Business & Human Rights Resource Centre - 0 views

  • the same rights that people have offline must also be protected online
    • Gilmore Dashon
       
      People should get the same human rights online just like in life
  • Moreover, governments are now regularly acquiring powerful surveillance technology from private firms, as Surveillance Industry Index shows. According to Privacy International, the surveillance industry routinely disregards human rights considerations
    • Gilmore Dashon
       
      The government and surveillance industry doesn't ever really consider the human rights.
  • attacks on online activists, as well as growing internet shutdowns. These obstructions and attacks impact on freedom of expression and peaceful assembly, but also create economic costs, affecting entire economies and individual businesses.
    • Gilmore Dashon
       
      Some people attack activists that could impact people like their freedom, expression, which it can also effect businesses or economies.
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  • Companies in the ICT sector can be involved in this limiting of digital freedoms, either directly, or by facilitating violations by governments and/or abuses by other firms.
    • Gilmore Dashon
       
      Some companies limit digital freedom
  • Internet, mobile, and telecommunications companies’ policies and practices can also positively affect users’ freedom of expression and privacy, including those of defenders, especially when they work together.
    • Gilmore Dashon
       
      Technology can also be positive in the human rights.
  • whose company members commit to uphold principles of freedom of expression and privacy. You can learn how ICT companies are upholding human rights online and offline
    • Gilmore Dashon
       
      Some company members try to uphold the human rights
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