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mrs. b.

resourcesforhistoryteachers - 7.27 - 1 views

  • Besides the obvious differences in philosophies, there is a very big difference in geography that cause these differences. Ancient Athens was situated somewhat close to the coast; it was only about five miles to the port city of Piraeus (which became part of Athens with the building of the Long Walls), thus it was no more then a few hours of travel from Athens to the coast line, thus greatly increasing the ability to be a trade center. Ancient Sparta however is located at the shortest distance 40 miles from the coast, however the terrain is somewhat rocky and there is no real straight path to the coast line. This would have greatly impeded the ability for Sparta to become a major trading port
  • Spartan Government Typically classified as an "oligarchy" ( rule by the few), but had elements of monarchy, democracy, and aristocracy Two kings were usually generals who commanded the major Spartan armies. While both were capable military leaders one was usually considered the leader of the army. This was done mainly so that in times of war Sparta would still retain a leader if the other were to die in battle. The most famous example was King Leonidas, who famously was able to hold off the enormous Persian Army at the battle of Thermoplyae.Five overseers (ephors) ran the day-to-day operations of Sparta. These overseers held one year terms and were responsible for the education and conduct of all its citizens (The Essential World History, W. Duiker & J. Spielvogel, Second Edition, 2005, p. 76)Council or Senate (apella) of 28 councilmen. These men had to be over 60 years old and served lifetime terms. They acted as judges and proposed laws to the citizens' assembly.All Spartan males over age 30 could join the Assembly where they could show their support/dissent by shouting.
  • Athens Government Typically classified as a “limited democracy.” Also considered the “birthplace of democracy.” Athens held the first democratic state, developed in 507 BC.Principally made up of elected officials:Council of 500 made most of the main administrative decisionsThe Assembly was open to all citizens. This body passed laws and made policy decisions.Although many nations throughout time have modeled their governments on the principles of Athenian Democracy, it was not perfect. Only men were able to participate in the democratic assemblies, and this was only 10-20% of the population. Women, children, slaves and foreigners were not allowed to participate
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    • mrs. b.
      Why did Athens become seafaring?  
Daryl Bambic

For 40 Years, This Russian Family Was Cut Off From All Human Contact, Unaware of WWII | History & Archaeology | Smithsonian Magazine - 0 views

  • This forest is the last and greatest of Earth's wildernesses. It stretches from the furthest tip of Russia's arctic regions as far south as Mongolia, and east from the Urals to the Pacific: five million square miles of nothingness, with a population, outside a handful of towns, that amounts to only a few thousand people.
  • iberia is the source of most of Russia's oil and mineral resources, and, over the years, even its most distant parts have been overflown by oil prospectors and surveyors on their way to backwoods camps where the work of extracting wealth is carried on.
  • summer of 1978
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  • more than 150 miles from the nearest settlement,
  • Well, since you have traveled this far, you might as well come in.'
  • omething from the middle ages. Jerry-built from whatever materials came to hand, the dwelling was not much more than a burrow—"a low, soot-blackened log kennel that was as cold as a cellar," with a floor consisting of potato peel and pine-nut shells. Looking around in the dim light, the visitors saw that it consisted of a single room. It was cramped, musty and indescribably filthy, propped up by sagging joists—and, astonishingly, home to a family of five:
  • Have you ever eaten bread?
  • "We are not allowed that!"
  • he daughters spoke a language distorted by a lifetime of isolation. "When the sisters talked to each other, it sounded like a slow, blurred cooing."
  • a member of a fundamentalist Russian Orthodox sect, worshiping in a style unchanged since the 17th century.
  • Peter was a personal enemy and "the anti-Christ in human form"—a point he insisted had been amply proved by Tsar's campaign to modernize Russia by forcibly "chopping off the beards of Christians."
  • Things had only got worse for the Lykov family when the atheist Bolsheviks took power. Under the Soviets, isolated Old Believer communities that had fled to Siberia to escape persecution began to retreat ever further from civilization. During the purges of the 1930s, with Christianity itself under assault, a Communist patrol had shot Lykov's brother on the outskirts of their village while Lykov knelt working beside him. He had responded by scooping up his family and bolting into forest.
  • our Lykovs then—Karp;
  • wife, Akulina
  • son named Savin
  • Natalia, a daughter who was only 2.
  • wo more children had been born in the wild—Dmitry in 1940 and Agafia in 1943—
  • d neither of the youngest Lykov children had ever seen a human being who was not a member of their famil
  • new there were places called cities where humans lived crammed together in tall buildings. They had heard there were countries other than Russia. But such concepts were no more than abstractions to them. Their only reading matter was prayer books and an ancient family Bible. Akulina had used the gospels to teach her children to read and write, using sharpened birch sticks dipped into honeysuckle juice as pen and ink. When Agafia was shown a picture of a horse, she recognized it from her mother's Bible stories. "Look, papa," she exclaimed. "A steed!"
  • e traversed 250 kilometres [155 miles] without seeing a single human dwelling!"
  • They fashioned birch-bark galoshes in place of shoes. Clothes were patched and repatched until they fell apart, then replaced with hemp cloth grown from seed.
  • pinning wheel a
  • A couple of kettles served them well for many years, but when rust finally overcame them, the only replacements they could fashion came from birch bark.
  • heir staple diet was potato patties mixed with ground rye and hemp seeds.
  • bundance
  • stream. Stands of larch, spruce, pine and birch yielded all that anyone could take.... Bilberries and raspberries were close to hand, firewood as well, and pine nuts fell right on the roof."
  • rmanently on the edge of famine.
  • not until the late 1950s, when Dmitry reached manhood, that they first trapped animals for their meat and skins. Lacking guns and even bows, they could hunt only by digging traps or pursuing prey across the mountains until the animals collapsed from exhaustion
  • Old Karp was usually delighted by the latest innovations that the scientists brought up from their camp, and though he steadfastly refused to believe that man had set foot on the moon, he adapted swiftly to the idea of satellites.
  • "What amazed him most of all," Peskov recorded, "was a transparent cellophane package. 'Lord, what have they thought up—it is glass, but it crumples!
  • Agafia's unusual speech—she had a singsong voice and stretched simple words into polysyllables—convinced some of her visitors she was slow-witted; in fact she was markedly intelligent, and took charge of the difficult task, in a family that possessed no calendars, of keeping track of time. 
  • mitry, a
  • urious and perhaps the most forward-looking member of the family
  • Perhaps it was no surprise that he was also the most enraptured by the scientists' technology.
  • many happy hours in its little sawmill, marveling at how easily a circular saw and lathes could finish wood.
  • Karp Lykov fought a long and losing battle with himself to keep all this modernity at bay. When they first got to know the geologists, the family would accept only a single gift—salt
  • hey took knives, forks, handles, grain and eventually even pen and paper and an electric torch.
  • but the sin of television, which they encountered at the geologists' camp, proved irresistible for them.... On their rare appearances, they would invariably sit down and watch. Karp sat directly in front of the screen. Agafia watched poking her head from behind a door. She tried to pray away her transgression immediately—whispering, crossing herself.... The old man prayed afterward, diligently and in one fell swoop.
  • he Lord would provide, and she would stay, she said—as indeed she has. A quarter of a century later, now in her seventies herself, this child of the taiga lives on alone, high above the Abakan.
    An amazing story of a Russian Orthodox family who ran from Soviet persecution in the 1930 and survived in the wilderness of Siberia. The children had never seen other humans, developed their own dialect and lived on the perpetual edge of the world.  Several family members were enthralled with technology, others were fearful but all were exceptionally intelligent.
matt k

Ancient Egyptian Inventions - 7 views

shared by matt k on 04 Nov 11 - No Cached
  • The shadoof was a very useful device that the Egyptians built to help them with their water, and the Nile River. It was operated by hand and was used to lift water from the river onto land in buckets. It has a long pole and there are two objects at each end of it. On one side, there is a bucket. On the other, there is a weight. The Egyptians would lower the bucket, and allowed the water to flow into the bucket. Then they would drop it, causing the weight to lift it back up so they could retrieve it. This was a very nifty device.
    • ed h
      this is a very cool device.
    • Everett m
      very helpful thanks
  • Paper was another remarkable invention the Egyptians came up with. Their paper was made out of papyrus, a plant very abundant in the Nile area. First they had to slice the core of the stalk into very fine pieces. These pieces get submerged in water to remove sugar. The they are pounded to drain the water. The strips are  then lay side by side and are weaved into each other. The end result is papyrus paper. In fact, the English word “paper” is derived from the word papyrus.
    • anna g
      they invented paper
  • papyrus.                                                                                      
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  • Locks were another making of the Egyptians. These were made to prevent the endless robberies. They made a wooden crossbar that was almost entirely enclose except for some space for the key and the pins. They dropped these pins into cavities, which locked the door. To unlock it, they slid the key into the opening, which pushed the pins out of the way, enabling the door to open.            
    • anna g
      they made locks
    • sarah l
      Thats intresting i didnt know that.
    • matt k
      Cool, except you could just break the lock by smashing the wood. :)
  • The shadoof was a very useful device that the Egyptians built to help them with their water, and the Nile River. It was operated by hand and was used to lift water from the river onto land in buckets. It has a long pole and there are two objects at each end of it. On one side, there is a bucket. On the other, there is a weight. The Egyptians would lower the bucket, and allowed the water to flow into the bucket. Then they would drop it, causing the weight to lift it back up so they could retrieve it. This was a very nifty device.
    • cassidy s
      The Ancient Egyptiond=s invented the shadoox,and without it it would be very difficult for them to get water.
    I don't think this is a very reliable site. In the first two paragraphs, there are 3 grammer mistakes. This could be reliable, but the creator of this site really needs to get an editor to fix the mistakes.
Kalina P

Barbara Ehrenreich: Nickel and Dimed (2011 Version) - 2 views

  • , “Make love not war,” and then -- down at the bottom -- “Screw it, just make money.”
  • A Florida woman wrote to tell me that, before reading it, she’d always been annoyed at the poor for what she saw as their self-inflicted obesity.
  • earned less than a barebones budget covering housing, child care, health care, food, transportation, and taxes -- though not, it should be noted, any entertainment, meals out, cable TV, Internet service, vacations, or holiday gifts. Twenty-nine percent is a minority, but not a reassuringly small one, and other studies in the early 2000s came up with similar figures.
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  • widely read among low-wage workers. In the last few years, hundreds of people have written to tell me their stories: the mother of a newborn infant whose electricity had just been turned off, the woman who had just been given a diagnosis of cancer and has no health insurance, the newly homeless man who writes from a library computer.
  • t things have gotten much worse, especially since the economic downturn that began in 2008.
  • . I started with my own extended family, which includes plenty of people without jobs or health insurance, and moved on to trying to track down a couple of the people I had met while working on Nickel and Dimed
  • -- the skipped meals, the lack of medical care, the occasional need to sleep in cars or vans -
  • The economy was growing, and jobs, if poorly paid, were at least plentiful.
  • many of these jobs had disappeared and there was stiff competition for those that remained
  • a healthy diet wasn’t always an option.  And if I had a quarter for every person who’s told me he or she now tipped more generously, I would be able to start my own foundation.
  • and and was subsisting on occasional cleaning and catering jobs. Neither seemed unduly afflicted by the recessi
  • suicide a “coping strategy,” but it is one way some people have responded to job los
  • Media attention has focused, understandably enough, on the “nouveau poor” -- formerly middle and even upper-middle class people who lost their jobs, their homes, and/or their investments in the financial crisis of 2008 and the economic downturn that followed it, but the brunt of the recession has been borne by the blue-collar working class, which had already been sliding downwards since de-industrialization began in the 1980s.
  • were especially hard hit for the simple reason that they had so few assets and savings to fall back on as jobs disappea
  • cut back on health care.
  • g members of my extended family, have given up their health insurance.
  • Food i
  • “food auctions,” which offer items that may be past their sell-by dates.
  • urban hunting. In Racine, Wisconsin, a 51-year-old laid-off mechanic told me he was supplementing his diet by “shooting squirrels and rabbits and eating them stewed, baked, and grilled.” In Detroit, where the wildlife population has mounted as the human population ebbs, a retired truck driver was doing a brisk business in raccoon carcasses, which he recommends marinating with vinegar and spices.
  • ncrease the number of paying people per square foot of dwelling space -- by doubling up or renting to couch-surfer
  • “people who’ve lost their jobs, or at least their second jobs, cope by doubling or tripling up in overcrowded apartments, or by paying 50 or 60 or even 70 percent of their incomes in rent.”
  • e to moves and suspensions of telephone service
  • - a government safety net that is meant to save the poor from spiraling down all the way to destitutio
  • The food stamp program has responded to the crisis fairly well, to the point where it now reaches about 37 million people, up about 30% from pre-recession levels.
  • ? There is a right to food stamps. You go to the office and, if you meet the statutory definition of need, they h
  • elp you. For welfare, the street-level bureaucrats can, pretty much at their own discretion, just say no.
  • Delaware residents who had always imagined that people turned to the government for help only if “they didn’t want to work.
  • ace a state-sponsored retraining course in computer repairs -- only to find that those skills are no longer in demand.
  • 44% of laid-off people at the time, she failed to meet the fiendishly complex and sometimes arbitrary eligibility requirements for unemployment benefits. Their car started falling apart.
  • Temporary Assistance to Needy Families.
  • TANF does not offer straightforward cash support like Aid to Families with Dependent Children, which it replaced in 1996. It’s an income supplementation program for working parents, and it was based on the sunny assumption that there would always be plenty of jobs for those enterprising enough to get them.
  • When the Parentes finally got into “the system” and began receiving food stamps and some cash assistance, they discovered why some recipients have taken to calling TANF “Torture and Abuse of Needy Families.” From the start, the TANF experience was “humiliating,” Kristen says. The caseworkers “treat you like a bum. They act like every dollar you get is coming out of their own paychecks.”
  • 40 jobs a week
  • miles a day to attend “job readiness” classes offered by a private company called Arbor, wh
  • were “frankly a joke.”
  • , “applying for welfare is a lot like being booked by the police.”  There may be a mug shot, fingerprinting, and lengthy interrogations as to one’s children’s true paternity. The ostensible goal is to prevent welf
  • fraud, but the psychological impact is to turn poverty itself into a kind of crime.
  • The most shocking thing I learned from my research on the fate of the working poor in the recession was the extent to which poverty has indeed been criminalized in America.
  • Perhaps the constant suspicions of drug use and theft that I encountered in low-wage workplaces should have alerted me to the fact that, when you leave the relative safety of the middle class, you might as well have given up your citizenship and taken residence in a hostile nation.
  • Most cities, for example, have ordinances designed to drive the destitute off the streets by outlawing such necessary activities of daily life as sitting, loitering, sleeping, or lying down. Urban officials boast that there is nothing discriminatory about such laws: “If you’re lying on a sidewalk, whether you’re homeless or a millionaire, you’re in violation of the ordinance,” a St. Petersburg, Florida, city attorney stated in June 2009, echoing Anatole France’s immortal observation that “the law, in its majestic equality, forbids the rich as well as the poor to sleep under bridges...”
  • the criminalization of poverty has actually intensified as the weakened economy generates ever more poverty.
  • ordinances against the publicly poor has been rising since 2006, along with the harassment of the poor for more “neutral” infractions like jaywalking, littering, or carrying an open container.
  • ban on begging
  • grizzled 62-year-old, he inhabits a wheelchair and is often found on G Street in Washington, D.C. -- the city that is ultimately responsible for the bullet he took in the spine in Phu Bai, Vietnam, in 1972.
  • “They arrested a homeless man in a shelter for being homeless?”
  • , led by Las Vegas, passed ordinances forbidding the sharing of food with the indigent in public places, leadi
  • The experience of the poor, and especially poor people of color, comes to resemble that of a rat in a cage scrambling to avoid erratically administered electric shocks. And if you should try to escape this nightmare reality into a brief, drug-induced high, it’s “gotcha” all over again, because that of course is illegal too.
  • e government defunds services that might help the poor while ramping up law enforcement.
  •  Shut down public housing, then make it a crime to be homeless. Generate no public-sector jobs, then penalize people for falling into debt.
  • way to be criminalized by poverty is to have the wrong color skin. Indignation runs high when a celebrity professor succumbs to racial profiling, but whole communities are effectively “profiled” for the suspicious combination of being both dark-skinned and poor. Flick a cigarette and you’re “littering”; wear the wrong color T-shirt and you’re displaying gang allegiance. Just strolling around in a dodgy neighborhood can mark you as a potential suspect. And don’t get grumpy about it or you could be “resisting arrest.”
  • r staggering level of incarceration,
  • g. And what public housing remains has become ever more prison-like, with random police sweeps and, in a growing number of cities, proposed drug tests for residents.
  • The safety net, or what remains of it, has been transformed into a dragnet.
  • official level of poverty increasing -- to over 14% in 2010 -- some states are beginning to ease up on the criminalization of poverty, using alternative sentencing methods, shortening probation, and reducing the number of people locked up for technical violations like missing court appointments. But others, diabolically enough, are tightening the screws: not only increasing the number of “crimes,” but charging prisoners for their room and board, guaranteeing they’ll be released with potentially criminalizing levels of debt.
  • a higher minimum wage, universal health care, affordable housing, good schools, reliable public transportation, and all the other things we, uniquely among the developed nations, have neglected to do.
  • : if we want to reduce poverty, we have to stop doing the things that make people poor and keep them that way. Stop underpaying people for the jobs they do. Stop treating working people as potential criminals and let them have the right to organize for better wages and working conditions.
  • : if we want to reduce poverty, we have to stop doing the things that make people poor and keep them that way. Stop underpaying people for the jobs they do. Stop treating working people as potential criminals and let them have the right to organize for better wages and working conditions.
  • : if we want to reduce poverty, we have to stop doing the things that make people poor and keep them that way. Stop underpaying people for the jobs they do. Stop treating working people as potential criminals and let them have the right to organize for better wages and working conditions.
  • : if we want to reduce poverty, we have to stop doing the things that make people poor and keep them that way. Stop underpaying people for the jobs they do. Stop treating working people as potential criminals and let them have the right to organize for better wages and working conditions.
  • Stop the institutional harassment of those who turn to the government for help or find themselves destitute in the streets
  • But at least we should decide, as a bare minimum principle, to stop kicking people when they’re down.
Garth Holman

The Middle Ages for Kids - Coat of Arms, Shields, Herald, Heraldry - 0 views

  • People in medieval times used personal and family banners and shields to express their identity and status in society. Think of your school logo, or the logo of a professional sports team
  • Heraldry includes a family motto and a family coat of arms. The actual design of the coat of arms followed a pattern, although each was distinctive. 
  • As time went on, a family's heraldry was recorded so that no one could copy the pattern or take it for themselves.
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  • In the Middle Ages, a distinctive coat of arms was used to identify each noble family. Each item in the design had meaning. 
  • Once a coat of arms was adopted by a family, the design was placed on shields held by knights of the manor, embroidered on tapestries, and carved in stone throughout the castle or manor house. It was placed on swords and on banners and even burnt into the top of breads on special occasions. A family's heraldry was important. It said, "This is who we are, and we are special." That is heraldry.
  • Since most people could not read, heraldry was invented.
  • design and short saying
  • They put their coat of arms, showing their heraldry, on banners, shields, tapestries and anything else they could think of.
  • coat of arms has a specific meaning
  • brave as a lion
    Background on a coat of arms.
kaitlyn o

Ancient Chinese People - History for Kids! - 1 views

  • Chinese people have always put a lot of emphasis on everybody acting the right way for their position in life
  • people thought your most important relationship was with your family
  • When girls grew up, they got married and left the house they had grown up in to go live in their husband's house, with his family
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  • Many Chinese people were slaves. Most people who were slaves worked in the fields, the same as free people. Some of them worked as servants in rich people's houses. The Emperor owned hundreds of slaves, and some of them worked for the government, collecting taxes or building roads. Some people were born slaves, because their mothers were slaves, and other people were sold into slavery to pay debts.
    ancient slavery
Yuke Z

Medieval Education - 3 views

  • All lessons taught in a grammar school were in Latin. Lessons were taught in a way that boys had to learn information off by heart. Whether they understood what they had learned was a separate issue! Books were extremely expensive in Medieval England and no school could hope to kit out their pupils with books.
  • Lessons frequently started at sunrise and finished at sunset.
  • Discipline was very strict. Mistakes in lessons were punished with the birch (or the threat of it) In theory pupils would never make the same mistake again after being birched, as the memory of the pain inflicted was too strong.
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  • The sons of the peasants could only be educated if the lord of the manor had given his permission. Any family caught having a son educated without permission was heavily fined.
  • Very few girls went to what could be describes as a school. Girls from noble families were taught at home or in the house of another nobleman. Some girls from rich families went abroad to be educated. Regardless of where they went, the basis of their education was the same – how to keep a household going so that their husband was well kept. Girls might learn to play a musical instrument and to sing. But the philosophy of their education remained the same – how to keep a successful household for your husband.
    Peasant Schooling
Garth Holman

Castles in Medieval Times - 0 views

  •      Large stone castles were built in Europe from about the 1100’s to about the 1500’s. These huge buildings served not only to defend the country from foreign invaders but as the basic tool in preserving the king’s and the nobles’ power over the land. The social system was very rigid in the Middle Ages.
  • Under Feudalism, the basic social structure in this time, all land was held by the king. The king gave pieces of this land to various high nobles, in return for their help in fighting his wars or in putting down rebellions. Not only did the higher nobles have to fight for the king themselves, they had to supply a certain number of lesser lords and other knights to help fight also. These higher nobles then gave some of their land to lesser knights, in return for their help in battle. Below all the knights were the serfs, who actually farmed the land. They gave a portion of their crops each year to the lord who ruled over them, in return for use of the land and protection.
  • castles as symbols of their power for all to see.
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  • A man’s son inherited his lands and his obligations to fight
  • The castle was both a residence for the lord and his family, and a fortification. It was a strong place for the lord to defend himself against his enemies (and the king’s enemies, and his overlord’s enemies), a safe place for him and his knights to return to, and a place to live which emphasized his power.
  •   Castles were built to keep out enemies. When an attack was expected, the drawbridge was raised, the gates and portcullis were closed, and archers were stationed on the towers.
  • The walls were not only high, in a well-planned castle, but they were arranged as much as possible so that anyone climbing the walls could be shot at from two directions.
  • The castle’s defenses invited a great deal of ingenuity from the attackers. Rolling wooden towers, covered with thick hides to stop arrows and kept wet so they could not be set on fire, were brought up to the walls in an attack. Sometimes they even worked. Catapults threw heavy stones at the walls to make a breach or loads of rocks (or diseased livestock, or fire bombs) over the walls. The battering ram—generally used against a door—was an old favorite.
  • he knights and their servants and their mounts all had to eat, as did the lord, his family, and his servants and officials, and their families. Many castles grew certain types of food inside their walls, to add variety to the diet of those inside the castle, but it was not nearly enough to feed the people in the castle, much less their guests. Castles might have beehives, herb gardens, fruit trees or a fishpond. Because the land inside the castle walls was not enough to feed all these people, they got their food from the peasants who farmed outside, and from hunting. There were restrictions on hunting by the peasants, and sometimes it was forbidden entirely, so that the lord and his retainers would have plenty of game to hunt. Hunting was also a major recreation for the lord and his men.
Garth Holman

Medieval education in Europe: Schools & Universities - 0 views

  • It is estimated that by 1330, only 5% of the total population of Europe received any sort of education
  • Even then education, as we understand it, was not accessible or even desired by everyone. Schools were mostly only accessible to the sons of high lords of the land.
  • In most kingdoms in Europe, education was overseen by the church.
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  • The very fact that the curriculum was structured by the church gave it the ability to mould the students to follow its doctrine
  • Unofficially, education started from a very young age. This sort of early education depended on the feudal class of the child’s parents
  • Even the children of serfs would be taught the skills needed to survive by their parents. The boys would be taken out into the fields to observe and to help their parents with easy tasks, while the girls would work with the animals at home, in the vegetable garden with their mothers, or watch them weave.
  • Children of craftsmen and merchants were educated from a very young age in the trade of their fathers. Trade secrets rarely left a family and they had to be taught and understood by all male (and unusually, female) heirs, in order to continue the family legacy.
  • Young boys of noble birth would learn how to hunt and swing a weapon, while the young ladies of nobility would learn how to cook
  • The main subject of study in those schools was Latin (reading and writing). In addition to this, students were also taught rhetoric – the art of public speaking and persuasion – which was a very useful tool for both men of the cloth and nobles alike.
  • Lessons frequently started at sunrise and finished at sunset
  • University education, across the whole of the continent, was a luxury to which only the wealthiest and brightest could ever aspire
  • Since the creation of the first university in 1088
  • Students attended the Medieval University at different ages, ranging from 14 (if they were attending Oxford or Paris to study the Arts) to their 30s (if they were studying Law in Bologna)
  • The dynamic between students and teachers in a medieval university was significantly different from today. In the University of Bologna students hired and fired teachers by consensus. The students also bargained as a collective regarding fees, and threatened teachers with strikes if their demands were not met
  • A Master of Arts degree in the medieval education system would have taken six years; a Bachelor of Arts degree would be awarded after completing the third or fourth year. By “Arts” the degree was referring to the seven liberal arts – arithmetic, geometry, astronomy, music theory, grammar, logic, and rhetoric
  • The sons of the peasants could only be educated if the lord of the manor had given his permission
  • Any family caught having a son educated without permission was heavily fined
  • Historians today believe that this policy was another way in which authority figures attempted to control the peasants, since an educated peasant/villein might prove to question the way things were done and upset the balance of power which kept the nobles strong.
  • Students held the legal status of clerics which, according to the Canon Law, could not be held by women; women were therefore not admitted into universities.
    This explains the importance of education and how each group got an education.
Garth Holman

The Renaissance at - 3 views

  • About 1450
  • Renaissance is a French word that means "rebirth."
  • beginning of modern history.
  • ...22 more annotations...
  • flowering in literature
  • painting, sculpture, and architecture. Paintings became more realistic and focused less often on religious topics.
  • began in northern Italy
  • Arab scholars preserved the writings of the ancient Greeks in their libraries. When the Italian cities traded with the Arabs, ideas were exchanged along with goods. These ideas, preserved from the ancient past, served as the basis of the Renaissance.
  • William Shakespeare.
  • Crusaders returned to Europe with a newfound understanding of the world.
  • The invention of the printing press encouraged literacy and helped to spread new ideas.
  • Wealthy families and the church had amassed enough wealth to become patrons.
  • The development of financial techniques such as bookkeeping and credit allowed merchants to
  • prosper
  • studying the world around them.
    • Garth Holman
      What does the term Rebirth mean?  Imply?  SO the Renaissance was a WHAT? 
    • Rose h
      The beginning of a new age, 
    • Margo L
      Whats a turk???
    • Garth Holman
      A Turk is a person from Modern Turkey.  They divide the European/Christian world from the Middle East and Asia (Arab/Islamic) 
    • agriffin a
      the term re birth means a new life or to start over from scratch.
    • gpinhasi g
      Why did the Europeans became more interested in the World around them?
    • jgreen j
      Because the world around them was very interesting.
    • jdanielpour j
      The reason why Europeans all the sudden are now curious and are now investigating the world around them is that after the black death and the crusades, people became more humanist and farther away from religion, so this causes two things: First, religion was keeping others from wondering what everything is, (since religion would make an answer for the questions people had,) keeping everyone together in one place. Second, Christianity at that time had a pretty bad relationship with Muslims, so now that people aren't letting their Religion tell them what to do, people will go past those religious laws for the sack of curiosity.
    • Garth Holman
      So, who do we thank for saving the knowledge of Ancient Greece and Rome?  Who helped make our world? 
    • Lance C
      The muslims
    • Jack Z
      The Arabs
    • Garth Holman
      What does the word Patron mean?  Look it up.   How did art change?  How did MONEY impact society? 
    • glever g
      A Patron is like an EMPLOYER they pay you with MONEY as compared to an item or land to do a task
    • Garth Holman
      Here we have four causes.  What do they really say is happening?  In your own words. 
    • Hannah K
      The idea of investing
  • Rich families became patrons and commissioned great art. Artists advanced the Renaissance style of showing nature and depicting the feelings of people.
  • Crusaders returned to Europe with a newfound understanding of the world. The invention of the printing press encouraged literacy and helped to spread new ideas. Wealthy families and the church had amassed enough wealth to become patrons. The development of financial techniques such as bookkeeping and credit allowed merchants to prosper
    • Yuke Z
      Cultural Diffusion
    • Yuke Z
      Replaced illuminated manuscripts. Took much less time to use printing press, which means, more books and ideas could be spread
    • bsafenovitz b
      So more money could be made in a faster time
    • Yuke Z
      Banking is invented. Instead of breaking the stick, now there is bookkeeping.
    • Garth Holman
      If the Middle Ages are sometimes called the "DARK AGES", why is the Phrase "DAWN of a New Age" so important? 
    • mberkley m
      I think the "DAWN" means that the "New Age" is going to be a better and nicer time for people and the world will be calmer that before
    • glever g
      I believe the "DAWN" means an enlightening of minds
    • jdanielpour j
      Since the dark ages are now over, and now it's the "DAWN" of a new age, this could imply that, the "DARK AGES," was the night/hibernation of technology and/or knowledge and information, and now that it is now the "DAWN," we could infer that this could mean that technology and knowledge, are awakening.
    • nshore n
      I think "DAWN" probably means the beginning of change in Europe. Everything from art to government transforms into new ideas for a new era. 
Matthew S.

¢Æ Prehistoric Experience Hall - Prehistoric Learning Room - 0 views

    • Matthew S.
      Cool caves that people lived in to help survive when they followed there cattle.
  • The life pattern in the Old Stone Age was a group community life.  People duri
  • ng this age had a group life moving in family units and the man with the most experience and wisdom among them was the leader.
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  • People in the Old Stone Age who relied on the nature had to look for new foods when they ran out of the foods gathered by collecting and hunting around their cave.  So they moved to look for foods according to the change of seasons. 
  • 1. Cave Dwelling
  • They had been used the cave as their shelter to protect themselves from beasts or take shelter from rain and wind.
Garth Holman

The Medieval Church - 3 views

  • From the very earliest of ages, the people were taught that the only way they could get to Heaven was if the Roman Catholic Church let them. Everybody would have been terrified of Hell and the people would have been told of the sheer horrors awaiting for them in Hell in the weekly services they attended.
  • The control the Church had over the people was total. Peasants worked for free on Church land. This proved difficult for peasants as the time they spent working on Church land, could have been better spent working on their own plots of land producing food for their families.
  • They paid 10% of what they earned in a year to the Church (this tax was called tithes). Tithes could be paid in either money or in goods produced by the peasant farmers. As peasants had little money, they almost always had to pay in seeds, harvested grain, animals etc. This usually caused a peasant a lot of hardship as seeds, for example, would be needed to feed a family the following year.
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  • What the Church got in tithes was kept in huge tithe barns; a lot of the stored grain would have been eaten  by rats or poisoned by their urine.
  • A failure to pay tithes, so the peasants were told by the Church, would lead to their souls going to Hell after they had died. 
  • People were too scared not to pay tithes despite the difficulties it meant for them.
  • You also had to pay for baptisms (if you were not baptised you could not go to Heaven when you died), marriages (there were no couples living together in Medieval times as the Church taught that this equaled sin) and burials - you had to be buried on holy land if your soul was to get to heaven. Whichever way you looked, the Church received money.
  • The Church also did not have to pay taxes.
  • Important cities would have cathedrals in them.
  • To work on the building of a cathedral was a great honour. Those who did the skilled work had to belong to a guild. They would have used just the most basic of tools and less than strong scaffolding to do the ceilings. However, if you were killed in an accident while working in a cathedral or a church, you were guaranteed a place in Heaven - or so the workers were told.
  • Their sheer size meant that people would see them from miles around, and remind them of the huge power of the Catholic Church in Medieval England.
    • Shira H
      Great site for quest 5
    Medieval Church
Shira H

Decay, Christianity, Vandals, and Religious Controversy as Reasons for the Fall of Rome - 0 views

    • Shira H
      There are factors that are blamed for the Fall of Rome. 1, Decay, 2. Vandals, and Religion , including Christianity.  The Roman Empire became too big to control. 
    • Shira H
      Soldiers or families in distant parts of the Empire adopted local customs and the Empire was made up not only of natives from the Italian peninsula.
  • he Roman Empire had become too big to control easily. Soldiers or families in distant parts of the Empire adopted local customs and the Empire was made up not only of natives from the Italian peninsula,
tabitha p

Slavery in China - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia - 1 views

    • Aden S
      What was the total population of the Shang Dinasty
    • sarah l
      i never thought that slavery could be so different all around the world
  • Slavery in China has taken various forms throughout history. Never as absolute as its Muslim or European models, Chinese slavery still often viewed its objects as "half-man, half-thing" (半人, 半物).[1] Slavery was repeatedly abolished as a legally-recognized institution, including in a 1909 law[2][1] fully enacted in 1910,[3] although the practice continued until at least 1949.[4]
  • Men punished with castration during the Han dynasty were also used as slave labor.[9
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  • Slavery was established in China by at least the Shang dynasty, at which point it has been estimated that about 5 percent of the population was enslaved.[5]
  • Deriving from earlier Legalist laws, the Han dynasty set in place rules that the property of and families of criminals doing three years of hard labor or sentenced to castration were to have their families seized and kept as property by the government.
  • As part of his land reform laws, Wang Mang either abolished all slavery[1] or trade in slaves.[citation needed] The swift collapse of his dynasty led to the restoration of both.
    Ancient Slavery in China
    Slavery of China
    Ancient chinese slavery information. I hilighted the first paragraph and its on wiki!
Sam A

Sparta - Ancient Greece for Kids - 1 views

  • Much less evidence survives about Sparta than Athens, but we do know that it was a military state. Sparta was surrounded by mountains which protected it from invaders.
  • Sparta was the only city state which had a full time army. The Spartan men were well known for being brave and fierce, and they spent their whole lives training and fighting.
  • Spartans lived in harsh conditions, without luxuries, to make them tough fighters. Physical training and fitness was considered to be an important part of a Spartan child’s education. Girls did not fight in wars but they took part in physical activities because Spartans believed fit and strong women would have healthy babies that would be good soldiers. Boys went to live at an army barracks at the age of 7. Government Sparta had its own system of government which was very different from the other city states. Rule was shared between two kings, the Gerousia and the Assembly. Most citizens Spartans were either Perioeci (citizens who paid taxes, served in the army and were protected by Spartan laws) or Helots (people from lands conquered and ruled by Sparta who had no rights). The Helots Spartan citizens were given land which was farmed for them by the Helots. The Helots were treated as serfs (slaves) and had to give half their crops to their Spartan master.
    • Sam A
      Hi its Sam ;)
    • Rebecca S
      HI its Becca :)
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  • rta's powerful army is ready for war. Athens knows that it cannot defeat this army ... but it has a Navy and Sparta does not. The year is 430 BC. Poliphus and his family from Athens and Sparcus and his family from Sparta are thinking about the future. They each have different points of view!! Cool site!
    its cool!!!
Garth Holman


    "The top players in feudal Europe come from a small group of people - an aristocracy, based on skill in battle, with a shared commitment to a form of Christianity (at once power-hungry and idealistic) in which the pope in Rome has special powers as God's representative on earth. As a great feudal lord with moral pretensions, holding the ring between secular sovereigns, the pope can be seen as Europe's headmaster. Bishops and abbots are part of the small feudal aristocracy, for they are mostly recruited from the noble families holding the great fiefs. Indeed bishops can often be found on the battlefield, fighting it out with with the best. As in any other context, the strongest argument in feudalism - transcending the niceties of loyalty - is naked force. The Normans in England or in Sicily rule by right of conquest, and feudal disputes are regularly resolved in battle. But feudalism also provides many varieties of justification for force. And the possession of a good justification is almost as reassuring to a knight as a good suit of armour. One excellent excuse for warfare is the approval of the church. In 1059 the pope virtually commands the Normans to attack Sicily, by giving them feudal rights over territory not as yet theirs. Similarly Rome lets it be known that the Holy See is on the side of William when he invades England in 1066. Another important form of justification is a dynastic claim to a territory. Generations of marriages, carefully arranged for material gain, result in an immensely complex web of relationships - reflected often in kingdoms of very surprising shape on the map of Europe.
Garth Holman

Inside a Medieval Castle - 1 views

  • The rooms where the lord of a castle, his family and his knights lived and ate and slept were in the Keep (called the Donjon), the rectangular tower inside the walls of a castle. This was meant to be the strongest and safest place.
  • The outer wall of a castle was called Bailey. This was where buildings for the castle's cattle, horses and servants lived. Some of the soldiers needed to defend the castle might live in part of the gatehouse known as the Barbican.
    • Garth Holman
      What is a siege? 
    • mluxenburg m
      A Siege is an Attack on a castle.
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  • There were kitchens and pantries where food was stored for everyday preparation. The Great Hall and the bedchambers were there too.
  • The Great Hall
  • The Bedchamber
  • Kitchen
  • A wealthy knight, his family and guests ate well. Unlike most people, they had plenty of meat like deer, goose and rabbit. On Fridays and Holy Days meat was forbidden by the church, so they ate fish or eels. If there was a special feast, the people working in the kitchens would prepare wild boar, roast swan, or even roast peacock, served with all its feathers as decoration. Some of these would be caught by the lord of the castle and his friends while out hunting with their hawks.
  • Many castles had stone toilets built over holes in the outer walls. These emptied into a pit way below.
  • Medieval castles did not have running water, yet people did like to bathe at least once a year. In some castles there was a room next to the kitchen where they bathed in groups. The lord might have hot water brought to his bedchamber and poured into a big wooden tub, where he sat on a low stool in. The water might have perfume or rose leaves sprinkled in it. Soap was made of sheep fat with ashes and soda. Teeth were cleaned by scraping them with a hazel twig and rubbing them with a woollen cloth.
    • Garth Holman
jashapiro j

Timeline for the Crusades and Christian Holy War - 0 views

  • The crusades were a series of holy wars called by popes with the promise of indulgences for those who fought in them and directed against external and internal enemies of Christendom for the recovery of Christian property or in defense of the Church or Christian people. 
  • crusading was an act of Christian love and piety that compensated for and paid the penalties earned by sin. 
  • crusades were fought not only in Syria, Palestine, and Egypt, but in Spain, the Baltic (Latvia and Prussia), Italy, Sicily, and southern France. 
    Higher level reading, but lots of details.
Garth Holman

Preamble and Articles of the Magna Carta (1215) - 0 views

  • Only those Articles pertaining to today’s constitutional guarantees under the Canadian Charter of Rights and Freedoms, 1867 to 1997, the Constitution of the United States of America and other relevant statutes are reproduced herein Ed.
    • Garth Holman
      Article 1:  In the common words: the Church and State are to be two groups, not one. separation of Church and State   
  • that the English Church shall be free,3 a
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  • Common pleas1 shall not follow our court but shall be held in some fixed place
    • Garth Holman
      What does this mean? 
  • A freeman shall not be amerced10 for a small offence, except in accordance with the degree of the offence and for a grave offence he shall be amerced according to its gravity,
    • Garth Holman
      The punishment of the crime should be fair for the crime committed.  Fairness of the courts..
  • Let there be throughout our kingdom a single measure for wine and a single measure for ale and a single measure for corn, namely "the London quarter," and a single width of cloth (whether dyed, russet
    • Garth Holman
      Use the same weights and measure everyone, so people are treated fairly.  Look at a gas pump next time you parents fill up do you see this? 
  • In future no official shall put anyone to trial merely on his own testimony, without reliable witnesses produced for this purpose.
    • Garth Holman
      Need for evidence against someone, not just the persons own words. 
  • 39.       No freeman shall be arrested or imprisoned or deprived of his freehold or outlawed or banished or in any way ruined, nor will we take or order action against him, except by the lawful judgment of his equals and according to the law of the land.
    • Garth Holman
      The big one: The right of A writ of habeas corpus (English pronunciation: /ˌheɪbiəs ˈkɔrpəs/; Latin: "you may have the body") is a writ (court order) that requires a person under arrest to be brought before a judge or into court.[1][2] The principle of habeas corpus ensures that a prisoner can be released from unlawful detention-that is, detention lacking sufficient cause or evidence.  See link:
  • To no one will we sell, to no one will we refuse or delay right or justice.
  • Wherefore we wish and firmly order that the English Church shall be free, and the men in our kingdom shall have and hold all the aforesaid privileges, rights and concessions well and peacefully, freely and quietly, fully and completely for themselves and their heirs from us and our heirs in all things and places for ever as is aforesaid. Moreover an oath has been taken, as well on our part as on the part of the barons, that all these things aforesaid shall be observed in good faith and without any evil intention. As witness the above-mentioned and many others. Given under our hand in the meadow which is called Runnymede (Ronimed) between Windsor and Staines on the fifteenth day of June in the seventeenth year of our reign. 
    • Garth Holman
      We establish a free church and provide for the rights and privileges of the people.  The king and nobles (barons) agree to this and our children, children will have these rights. 
Channah C

Laws of Ancient Greece - 0 views

  • Murders were settled by members of the victim's family, who would then go and kill the murderer.
  • Penalties for these laws were not set, but were enforced by the head of the particular family.
  • Procedural laws were guidelines that told judges how to use other laws.
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  • Law givers were not rulers or kings, but appointed officials whose only job was to write laws.
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