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Cameron G.

TED Cast Study BUBONIC - 1 views

  • Between 1339 and 1351 AD, a pandemic of plague traveled from China to Europe, known in Western history as The Black Death
  • The Black Death was actually a combination of three different types of plague: bubonic, pneumonic, and septicaemic, with bubonic being the most common
  • The initial symptom is a blackish pustule forming over the point of the bite, followed by swollen lymph nodes near that bite.
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  • bruise-like purple blotches, called buboes, on the victim's skin. It is from this word, buboe, that the bubonic plague takes its name. The hemorrhaging causes an intoxication of the nervous system, which produces neurological and psychological disorders, including insomnia, delirium, and stupor
  • Septicaemic plague is, like the bubonic plague, carried by insects. Its distinguishing feature is its rapidity - death occurs within a day of infection, even before buboes have had time to form. This form of the plague is the rarest rare, but is almost always fatal
  • victims suffer a sharp drop in body temperature, which is followed by sever coughing and discharge of a bloody sputum
  • airborne transmission.
  • None of these plagues are native to Europe.
  • bacteria normally resides in Central Asia, Yunan China, Arabia, East Africa, and limited areas of Iran and Libya.
  • Their spread to Europe from these areas has always been through global commerce - trade which carried with it plague- bearing rats and fleas.
  • From China, the plague is known to have been carried along the Silk Road into Central Asia, where there are records of outbreaks in 1339.
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    Information on the spread of the Black Plague with highlights
Garth Holman

Biological Warfare at the 1346 Siege of Caffa - Volume 8, Number 9-September 2002 - Emerging Infectious Disease journal - CDC - 0 views

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    "that the Mongol army hurled plague-infected cadavers into the besieged Crimean city of Caffa, thereby transmitting the disease to the inhabitants; and that fleeing survivors of the siege spread plague from Caffa to the Mediterranean Basin."
Garth Holman

Bubonic Plague, the Black Death - 1 views

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    First person accounts of the Plague.
Garth Holman

Maps of the Arrival and Spread of the Plague in Europe - 0 views

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    Very detailed description of how the black death moved. It also has several good links on the bottom for more stories about the black death.
Garth Holman

BBC News - 'Gerbils replace rats' as main cause of Black Death - 2 views

  • If we're right, we'll have to rewrite that part of history."
  • The Black Death, which originated in Asia, arrived in Europe in 1347 and caused one of the deadliest outbreaks in human history.
  • It had been thought that black rats were responsible for allowing the plague to establish in Europe, with new outbreaks occurring when fleas jumped from infected rodents to humans.
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  • They compared tree-ring records from Europe with 7,711 historical plague outbreaks to see if the weather conditions would have been optimum for a rat-driven outbreak.
  • "We show that wherever there were good conditions for gerbils and fleas in central Asia, some years later the bacteria shows up in harbour cities in Europe and then spreads across the continent," Prof Stenseth said. He said that a wet spring followed by a warm summer would cause gerbil numbers to boom.
  • And because this was a period when trade between the East and West was at a peak, the plague was most likely brought to Europe along the silk road, Prof Stenseth explained.
  • "Suddenly we could sort out a problem. Why did we have these waves of plagues in Europe?
  • The team now plans to analyse plague bacteria DNA taken from ancient skeletons across Europe. If the genetic material shows a large amount of variation, it would suggest the team's theory is correct.
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    This article calls into question how the plague was moved from Asia to Europe..not fleas, but Gerbils:) 
Cameron G.

The Silk Road - Ancient China for Kids - 1 views

  • led across China to Rome. It was a 4000-mile trip. At one end was China. At the other end was Rome. 
  • Rome had gold and silver and precious gems. China had silk and spices and ivory. 
  • Ideas also traveled along the Silk Road, ideas that affected everyone.
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  • It was incredibly dangerous to travel along the Silk Road
  • There were three main routes, and all were dangerous.
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