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Yuke Z

Medieval Warfare - 1 views

  • New weapons technology prompted new defensive technologies, for example the introduction of cross-bows led quickly to the adoption of plate armour rather than chain mail.
  • Siege Towers Battering Rams Cats and Weasels Chemical, Biological and Psychological Warfare Mining: undermining castle walls
  • Siege Towers
  • ...14 more annotations...
  • One way to foil the approach of a belfry was to have sloping castle walls. This forced the attackers to cover a greater distance from the top of the belfry to the top of the castle wall. This was one of the benefits of a talus.
  • a battering ram is just a large, heavy log carried by several people and propelled with force against the target, the momentum of the ram damaging the target.
  • Some battering rams were supported by rollers.
  • This gave the ram much greater travel so that it could achieve a greater speed before striking its target and was therefore more destructive.
  • defenders attempted to foil battering rams by dropping obstacles in front of the ram just before it hit a wall, using grappling hooks to immobilize the log, setting the ram on fire, or sallying out to attack the ram. Battering rams had an important effect on the evolution of defensive walls - the talus for example was one way of reinforcing walls. In practice, wooden gates would generally offer the easiest targets.
  • Greek fire was a burning-liquid used as a weapon of war by the Byzantines, and also by Arabs, Chinese, and Mongols. I
  • As a defence, water alone was ineffective. On land sand could be used to stop the burning . Intriguingly it is also known that vinegar and urine were effective
  • Medieval warriors also used basic biological weapons, for example catapulting dead and diseased animals into a defended fortress to help spread disease.
  • For example would have mad armour suitable for a man of several times normal size. He would then leave a few samples laying around the scene of his victories against the Persians. After he had gone Persians would find this armour and were were soon spreading stories of Alexander's superhuman giant soldiers.
  • Other examples of psychological warfare include making loud noises (an old Celtic practice) and catapulting the severed heads of captured enemies back into the enemy camp.
  • Defenders in castles under siege might prop up dummies beside the walls to make it look like there were more defenders than there really were. They might throw food from the walls to show besiegers that provisions were plentifu
  • A"mine" was a tunnel dug to destabilise and bring down castles and other fortifications. The technique could be used only when the fortification was not built on solid rock. It was developed as a response to stone built castles that could not be burned like earlier-style wooden forts.
  • Medieval Battle Equipment & Weapons
  • Wet animal hides were highly effective against burning arrows
Garth Holman

Biological Warfare at the 1346 Siege of Caffa - Volume 8, Number 9-September 2002 - Emerging Infectious Disease journal - CDC - 0 views

    "that the Mongol army hurled plague-infected cadavers into the besieged Crimean city of Caffa, thereby transmitting the disease to the inhabitants; and that fleeing survivors of the siege spread plague from Caffa to the Mediterranean Basin."
Garth Holman

Inside a Medieval Castle - 1 views

  • The rooms where the lord of a castle, his family and his knights lived and ate and slept were in the Keep (called the Donjon), the rectangular tower inside the walls of a castle. This was meant to be the strongest and safest place.
  • The outer wall of a castle was called Bailey. This was where buildings for the castle's cattle, horses and servants lived. Some of the soldiers needed to defend the castle might live in part of the gatehouse known as the Barbican.
    • Garth Holman
      What is a siege? 
    • mluxenburg m
      A Siege is an Attack on a castle.
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  • There were kitchens and pantries where food was stored for everyday preparation. The Great Hall and the bedchambers were there too.
  • The Great Hall
  • The Bedchamber
  • Kitchen
  • A wealthy knight, his family and guests ate well. Unlike most people, they had plenty of meat like deer, goose and rabbit. On Fridays and Holy Days meat was forbidden by the church, so they ate fish or eels. If there was a special feast, the people working in the kitchens would prepare wild boar, roast swan, or even roast peacock, served with all its feathers as decoration. Some of these would be caught by the lord of the castle and his friends while out hunting with their hawks.
  • Many castles had stone toilets built over holes in the outer walls. These emptied into a pit way below.
  • Medieval castles did not have running water, yet people did like to bathe at least once a year. In some castles there was a room next to the kitchen where they bathed in groups. The lord might have hot water brought to his bedchamber and poured into a big wooden tub, where he sat on a low stool in. The water might have perfume or rose leaves sprinkled in it. Soap was made of sheep fat with ashes and soda. Teeth were cleaned by scraping them with a hazel twig and rubbing them with a woollen cloth.
    • Garth Holman
Garth Holman

Medieval Castles and Sieges - YouTube - 0 views

    How are castles built to protect people?
Garth Holman

The Siege of Kaffa and the Black Death - History in an HourHistory in an Hour - 0 views

  • Between 1347 and 1350, the Black Death raged through Medieval Europe. Historians and biologists have traced the origins of this deadly pandemic to the remote steppes of Central Asia. Plague had certainly erupted there by 1331 but how exactly did it spread from East to West? After ravaging Central Asia, the plague descended on China, India and Persia. In China alone, the plague killed around half of the human population. Despite such destruction, commercial activities continued unabated. This meant that the traders, their vessels and the rats aboard became the agents of infection. As they travelled along the established trade routes of the medieval world, they unwittingly carried the plague with them.
  • For several years, the Mongols had allowed a group of merchants from Genoa to control Kaffa, a bustling seaport on the Crimean Peninsula. This was highly advantageous for the Mongols as it provided a direct link to Italy’s largest commercial centre and encouraged trade across all corners of their vast empire. Tensions and disagreements, however, were a common feature of this commercial relationship, arising primarily from their religious differences; the Italians were devoutly Christian and the Mongols had been practising Muslims since the 1200s.
  • ‘This Pestilential Disease’
  • ...2 more annotations...
  • “Whereupon the Tartars (Mongols), worn out by this pestilential disease, and falling on all sides as if thunderstruck, and seeing that they were perishing hopelessly, ordered the corpses to be placed upon their engines and thrown into the city of Kaffa. Accordingly were the bodies of the dead hurled over the walls, so that the Christians were not able to hide or protect themselves from this danger, although they carried away as many as possible and threw them into the sea.”
  • summer of 1347, the Italian merchants headed to their ships and the fled the city of Kaffa. En route, however, the Italians stopped at Constantinople, inadvertently infecting the city. Thousands of people were killed, including Andronikos, the son of the Greek Emperor, John VI Cantacuzenos. Those who were able fled the city, many not realising that they were already infected. By the autumn, the western coast of Asia Minor was experiencing the full force of the Black Death and it would not be long before returned home to infect their native Italy.
    Mongols, Kaffa, trade and the Black Death .
Swathi S

King Richard the Lionheart - 0 views

  • Richard on the Third Crusad
  • Richard on the Third Crusade
  • Richard's tactics ensured success at the siege of Acre and on the subsequent march south, Saladin's men being unable to harass the Crusader army into an impulsive action which might not have gone their way.
  • ...5 more annotations...
  • the desertion of the French king had been a major blow, from which they could not hope to recover
  • Realising that he had no hope of holding Jerusalem even if he took it, Richard sadly ordered a retreat.
  • Richard I (September 8, 1157 – April 6, 1199) was King of England from 1189 to 1199. He was often referred to as Richard the Lionheart
  • sons of Henry II
  • Richard had limited respect for his father and lacked foresight and a sense of responsibility
    This is a really good site about King Richard the Lionhearted. It tells about his personal life and his attempts to seize Jerusalem.
Zoe w

Middle Ages for Kids - Medieval Castles - 0 views

  • The Keep: One of the largest spaces behind the thick walls was the keep. The keep was a storage area topped by a huge square tower with slotted windows for castle archers to use. The keep stored food, wine, and grain in case of siege.
    Really good website to find some vocabulary and questions about the castle.
Garth Holman

The Third Crusade - 1 views

  • He raised money for the enterprise bythe persecution and robbery of the Jewsthe imposition of an unusual tax upon all classesthe sale of offices, dignities, and the royal lands
  • The knightly adventures and chivalrous exploits which mark the career of Richard in the Holy Land read like a romance.
  • At one time, when Richard was sick with a fever, Saladin, knowing that he was poorly supplied with delicacies, sent him a gift of the choicest fruits of the land.
  • ...3 more annotations...
  • And on another occasion, Richard's horse having been killed in battle, the sultan caused a fine Arabian steed to be led to the Christian camp as a present for his rival.
  • King Richard on his return from the Holy Land was shipwrecked off the coast of the Adriatic. Attempting to travel through Austria in disguise, he was captured by the duke of Austria, whom he had offended at the siege of Acre. The king regained his liberty only by paying a ransom equivalent to more than twice the annual revenues of England.
    • Garth Holman
      Twice the annual revenues to buy the Kings freedom!  This is going to cause some serious problems back home in England. 

NOVA Online | Secrets of Lost Empires | Medieval Siege | Life in a Castle - 2 views

  • most important figure in the daily life of a castle was the constable. His job was to look after the castle,
  • the lord was not usually at home.
  • on the floors were rushes with dogs rolling around with scraps of meat and bones and such.
  • ...10 more annotations...
  • Perhaps some carpets hung on the walls, but
  • oilets, or garderobes as they were called, usually were situated so that they opened over the moat.
  • An awful lot of life in a castle went on in the great hall. There was a fire and shelter in the hall. People ate and slept in the great hall. Very often, certainly in smaller castles, before sophisticated domestic arrangements evolved, you would have found the lord and lady sleeping at one end of the great hall in a sort of screened-off area. So medieval men and women didn't have much privacy.
  • medieval men didn't really bathe terribly often. People might have wiped their hands and faces from time to time.
  • lords and ladies would have been slightly cleaner and sweeter-smelling than most of their subordinates.
  • If you were a lord or lady, if you were the constable or the constable's lady, then you would have had a private room.
  • Very often in the great hall there was a central fire. Later on there were proper fireplaces, but a central fire with a hole in the roof was standard.
  • He had a number of people who worked beneath him. There was the garrison, whose members vary in status, including knights, men-at-arms, archers, and engineers. You also had grooms, watchmen, porters, cooks, and scullions, who did all the washing up in the kitchen.
  • So the constable was the person whose job it was to look after the castle in the lord's absence.
  • private fortress. Most of the time the castle operated as a small, large, or medium-sized household.
    Quest 7
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