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Garth Holman

Feudal Justice - 6 views

  • Feudal Justice - Judicial Administration
  • Feudalism - A system of Feudal Justice
  • Feudal Justice - The Oath
  • ...6 more annotations...
  • Feudal Justice - The Ordeals
  • Feudal Justice - The Judicial Duel
  • The law followed in a feudal court was largely based on old Germanic customs. The court did not act in the public interest, as with us, but waited until the plaintiff requested service. Moreover, until the case had been decided, the accuser and the accused received the same treatment. Both were imprisoned; and the plaintiff who lost his case suffered the same penalty which the defendant, had he been found guilty, would have undergone.
  • The burden of proof lay on the accused, who had to clear himself of the charge, if he could do so.
  • Ordeals, however, formed a method of appealing to God, the results of which could be immediately observed. A common form of ordeal was by fire. The accused walked barefoot over live brands, or stuck his hand into a flame, or carried a piece of red-hot iron for a certain distance. In the ordeal by hot water he plunged his arm into boiling water. A man established his innocence through one of these tests, if the wound healed properly after three days. The ordeal by cold water rested on the belief that pure water would reject the criminal. Hence the accused was thrown bound into a stream: if he floated he was guilty; if he sank he was innocent and had to be rescued. Though a crude method of securing justice, ordeals were doubtless useful in many instances. The real culprit would often prefer to confess, rather than incur the anger of God by submitting to the test and ordeals.
  • a trial by combat.
  •  
    How the justice system worked in the middle ages.
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    nice sight
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    sorry site the site helped me with answers in the blogs but i probably didn't read enough still studying!
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    This talks about the individual rights of people
Garth Holman

Feudal Justice - 1 views

  • it was also a system of local justice.
  • right of jurisdiction gave judicial power to the nobles and lords in cases arising in their domains and had no appeal but the King himself.
  • Knights, barons, and dukes had their separate courts, and the king had his court above all.
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  • Since most wrongs could be atoned for by the payment of a fine
    • Garth Holman
       
      Does this mean that Nobles used the "courts" as a way to make money? 
  • he court did not act in the public interest, as with us, but waited until the plaintiff requested service. Moreover, until the case had been decided, the accuser and the accused received the same treatment. Both were imprisoned; and the plaintiff who lost his case suffered the same penalty which the defendant, had he been found guilty, would have undergone.
  • not require the accuser to prove his case by calling witnesses and having them give testimony. The burden of proof lay on the accused, who had to clear himself of the charge,
  • Feudal Justice - The Ordeals
  • Ordeals, however, formed a method of appealing to God, the results of which could be immediately observed.
  • A form of trial which especially appealed to the warlike nobles was the judicial duel - a trial by combat. The accuser and the accused fought with each other; and the conqueror won the case. God, it was believed, would give victory to the innocent party, because he had right on his side.
  •  
    How did justice work in Feudal Europe?  Did they have Police? Courts? Rights? 
Garth Holman

Socrates - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia - 0 views

  • Socrates has become renowned for his contribution to the field of ethics, and it is this Platonic Socrates who lends his name to the concepts of Socratic irony and the Socratic method,
  • and is a type of pedagogy in which a series of questions is asked not only to draw individual answers, but also to encourage fundamental insight into the issue at hand.
  • Socrates appears to have been a critic of democracy,[15] and some scholars interpret his trial as an expression of political infighting.[16] Claiming loyalty to his city, Socrates clashed with the current course of Athenian politics and society.[17] He praises Sparta, archrival to Athens, directly and indirectly in various dialogues. One of Socrates' purported offenses to the city was his position as a social and moral critic. Rather than upholding a status quo and accepting the development of what he perceived as immorality within his region, Socrates questioned the collective notion of "might makes right" that he felt was common in Greece during this period. Plato refers to Socrates as the "gadfly" of the state (as the gadfly stings the horse into action, so Socrates stung various Athenians), insofar as he irritated some people with considerations of justice and the pursuit of goodness.[18] His attempts to improve the Athenians' sense of justice may have been the cause of his execution.
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  • Socrates initially earned his living as a master stonecutter.
  • Socrates had an opportunity to escape, as his followers were able to bribe the prison guards. He chose to stay for several reasons: He believed such a flight would indicate a fear of death, which he believed no true philosopher has. If he fled Athens his teaching would fare no better in another country, as he would continue questioning all he met and undoubtedly incur their displeasure. Having knowingly agreed to live under the city's laws, he implicitly subjected himself to the possibility of being accused of crimes by its citizens and judged guilty by its jury. To do otherwise would have caused him to break his "social contract" with the state, and so harm the state, an unprincipled act. The full reasoning behind his refusal to flee is the main subject of the Crito.
  • found guilty of both corrupting the minds of the youth of Athens and of impiety ("not believing in the gods of the state"),[20] and subsequently sentenced to death by drinking a mixture containing poison hemlock.
  • After drinking the poison, he was instructed to walk around until his legs felt numb. After he lay down, the man who administered the poison pinched his foot; Socrates could no longer feel his legs. The numbness slowly crept up his body until it reached his heart. Shortly before his death, Socrates speaks his last words to Crito: "Crito, we owe a rooster to Asclepius. Please, don't forget to pay the debt."
  • and freedom, of the soul from the body.
  • dialectic method of inquiry, known as the Socratic method or method of "elenchus", which he largely applied to the examination of key moral concepts such as the Good and Justice. It was first described by Plato in the Socratic Dialogues. To solve a problem, it would be broken down into a series of questions, the answers to which gradually distill the answer a person would seek. The influence of this approach is most strongly felt today in the use of the scientific method, in which hypothesis is the first stage. The development and practice of this method is one of Socrates' most enduring contributions, and is a key factor in earning his mantle as the father of political philosophy, ethics or moral philosophy, and as a figurehead of all the central themes in Western philosophy.
  • One of the best known sayings of Socrates is "I only know that I know nothing". The conventional interpretation of this remark is that Socrates' wisdom was limited to an awareness of his own ignorance. Socrates believed wrongdoing was a consequence of ignorance and those who did wrong knew no better.
  • Socrates believed the best way for people to live was to focus on self-development rather than the pursuit of material wealth.[citation needed] He always invited others to try to concentrate more on friendships and a sense of true community, for Socrates felt this was the best way for people to grow together as a populace
dcs-armstrong

Checks and Balances - 0 views

    • dcs-armstrong
       
      The Constitution is the United States version of "Civil Law" 
    • dcs-armstrong
       
      The Constitution is the United States version of "Civil Law" 
  • hat was an important decision because it gave specific powers to each branch and set up something called checks and balances.
  • point of checks and balances was to make sure no one branch would be able to control too much power, and it created a separation of powers
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  • some examples of how the different branches work together:
  • legislative branch makes laws
  • President in the executive branch can veto those laws
  • legislative branch makes laws
  • judicial branch can declare those laws unconstitutional.
  • President in the executive branch can veto a law,
  • legislative branch can override that veto with enough votes.
  • egislative branch has the power to approve Presidential nominations
  • control the budget
  • and can impeach the President and remove him or her from office.
  • executive branch can declare Executive Orders, which are like proclamations that carry the force of law
  • judicial branch can declare those acts unconstitutional.
  • judicial branch interprets laws
  • President nominates Supreme Court justices,
  • who make the evaluations.
    • dcs-armstrong
       
      The Judicial branch interprets laws, but the President appoints Supreme Court Justices (judges). The judges that the President appoints are the people who interpret the law.
    • dcs-armstrong
       
      The Judicial branch interprets laws, but the President appoints Supreme Court Justices (judges). The judges that the President appoints are the people who interpret the law.
  • judicial branch interprets laws
  • enate in the legislative branch confirms the President’s nominations for judicial positions
  • Congress can impeach any of those judges and remove them from office
  • Constitution divided the Government into three branches
Kalina P

Watergate Scandal - History.com Articles, Video, Pictures and Facts - 1 views

shared by Kalina P on 10 Oct 12 - No Cached
  • Some of Nixon’s aides were not so lucky: They w
  • Vietnam War (1955-1975) and deeply divided internally
  • forceful presidential campaign seemed essential to the president and some of his key advisers. Their aggressive tactics included what turned out to be illegal espionage.
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  • stole copies of top-secret documents and bugged the office’s phones.
  • As the prowlers were preparing to break into the office with a new microphone, a security guard noticed that they had taped the building’s lock
  • August, Nixon gave a speech in which he swore that his White House staff was not involved in the break-in. Most voters believed him, and in November the president was reelected in a landslide.
  • provide hundreds of thousands of dollars in “hush money” to the burglars.
  • abuse of presidential power and a deliberate obstruction of justice
  • Early in 1974, the cover-up began to fall apart. On March 1, a grand jury appointed by a new special prosecutor indicted seven of Nixon’s former aides on various charges related to the Watergate affair. The jury, unsure if they could indict a sitting president, called Nixon an “unindicted co-conspirator.” 
  • s voted to impeach him for obstruction of justice, abuse of power, criminal cover-up and several violations of the Constitution. Finally, on August 5, Nixon released the tapes, which provided undeniable evidence of his complicity in the Watergate crime
  • Some of Nixon’s aides were not so lucky: They w
  • he pardoned Nixon for any crimes he had committed while in office. Some of Nixon’s aides were not so lucky: They w
  • Some of Nixon’s aides were not so lucky: They
Garth Holman

Treasures in full: Magna Carta - the basics - 2 views

  • In the fourteenth century Parliament saw it as guaranteeing trial by jury. Sir Edward Coke interpreted it as a declaration of individual liberty in his conflict with the early Stuart kings and it has resonant echoes in the American Bill of Rights and the Universal Declaration of Human Rights.
  • But the real legacy of Magna Carta as a whole is that it limited the king's authority by establishing the crucial principle that the law was a power in its own right to which the king was subject.
    • Garth Holman
       
      King has to be LEX REX now.  Things have changed. 
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  • wrote in medieval Latin
  • If you go over to the interactive in the opposite corner of the room you can use its magic magnifier to look at the Latin text in detail as well as an English translation.
  • written on parchment, not on paper.
  • Three of the four surviving copies of Magna Carta have lost their wax seals over the centuries. The only one which still has its seal is the burnt copy on display here. Unfortunately the seal was destroyed when the charter was burnt by fire in 1731,
  • It was King John’s excessive and arbitrary exploitation of his feudal rights, and his abuse of the justice system, which more than anything else had fuelled the barons’ rebellion in the first place.
  • hese are the first clause guaranteeing the liberties of the English Church; the clause confirming the privileges of the city of London and other towns; and the most famous clause of all which states that no free man shall be imprisoned, dispossessed, outlawed or exiled without the lawful judgement of his equals or by the law of the land.
  • English king to set detailed limits on royal authority.
  • statement of liberties
  • king was subject to the law, not above it.
Garth Holman

Intro to the Medieval Era - 1 views

  • The Medieval Era, often called The Middle Ages or the Dark Ages, began just before 500 A.D. following a great loss of power throughout Europe by the Roman Emperor. The Middle Ages span roughly 1,000 years, ending around 1450 A.D. (Medieval actually means "Middle"!) In The Middle Ages people were busy: Building great Cathedrals as there was a huge rise in Christianity Building Great castles for local nobility Clearing large tracts of land by peasants and slaves for their Lords and Kings New towns and villages were popping up all over Europe
  • esulting in the foundation of many of today's modern European countries.
  • For safety and for defense, people formed small communities around a central Lord or Master. Most lived on a Manor, which consisted of the Castle, the Church, the Village, and the surrounding Farm Land. These Manors were isolated, with only occasional visits from peddlers or pilgrims on their way to the Crusades or soldiers from other fiefdoms (kingdoms).
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  • Feudalism ~ The King awarded land grants to his most important nobles, like Barons and Bishops, in return for their contribution of soldiers for the King's armies. Lords could have a variety of other official titles including Earl, Marquis or Viscount. Lords did more than fund wars. They were the local justice and held court for local matters. Lords provided some of their land to Vassals, or tenants who were a somewhat higher class than peasants. Vassals were required to serve guard duty, and later they paid a fee to acquire mercenaries (soldiers-for-hire).  At the lowest class of society were the Peasants, also called "serfs" or "villeins." Peasants provided the Lord with labor or a share of the produce or livestock yielded from his lands in exchange for protection, land to work and a place to live.
  •  
    This page of the site is good.
Garth Holman

Why Magna Carta matters | BBC History Magazine - 0 views

  • The making of Magna Carta was a turning point in English constitutional history. The charter’s great achievement was to place the monarchy – the executive power – under the law.
  • and the law. Some thinkers of the time said that the king was above the law: that he made the law and he enforced it, but he was not actually bound by it himself.
  • In England the king is below God and below the law."
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  • The two most famous clauses of the charter, numbers 39 and 40, still resonate across the centuries. Clause 39 says that no free man shall be arrested, imprisoned or dispossessed of his lands without judgment of his peers or against the law of the land. Clause 40 says that to no free man will right or justice be delayed or denied.  
  • due process of law
  • unjust ruler and affirming principles of universal validity that still hold true today.
  • It is also an inspiration in that it encourages us to champion those same principles, to be vigilant in our defence of due process, and to assist those in less favoured lands who are fighting for the kind of freedoms that we, as a result of Magna Carta, take for granted.
  • The question then arises of what we think is the best way of preserving the rights of the individual against the state in future. Do we perhaps need a new Magna Carta, a bill of rights, to protect us from growing executive power and the flood of legislation pouring in from Europe?
    • Garth Holman
       
      We see this in the United States Bill of Rights.  What number is it?  
Garth Holman

Preamble and Articles of the Magna Carta (1215) - 0 views

  • Only those Articles pertaining to today’s constitutional guarantees under the Canadian Charter of Rights and Freedoms, 1867 to 1997, the Constitution of the United States of America and other relevant statutes are reproduced herein Ed.
    • Garth Holman
       
      Article 1:  In the common words: the Church and State are to be two groups, not one. separation of Church and State   
  • that the English Church shall be free,3 a
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  • Common pleas1 shall not follow our court but shall be held in some fixed place
    • Garth Holman
       
      What does this mean? 
  • A freeman shall not be amerced10 for a small offence, except in accordance with the degree of the offence and for a grave offence he shall be amerced according to its gravity,
    • Garth Holman
       
      The punishment of the crime should be fair for the crime committed.  Fairness of the courts..
  • Let there be throughout our kingdom a single measure for wine and a single measure for ale and a single measure for corn, namely "the London quarter," and a single width of cloth (whether dyed, russet
    • Garth Holman
       
      Use the same weights and measure everyone, so people are treated fairly.  Look at a gas pump next time you parents fill up do you see this? 
  • In future no official shall put anyone to trial merely on his own testimony, without reliable witnesses produced for this purpose.
    • Garth Holman
       
      Need for evidence against someone, not just the persons own words. 
  • 39.       No freeman shall be arrested or imprisoned or deprived of his freehold or outlawed or banished or in any way ruined, nor will we take or order action against him, except by the lawful judgment of his equals and according to the law of the land.
    • Garth Holman
       
      The big one: The right of A writ of habeas corpus (English pronunciation: /ˌheɪbiəs ˈkɔrpəs/; Latin: "you may have the body") is a writ (court order) that requires a person under arrest to be brought before a judge or into court.[1][2] The principle of habeas corpus ensures that a prisoner can be released from unlawful detention-that is, detention lacking sufficient cause or evidence.  See link: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Habeas_corpus
  • To no one will we sell, to no one will we refuse or delay right or justice.
  • Wherefore we wish and firmly order that the English Church shall be free, and the men in our kingdom shall have and hold all the aforesaid privileges, rights and concessions well and peacefully, freely and quietly, fully and completely for themselves and their heirs from us and our heirs in all things and places for ever as is aforesaid. Moreover an oath has been taken, as well on our part as on the part of the barons, that all these things aforesaid shall be observed in good faith and without any evil intention. As witness the above-mentioned and many others. Given under our hand in the meadow which is called Runnymede (Ronimed) between Windsor and Staines on the fifteenth day of June in the seventeenth year of our reign. 
    • Garth Holman
       
      We establish a free church and provide for the rights and privileges of the people.  The king and nobles (barons) agree to this and our children, children will have these rights. 
Garth Holman

Featured Document: The Magna Carta - 0 views

  • "The democratic aspiration is no mere recent phase in human history . . . It was written in Magna Carta." --Franklin Delano Roosevelt, 1941 Inaugural addres
  • On June 15, 1215, in a field at Runnymede, King John affixed his seal to Magna Carta. Confronted by 40 rebellious barons, he consented to their demands in order to avert civil war.
  • Magna Carta was written by a group of 13th-century barons to protect their rights and property against a tyrannical king. It is concerned with many practical matters and specific grievances relevant to the feudal system under which they lived. T
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  • "No freeman shall be taken, imprisoned, disseised, outlawed, banished, or in any way destroyed, nor will We proceed against or prosecute him, except by the lawful judgment of his peers or by the law of the land." "To no one will We sell, to no one will We deny or delay, right or justice."
    • Garth Holman
       
      This refers to Habeas Corpus?  What does that mean?  How is it seen in the United States? 
  • During the American Revolution, Magna Carta served to inspire and justify action in liberty’s defense. The colonists believed they were entitled to the same rights as Englishmen, rights guaranteed in Magna Carta. They embedded those rights into the laws of their states and later into the Constitution and Bill of Rights. The Fifth Amendment to the Constitution ("no person shall . . . be deprived of life, liberty, or property, without due process of law.") is a direct descendent of Magna Carta's guarantee of proceedings according to the "law of the land."
    • Garth Holman
       
       What links here are worth your time ?
  •  
    Up close images and key facts.
Garth Holman

Why the Magna Carta Is Considered Important to the US - 1 views

    • Garth Holman
       
      He was coerced by having the army's of the Barons or nobles encircled London and threatened to burn it to the ground. 
  • constitutional text and one of the most important documents on the path to democracy.
  • was that the Founding Fathers used many of the principles first codified in the Magna Carta.
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  • document's part in guaranteeing basic rights and freedoms for the English.
  • With the Magna Carta, the king, for the first time, was not allowed to be above the law
  • he had to respect the rule of law and not abuse his position as king.
  • upon lawful judgment by a jury
  • Justice could not be sold, denied, or delayed.
    • Garth Holman
       
      A formal meeting place and time for members of the council.  It make the meetings regular and structured. 
  • the king himself was placed under the law of the land.
  • or Great Charter, was created in 1215 in England
  • Why is the Magna Carta seen as a key document in the founding of the US?
  • wage war, King John imposed heavy taxes on his subjects
  • King John was coerced into signing the Charter which protected some of their basic rights against royal actions.
Garth Holman

Coronation Oath, 2nd June 1953 - 0 views

  • Madam, is your Majesty willing to take the Oath?And the Queen answering,I am willing.
  • Archbishop. Will you solemnly promise and swear to govern the Peoples of the United Kingdom
  • and of your Possessions and the other Territories to any of them belonging or pertaining, according to their respective laws and customs?
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  • I solemnly promise so to do.Archbishop. Will you to your power cause Law and Justice, in Mercy, to be executed in all your judgements?Queen. I will.
  • Archbishop. Will you to the utmost of your power maintain the Laws of God and the true profession of the Gospel? Will you to the utmost of your power maintain in the United Kingdom the Protestant Reformed Religion established by law? Will you maintain and preserve inviolably the settlement of the Church of England, and the doctrine, worship, discipline, and government thereof, as by law established in England? And will you preserve unto the Bishops and Clergy of England, and to the Churches there committed to their charge, all such rights and privileges, as by law do or shall appertain to them or any of them?
  • Queen. All this I promise to do.
  • The things which I have here before promised, I will perform and keep. So help me God.
Garth Holman

LAW IN THE MIDDLE AGES - 3 views

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    Trial by battles, ordeals and the Courts (church, manor and royal) 
Garth Holman

The Middle Ages | Feudalism - 3 views

  • The ideal knight was chivalrous when he possessed these virtues and qualities: Live to serve his king and his country Avoid lying, cheating or torture Believe in justice for all Respect women Avenge wrongs
  •  
    Chivalry key ideas in it.  
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