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dcs-armstrong

Magna Carta and Tax Reform | Tax Foundation - 1 views

  • The Declaration of Independence asserts that governments “deriv[e] their just powers from the consent of the governed,” distilling concepts invoked by Locke and earlier English political reformers. For the English-speaking world, however, the germ of that concept can be found in Magna Carta. At the time, feudal barons could be required to provide what was known as “scutage,” essentially a fee in lieu of personal service typically used to hire mercenaries to fight the king’s wars. Other aid levies were also common. King John, however, was perceived as abusing the system, imposing unusually high levies and doing so even in the absence of war. Magna Carta introduced a revolutionary innovation: the idea that the power to tax was in some way limited by general consent. Still, it being the year 1215, there were some loopholes: No scutage not aid shall be imposed on our kingdom, unless by common counsel [alt. "general consent"] of our kingdom, except for ransoming our person, for making our eldest son a knight, and for once marrying our eldest daughter; and for these there shall not be levied more than a reasonable aid…
Garth Holman

Magna Carta 1215 - 1 views

  • was forced into signing
  • formation of a powerful parliament
  • The purpose of the Magna Carta was to curb the King
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  • The Church - The Church was to be free from royal interference, especially in the election of bishopsTaxes - No taxes except the regular feudal dues were to be levied, except by the consent of the Great Council, or ParliamentThe right to due process which led to Trial by JuryWeights and Measures - All weights and measures to be kept uniform throughout the realm
  • "That no freeman ought to be taken, or imprisoned, or disseized of his freehold, liberties, or privileges, or outlawed, or exiled, or in any manner destroyed, or deprived of his life, liberty, or property, but by the judgment of his peers, or by the law of the land."
  • The Magna Carta demonstrated that the power of the king could be limited by a written grant.
    • Garth Holman
       
      The Parliament: "After the death of King John, his son Henry III began to rule on the throne of England. King Henry III expanded the council of his advisors to include certain members of the clergy and important members of the various cities and towns. This great council began to be known as Parliament."   KINDA LIKE OUR HOUSE AND SENATE--Groups that advises the main leader or checks him. 
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    See summary of Magna Carta for four major ideas found in the Magna Carta that limited the power of the King. 
Garth Holman

Preamble and Articles of the Magna Carta (1215) - 0 views

  • Only those Articles pertaining to today’s constitutional guarantees under the Canadian Charter of Rights and Freedoms, 1867 to 1997, the Constitution of the United States of America and other relevant statutes are reproduced herein Ed.
    • Garth Holman
       
      Article 1:  In the common words: the Church and State are to be two groups, not one. separation of Church and State   
  • that the English Church shall be free,3 a
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  • Common pleas1 shall not follow our court but shall be held in some fixed place
    • Garth Holman
       
      What does this mean? 
  • A freeman shall not be amerced10 for a small offence, except in accordance with the degree of the offence and for a grave offence he shall be amerced according to its gravity,
    • Garth Holman
       
      The punishment of the crime should be fair for the crime committed.  Fairness of the courts..
  • Let there be throughout our kingdom a single measure for wine and a single measure for ale and a single measure for corn, namely "the London quarter," and a single width of cloth (whether dyed, russet
    • Garth Holman
       
      Use the same weights and measure everyone, so people are treated fairly.  Look at a gas pump next time you parents fill up do you see this? 
  • In future no official shall put anyone to trial merely on his own testimony, without reliable witnesses produced for this purpose.
    • Garth Holman
       
      Need for evidence against someone, not just the persons own words. 
  • 39.       No freeman shall be arrested or imprisoned or deprived of his freehold or outlawed or banished or in any way ruined, nor will we take or order action against him, except by the lawful judgment of his equals and according to the law of the land.
    • Garth Holman
       
      The big one: The right of A writ of habeas corpus (English pronunciation: /ˌheɪbiəs ˈkɔrpəs/; Latin: "you may have the body") is a writ (court order) that requires a person under arrest to be brought before a judge or into court.[1][2] The principle of habeas corpus ensures that a prisoner can be released from unlawful detention-that is, detention lacking sufficient cause or evidence.  See link: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Habeas_corpus
  • To no one will we sell, to no one will we refuse or delay right or justice.
  • Wherefore we wish and firmly order that the English Church shall be free, and the men in our kingdom shall have and hold all the aforesaid privileges, rights and concessions well and peacefully, freely and quietly, fully and completely for themselves and their heirs from us and our heirs in all things and places for ever as is aforesaid. Moreover an oath has been taken, as well on our part as on the part of the barons, that all these things aforesaid shall be observed in good faith and without any evil intention. As witness the above-mentioned and many others. Given under our hand in the meadow which is called Runnymede (Ronimed) between Windsor and Staines on the fifteenth day of June in the seventeenth year of our reign. 
    • Garth Holman
       
      We establish a free church and provide for the rights and privileges of the people.  The king and nobles (barons) agree to this and our children, children will have these rights. 
Garth Holman

Internet History Sourcebooks Project - 0 views

  •  
    The text in English.
Garth Holman

Featured Document: The Magna Carta - 0 views

  • "The democratic aspiration is no mere recent phase in human history . . . It was written in Magna Carta." --Franklin Delano Roosevelt, 1941 Inaugural addres
  • On June 15, 1215, in a field at Runnymede, King John affixed his seal to Magna Carta. Confronted by 40 rebellious barons, he consented to their demands in order to avert civil war.
  • Magna Carta was written by a group of 13th-century barons to protect their rights and property against a tyrannical king. It is concerned with many practical matters and specific grievances relevant to the feudal system under which they lived. T
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  • "No freeman shall be taken, imprisoned, disseised, outlawed, banished, or in any way destroyed, nor will We proceed against or prosecute him, except by the lawful judgment of his peers or by the law of the land." "To no one will We sell, to no one will We deny or delay, right or justice."
    • Garth Holman
       
      This refers to Habeas Corpus?  What does that mean?  How is it seen in the United States? 
  • During the American Revolution, Magna Carta served to inspire and justify action in liberty’s defense. The colonists believed they were entitled to the same rights as Englishmen, rights guaranteed in Magna Carta. They embedded those rights into the laws of their states and later into the Constitution and Bill of Rights. The Fifth Amendment to the Constitution ("no person shall . . . be deprived of life, liberty, or property, without due process of law.") is a direct descendent of Magna Carta's guarantee of proceedings according to the "law of the land."
    • Garth Holman
       
       What links here are worth your time ?
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    Up close images and key facts.
Garth Holman

Dgh - Magna Carta - 0 views

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    This site needs to be edited and added to...very weak right now.  WHO will do it? 
Garth Holman

Why Magna Carta matters | BBC History Magazine - 0 views

  • The making of Magna Carta was a turning point in English constitutional history. The charter’s great achievement was to place the monarchy – the executive power – under the law.
  • and the law. Some thinkers of the time said that the king was above the law: that he made the law and he enforced it, but he was not actually bound by it himself.
  • In England the king is below God and below the law."
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  • The two most famous clauses of the charter, numbers 39 and 40, still resonate across the centuries. Clause 39 says that no free man shall be arrested, imprisoned or dispossessed of his lands without judgment of his peers or against the law of the land. Clause 40 says that to no free man will right or justice be delayed or denied.  
  • due process of law
  • unjust ruler and affirming principles of universal validity that still hold true today.
  • It is also an inspiration in that it encourages us to champion those same principles, to be vigilant in our defence of due process, and to assist those in less favoured lands who are fighting for the kind of freedoms that we, as a result of Magna Carta, take for granted.
  • The question then arises of what we think is the best way of preserving the rights of the individual against the state in future. Do we perhaps need a new Magna Carta, a bill of rights, to protect us from growing executive power and the flood of legislation pouring in from Europe?
    • Garth Holman
       
      We see this in the United States Bill of Rights.  What number is it?  
Garth Holman

Treasures in full: Magna Carta - the basics - 2 views

  • In the fourteenth century Parliament saw it as guaranteeing trial by jury. Sir Edward Coke interpreted it as a declaration of individual liberty in his conflict with the early Stuart kings and it has resonant echoes in the American Bill of Rights and the Universal Declaration of Human Rights.
  • But the real legacy of Magna Carta as a whole is that it limited the king's authority by establishing the crucial principle that the law was a power in its own right to which the king was subject.
    • Garth Holman
       
      King has to be LEX REX now.  Things have changed. 
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  • wrote in medieval Latin
  • If you go over to the interactive in the opposite corner of the room you can use its magic magnifier to look at the Latin text in detail as well as an English translation.
  • written on parchment, not on paper.
  • Three of the four surviving copies of Magna Carta have lost their wax seals over the centuries. The only one which still has its seal is the burnt copy on display here. Unfortunately the seal was destroyed when the charter was burnt by fire in 1731,
  • It was King John’s excessive and arbitrary exploitation of his feudal rights, and his abuse of the justice system, which more than anything else had fuelled the barons’ rebellion in the first place.
  • hese are the first clause guaranteeing the liberties of the English Church; the clause confirming the privileges of the city of London and other towns; and the most famous clause of all which states that no free man shall be imprisoned, dispossessed, outlawed or exiled without the lawful judgement of his equals or by the law of the land.
  • English king to set detailed limits on royal authority.
  • statement of liberties
  • king was subject to the law, not above it.
Livi E

Magna Carta 1215 - 2 views

  • document that King John of England (1166 - 1216) was forced into signing. King John was forced into signing the charter because it greatly reduced the power he held as the King of England and allowed for the formation of a powerful parliament.
  • curb the King and make him govern by the old English laws that had prevailed before the Normans came. The Magna Carta was a collection of 37 English laws - some copied, some recollected, some old and some new. The Magna Carta demonstrated that the power of the king could be limited by a written grant.
  • Copies of the Magna Carta were distributed to bishops, sheriffs and other important people throughout England.
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  • Great Charter
  • June 15, 1215
  • Runnymede
  • constitutional government in England. The Magna Carta demonstrated that the power of the king could be limited by a written grant.
  • The influence of Magna Carta can be seen in the United States Constitution and the Bill of Rights. Article 21 from the Declaration of Rights in the Maryland Constitution of 1776 reads:"That no freeman ought to be taken, or imprisoned, or disseized of his freehold, liberties, or privileges, or outlawed, or exiled, or in any manner destroyed, or deprived of his life, liberty, or property, but by the judgment of his peers, or by the law of the land."
  • The right to due process which led to Trial by Jury
  • Taxes - No taxes except the regular feudal dues were to be levied, except by the consent of the Great Council, or Parliament
  • The Church - The Church was to be free from royal interference, especially in the election of bishops
  • Weights and Measures - All weights and measures to be kept uniform throughout the realm
    • Shira H
       
      Great site for quest 9 has lots of information.
    • Livi E
       
      This part is good for question four on blog nine.
  • imposes taxes on the Barons in his attempts to regain the lost land
  • quarrels with the Barons over his methods of ruling England
  • make him govern by the old English laws that had prevailed before the Normans came.
  • Barons took up arms against King John
  • captured London
Yuke Z

The Middle Ages for Kids - King John and the Magna Carta - 0 views

  • Without an army behind him, some pretender would soon steal his throne. The king was furious about it, but he signed the Magna Carta.
  • desert him
  • They could seize his castles if he did not keep his word. 
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  • This made the archbishop furious. The archbishop called all the nobles together
  • He would promise anything to anybody, especially if there was money in it for him, but he soon broke his word.
  • King John was an English king. He was not a very pleasant person. He told lies.
  • discover that King John was breaking the law
  • King John promised he would do better.
  • he raised taxes again without consulting anyone.
  • they gathered a huge force of nobles at the town of Runnymede. They brought the king there.
  • parchment called the Magna Carta
  • if he did not sign, his nobles would
  • Most rights were already law.
  • The Magna Carta added new rights.
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