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Paul Merrell

Rapid - Press Releases - EUROPA - 0 views

  • MEMO/09/15 Brussels, 17th January 2009
  • The European Commission can confirm that it has sent a Statement of Objections (SO) to Microsoft on 15th January 2009. The SO outlines the Commission’s preliminary view that Microsoft’s tying of its web browser Internet Explorer to its dominant client PC operating system Windows infringes the EC Treaty rules on abuse of a dominant position (Article 82).
  • In the SO, the Commission sets out evidence and outlines its preliminary conclusion that Microsoft’s tying of Internet Explorer to the Windows operating system harms competition between web browsers, undermines product innovation and ultimately reduces consumer choice. The SO is based on the legal and economic principles established in the judgment of the Court of First Instance of 17 September 2007 (case T-201/04), in which the Court of First Instance upheld the Commission's decision of March 2004 (see IP/04/382), finding that Microsoft had abused its dominant position in the PC operating system market by tying Windows Media Player to its Windows PC operating system (see MEMO/07/359).
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  • The evidence gathered during the investigation leads the Commission to believe that the tying of Internet Explorer with Windows, which makes Internet Explorer available on 90% of the world's PCs, distorts competition on the merits between competing web browsers insofar as it provides Internet Explorer with an artificial distribution advantage which other web browsers are unable to match. The Commission is concerned that through the tying, Microsoft shields Internet Explorer from head to head competition with other browsers which is detrimental to the pace of product innovation and to the quality of products which consumers ultimately obtain. In addition, the Commission is concerned that the ubiquity of Internet Explorer creates artificial incentives for content providers and software developers to design websites or software primarily for Internet Explorer which ultimately risks undermining competition and innovation in the provision of services to consumers.
  • Microsoft has 8 weeks to reply the SO, and will then have the right to be heard in an Oral Hearing should it wish to do so. If the preliminary views expressed in the SO are confirmed, the Commission may impose a fine on Microsoft, require Microsoft to cease the abuse and impose a remedy that would restore genuine consumer choice and enable competition on the merits.
  • A Statement of Objections is a formal step in Commission antitrust investigations in which the Commission informs the parties concerned in writing of the objections raised against them. The addressee of a Statement of Objections can reply in writing to the Statement of Objections, setting out all facts known to it which are relevant to its defence against the objections raised by the Commission. The party may also request an oral hearing to present its comments on the case. The Commission may then take a decision on whether conduct addressed in the Statement of Objections is compatible or not with the EC Treaty’s antitrust rules. Sending a Statement of Objections does not prejudge the final outcome of the procedure. In the March 2004 Decision the Commission ordered Microsoft to offer to PC manufacturers a version of its Windows client PC operating system without Windows Media Player. Microsoft, however, retained the right to also offer a version with Windows Media Player (see IP/04/382).
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    It's official, hot off the presses (wasn't there a few minutes ago). We're now into a process where DG Competition will revisit its previous order requiring Microsoft to market two versions of Windows, one with Media Player and one without. DG Competition staff were considerably outraged that Microsoft took advantage of a bit of under-specification in the previous order and sold the two versions at the same price. That detail will not be neglected this time around. Moreover, given the ineffectiveness of the previous order in restoring competition among media players, don't be surprised if this results in an outright ban on bundling MSIE with Windows.
Paul Merrell

News - Antitrust - Competition - European Commission - 0 views

  • Google inquiries Commission accuses Google of systematically favouring own shopping comparison service Infographic: Google might be favouring 'Google Shopping' when displaying general search results
  • Antitrust: Commission sends Statement of Objections to Google on comparison shopping service; opens separate formal investigation on AndroidWed, 15 Apr 2015 10:00:00 GMTAntitrust: Commission opens formal investigation against Google in relation to Android mobile operating systemWed, 15 Apr 2015 10:00:00 GMTAntitrust: Commission sends Statement of Objections to Google on comparison shopping serviceWed, 15 Apr 2015 10:00:00 GMTStatement by Commissioner Vestager on antitrust decisions concerning GoogleWed, 15 Apr 2015 11:39:00 GMT
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    The more interesting issue to me is the accusation that Google violates antitrust law by boosting its comparison shopping search results in its search results, unfairly disadvantaging competing shopping services and not delivering best results to users. What's interesting to me is that the Commission is attempting to portray general search as a separate market from comparison shopping search, accusing Google of attempting to leverage its general search monopoly into the separate comoparison shopping search market. At first blush, Iim not convinced that these are or should be regarded as separable markets. But the ramifications are enormous. If that is a separate market, then arguably so is Google's book search, its Google Scholar search, its definition search, its site search, etc. It isn't clear to me how one might draw a defensible line taht does not also sweep in every new search feature  as a separate market.   
Gonzalo San Gil, PhD.

Internet wins: La neutralidad de la red vence en Europa | Xnet - 0 views

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    "Xnet y demás organizaciones tras la campaña SavetheInternet.eu celebran hoy la victoria de la neutralidad de la red. Con base en una primera lectura, las nuevas directrices del Organismo de Reguladores Europeos de Comunicaciones Electronicas (BEREC) confirman una protección fuerte para la neutralidad de la red, y para el internet abierto y libre, en la UE. Aquí el documento final de las directrices: http://berec.europa.eu/eng/document_register/subject_matter/berec/download/0/6160-berec-guidelines-on-the-implementation-b_0.pdf"
Gonzalo San Gil, PhD.

¿Por qué son necesarios los lobbies en Europa? - Presentaciones - Actividades - Laboratorio - Fundación Alternativas - 0 views

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    "22 julio 2014 El Laboratorio de la Fundación Alternativas publica ¿Cómo son los lobbies en Europa? , un nuevo documento de su colección Zoom Político , elaborado por el experto Jorge San Miguel, quien justifica/defiende el funcionamiento de este sector, que ha crecido en paralelo a la construcción europea y que sigue oscurecido a ojos de los ciudadanos."
Paul Merrell

Rapid - Press Releases - EUROPA - 0 views

  • Did the Commission co-operate with the United States on this case? The Commission and the United States Federal Trade Commission have kept each other regularly and closely informed on the state of play of their respective Intel investigations. These discussions have been held in a co-operative and friendly atmosphere, and have been substantively fruitful in terms of sharing experiences on issues of common interest.
  • Where does the money go? Once final judgment has been delivered in any appeals before the Court of First Instance (CFI) and the Court of Justice, the money goes into the EU’s central budget, thus reducing the contributions that Member States pay to the EU. Does Intel have to pay the fine if it appeals to the European Court of First Instance (CFI)? Yes. In case of appeals to the CFI, it is normal practice that the fine is paid into a blocked bank account pending the final outcome of the appeals process. Any fine that is provisionally paid will produce interest based on the interest rate applied by the European Central Bank to its main refinancing operations. In exceptional circumstances, companies may be allowed to cover the amount of the fine by a bank guarantee at a higher interest rate. What percentage of Intel's turnover does the fine represent? The fine represents 4.15 % of Intel's turnover in 2008. This is less than half the allowable maximum, which is 10% of a company's annual turnover.
  • How long is the Decision? The Decision is 542 pages long. When is the Decision going to be published? The Decision in English (the official language version of the Decision) will be made available as soon as possible on DG Competition’s website (once relevant business secrets have been taken out). French and German translations will also be made available on DG Competition’s website in due course. A summary of the Decision will be published in the EU's Official Journal L series in all languages (once the translations are available).
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    When available, the decision should appear at http://ec.europa.eu/competition/antitrust/cases/index/by_nr_75.html#i37_990
Paul Merrell

EU-US Personal Data Privacy Deal 'Cracked Beyond Repair' - 0 views

  • Privacy Shield is the proposed new deal between the EU and the US that is supposed to safeguard all personal data on EU citizens held on computer systems in the US from being subject to mass surveillance by the US National Security Agency. The data can refer to any transaction — web purchases, cars or clothing — involving an EU citizen whose data is held on US servers. Privacy groups say Privacy Shield — which replaces the Safe Harbor agreement ruled unlawful in October 2015 — does not meet strict EU standard on the use of personal data. Monique Goyens, Director General of the European Consumer Organization (BEUC) told Sputnik: “We consider that the shield is cracked beyond repair and is unlikely to stand scrutiny by the European Court of Justice. A fundamental problem remains that the US side of the shield is made of clay, not iron.”
  • The agreement has been under negotiation for months ever since the because the European Court of Justice ruled in October 2015 that the previous EU-US data agreement — Safe Harbor — was invalid. The issue arises from the strict EU laws — enshrined in the Charter of Fundamental Rights of the European Union — to the privacy of their personal data.
  • The Safe Harbor agreement was a quasi-judicial understanding that the US undertook to agree that it would ensure that EU citizens’ data on US servers would be held and protected under the same restrictions as it would be under EU law and directives. The data covers a huge array of information — from Internet and communications usage, to sales transactions, import and exports.
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  • The case arose when Maximillian Schrems, a Facebook user, lodged a complaint with the Irish Data Protection Commissioner, arguing that — in the light of the revelations by ex-CIA contractor Edward Snowden of mass surveillance by the US National Security Agency (NSA) — the transfer of data from Facebook’s Irish subsidiary onto the company’s servers in the US does not provide sufficient protection of his personal data. The court ruled that: “the Safe Harbor Decision denies the national supervisory authorities their powers where a person calls into question whether the decision is compatible with the protection of the privacy and of the fundamental rights and freedoms of individuals.”
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    Off we go for another trip to the European Court of Justice.
Paul Merrell

EU/Antitrust cases from 39514 to 39592 - 0 views

  • COMP/39.530 - Microsoft (Tying) Microsoft 14.01.2008 MemoAntitrust: Commission initiates formal investigations against Microsoft in two cases of suspected abuse of dominant market position 14.01.2008 Opening of Proceedings Concerns economic activity: C33.2
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    When the DG Competition statement of objections regarding the tying of MSIE to Windows appears, it should appear here, under COMP/39.530.
Gonzalo San Gil, PhD.

EUROPA - Press Releases - Digital Agenda: Commission opens public consultation on preservation of the open internet (net neutrality) - 0 views

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    [The European Commission is today launching a public consultation seeking answers to questions on transparency, switching and certain aspects of internet traffic management, with a view to its commitment to preserve the open and neutral character of the Internet. These questions have emerged as key issues in the "net neutrality" debate that has taken place in Europe over the past years, including the recent findings of the Body of European Regulators of European Communications (BEREC). ...]
Gonzalo San Gil, PhD.

Agenda Digital para Europa | EUR-Lex - 52010DC0245 - ES - 1 views

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    Europe's Digital Agenda 2013
Gonzalo San Gil, PhD.

De Microsoft a Google pasando por Amazon: la guerra digital de Europa contra los gigantes de EE.UU. - 0 views

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    " La Comisión Europea acusa a Google de abuso de posición dominante con Android, pero no es la única empresa que ha estado en su punto de mira "
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    " La Comisión Europea acusa a Google de abuso de posición dominante con Android, pero no es la única empresa que ha estado en su punto de mira "
Gonzalo San Gil, PhD.

El 42% de los jóvenes europeos ve "aceptable" descargar contenidos protegidos | Tecnología | EL PAÍS - 0 views

    • Gonzalo San Gil, PhD.
       
      # vía Francisco Manuel Hernández Sosa... # Indeed (El Informe per sé...) https://oami.europa.eu/tunnel-web/secure/webdav/guest/document_library/observatory/documents/IPContributionStudy/25-11-2013/european_public_opinion_study_web.pdf
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    https://oami.europa.eu/tunnel-web/secure/webdav/guest/document_library/observatory/documents/IPContributionStudy/25-11-2013/european_public_opinion_study_web.pdf
Gonzalo San Gil, PhD.

EUROPA - PRESS RELEASES - Press release - Lack of choice driving demand for film downloads - 0 views

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    "Lack of choice driving demand for film downloads Nearly 70% of Europeans download or stream films for free, whether legally or illegally, according to a new European Commission study on audience behaviour. It also finds that 40% of smartphone owners and more than 60% of tablet owners watch films on their devices. The study finds that this is not surprising because, while the public takes a lot of interest in films as a whole, the nearest cinema is often some distance from them and the choice on screen is frequently rather limited. It suggests that the European film industry can increase revenues by exploiting different types of profit-making online platforms to increase the availability of films and reach new audiences. The audience behaviour study is based on research, analysis and interviews with audiences in 10 Member States - the UK, France, Italy, Spain, Germany, Poland, Croatia, Romania, Lithuania and Denmark. Nearly 5 000 people aged from 4-50 were asked about their film habits and preferences."
Gonzalo San Gil, PhD.

La Jornada: Agencias europeas, implicadas en el espionaje de EU: ex director de la NSA - 0 views

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    "Periódico La Jornada Domingo 21 de julio de 2013, p. 25 Berlín, 20 de julio. Pese a las quejas desatadas en Europa por el programa estadunidense de vigilancia PRISM, son cada vez más los indicios de que también los servicios europeos estaban implicados en el espionaje, como confirmó el general Michael Hayden, ex director de la Agencia Nacional de Inteligencia (NSA, por sus siglas en inglés)."
Gonzalo San Gil, PhD.

Así es la reforma del copyright en Europa que regulará el acceso al contenido digital - 0 views

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    "La reforma de la Ley de Propiedad Intelectual Europea ya está en marcha. La Comisión Europea quiere que antes del final del 2015 lleguen las propuestas legislativas concretas sobre este ámbito que tantos quebraderos de cabeza ha dado últimamente."
Gonzalo San Gil, PhD.

La 'mala leche' llega a Europa [nota para FB share...] - 0 views

    • Gonzalo San Gil, PhD.
       
      # ! Aparte de que la leche es bastante mala para la salud a partir de cierta edad, http://www.cuerpoymente.es/medicina-natural/349-31-motivos-para-no-ingerir-lacteos-sorprendete las implicaciones del TTIP van mucho más lejos que de los intangibles como la Cultura...
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    [Los agricultores europeos se reúnen en Bruselas ante las instituciones europeas para protestar contra el TTIP y los precios de la leche. ...]
Gonzalo San Gil, PhD.

Europa: copias en caché no violan derechos de autor - FayerWayer - 0 views

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    " Compartido164Veces La decisión del Tribunal de Justicia de la Unión Europea confirma lo que sabíamos: las copias en caché son inherentes a Internet." [# ! Lxs hay que lo quieren '#ilegalizar' todo :/ ...] [# Via, TY, Francisco Manuel Hernándeez Sosa's FB...]
Gonzalo San Gil, PhD.

Europa quiere un mercado único digital - 26.03.2015 - lanacion.com - 0 views

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    "Una de las promesas fundacionales de Internet fue suavizar las fronteras con las que la cultura y el comercio habían lidiado durante buena parte de la historia de la civilización. Ocurrió lo contrario."
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    "Una de las promesas fundacionales de Internet fue suavizar las fronteras con las que la cultura y el comercio habían lidiado durante buena parte de la historia de la civilización. Ocurrió lo contrario."
Gonzalo San Gil, PhD.

Día de Acción Global el 18 de abril 2015 - Stop TTIP - Español [# ! + INT Ref Note*] - 0 views

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    "March 25th, 2015 El último evento europeo descentralizado fue el Día de Acción contra el TTIP, CETA y TISA. Se celebró el 11 de octubre y cosechó un gran éxito. Tuvieron lugar centenares de actividades por toda Europa, fueron recogidas varios centenares de miles de firmas para STOP TTIP y docenas de medios de comunicación nos ayudaron a explicar a la gente los peligros que entrañan el TTIP y CETA. El 18 de Abril de 2015 será el Día de Acción Global" [https://stop-ttip.org/es/firma/]
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    "March 25th, 2015 El último evento europeo descentralizado fue el Día de Acción contra el TTIP, CETA y TISA. Se celebró el 11 de octubre y cosechó un gran éxito. Tuvieron lugar centenares de actividades por toda Europa, fueron recogidas varios centenares de miles de firmas para STOP TTIP y docenas de medios de comunicación nos ayudaron a explicar a la gente los peligros que entrañan el TTIP y CETA. El 18 de Abril de 2015 será el Día de Acción Global" [https://stop-ttip.org/es/firma/]
Gonzalo San Gil, PhD.

Google: Se repite el ridículo español: Europa, más cerca de aprobar su propio canon AEDE. Blogs de Homepage - 0 views

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    "27.08.2016 - 05:00 H. Es como un triste viaje al pasado, una vuelta a la Edad Media. ¿Recuerdan lo que ocurrió hace un par de años cuando España hizo el ridículo a nivel mundial forzando el cierre de Google News en nuestro país? "
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    "27.08.2016 - 05:00 H. Es como un triste viaje al pasado, una vuelta a la Edad Media. ¿Recuerdan lo que ocurrió hace un par de años cuando España hizo el ridículo a nivel mundial forzando el cierre de Google News en nuestro país? "
Paul Merrell

The EU's White Paper on AI: A Thoughtful and Balanced Way Forward - Lawfare - 0 views

  • On Feb. 19, the European Commission released a White Paper on Artificial Intelligence outlining its wide-ranging plan to develop artificial intelligence (AI) in Europe. The commission also released a companion European data strategy, aiming to make more data sets available for business and government to promote AI development, along with a report on the safety of AI systems proposing some reforms of the commission’s product liability regime. Initial press reports about the white paper focused on how the commission had stepped back from a proposal in its initial draft for a three- to five-year moratorium on facial recognition technology. But the proposed framework is much more than that: It represents a sensible and thoughtful basis to guide the EU’s consideration of legislation to help direct the development of AI applications, and an important contribution to similar debates going on around the world. The key takeaways are that the EU plans to: Pursue a uniform approach to AI across the EU in order to avoid divergent member state requirements forming barriers to its single market. Take a risk-based, sector-specific approach to regulating AI. Identify in advance high-risk sectors and applications—including facial recognition software. Impose new regulatory requirements and prior assessments to ensure that high-risk AI systems conform to requirements for safety, fairness and data protection before they are released onto the market. Use access to the huge European market as a lever to spread the EU’s approach to AI regulation across the globe.
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