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Nathan Goodyear

Testosterone and obesity. - PubMed - NCBI - 0 views

    Testosterone and obesity is bidirectional: thus Testosterone therapy in men with low T will improve metabolism
Nathan Goodyear

Elderly men over 65 years of age with late-onset hypogonadism benefit as much from test... - 0 views

    Study finds new difference in Testosterone benefits and/or side effects between men < 65 with low T and men > 65 with low T.
Nathan Goodyear

Seasonal variation of salivary testosterone in men, normally cycling women, and women u... - 0 views

    study of 296 men with mean age at 22.7, have peak salivary Testosterone production in December and January. 
Nathan Goodyear

Testosterone modulates cardiac contraction and calcium homeostasis: cellular and molecu... - 0 views

    low Testosterone is associated with calcium dysregulation in the heart.
Nathan Goodyear

[Testosterone replacement therapy and prostate cancer: the downfall of a paradigm?]. - ... - 0 views

    In this time of evidence-based medicine, the prevailing therapy that Testosterone causes prostate cancer is devoid of evidence.
Nathan Goodyear

Serum levels of sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG) are not associated with lower level... - 0 views

    Age increases SHBG.  This study doesn't find a correlation with non-SHBG Testosterone in "health" men.  The term health is probably key.
Nathan Goodyear

Taylor & Francis Online :: The microbiome as a target for endocrine disruptors: Novel c... - 0 views

    EDCs are proposed to disrupted gut micro biome and thus effect androgen production and autoimmune risk.
Nathan Goodyear

PLOS ONE: The Gut Microbiota and Developmental Programming of the Testis in Mice - 0 views

  • The intra-testicular level of testosterone in GF mice was found to be significantly lower than in SPF and CBUT mice
  • This study establishes a novel role for the commensal gut microbiota in the regulation of testicular development and function
  • Absence of the normal microbiota influences the formation and the integrity of the BTB as well as the intra-testicular levels of testosterone and serum levels of LH and FSH.
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  • Nutritional, socioeconomic, lifestyle and environmental factors (among others) are involved in the regulation of normal spermatogenesis.
  • he gut microbiota is one such potential source of environmental factors/products that has developed an intimate symbiotic relationship with host's physiology.
  • Manipulation of the gut microbiotia through dietary modification, pre- and probiotics can therefore be beneficial for the host's reproductive health.
  • In the current study, colonizing GF mice with CBUT resulted in an increased sperm production, suggesting that bacterial products, e.g. of fermentation, directly or indirectly, can affect the testis.
  • the absence of gut microbiota influenced testosterone levels
  • A recent study demonstrated that dietary supplementation of the probiotics Lactobacillus reuteri increased and restored testosterone levels in aging mice
  • bacterial metabolites such as butyrate have been shown to increase the levels of LH [43] and FSH
  • This suggests that butyrate most likely regulates testosterone production at the testicular level by stimulation of gene expression in Leydig cells and with little or no effect at the pituitary- hypothalamic levels.
    gut micro biome effects spermatogenesis, Testosterone production, and the brain-testicle-barrier.
Nathan Goodyear

Testosterone: More Than Having the Guts to Win the Tour de France - 0 views

  • female adult mice have microbiomes similar to those of prepubescent mice of both sexes;
  • the commensal microbial community in adult male mice significantly deviates from this shared initial pool.
  • A minimum level of testosterone and specific male-enriched microbes working together upregulate M2 macrophage and IFN-γ producing T cells in pancreatic lymph nodes. Microarray data show that both the IFN-γ and IL-1β pathways are also stimulated.
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  • The incidence of T1D in these mice is positively correlated with the “femaleness” of the microbiota
  • These results support the hypothesis that the host androgen level is influential in determining the composition of the microbiota, which in turn affects T1D initiation and progression
  • a high testosterone level enriches the microbiota for specific organisms such as segmented filamentous bacteria (SFB) and Escherichia coli or Shigella–like (SECS) strains.
  • the microbiome in castrated adult males clearly shifts away from that of normal adult males and is closer to the microbiome of females
  • These microbes also upregulate host testosterone
  • In four independent experiments, the authors found no universal unique “male microbiome”
  • they did find that four distinct combinations of microbial groupings (with an interesting lack of overlap at the individual family level in the four experiments) were enhanced by androgen
  • one species consists of the segmented filamentous bacteria (SFB) and belongs to the Firmicutes, whereas the other is an Escherichia coli or Shigella–like (SECS) strain belonging to the Proteobacteria
  • colonization with protective microbiomes—e.g., SPF microbiota, SFB, and SECS—is positively correlated with high blood testosterone levels in male mice
  • A direct implication of this study is that probiotic administration or fecal transplantation is a theoretically possible approach to protection against T1D
    nice summary of article on the relationship between Testosteorne and gut microbiome in autoimmune disease.
Nathan Goodyear - 0 views

    full article to previous abstract:  fecal transplant from male mice to female mice resulted in an increase in Testosterone production in the female mice revealing a link between the gut microbial population, diversity and Testosterone production.
Nathan Goodyear

PLOS ONE: Probiotic Microbes Sustain Youthful Serum Testosterone Levels and Testicular ... - 0 views

  • Studies in both humans and rodents, however, suggest that low testosterone is due to age-related lesions in testes rather than irregular luteinizing hormone metabolism
  • Various dietary factors and diet-induced obesity have been shown to increase the risk for late onset male hypogonadism and low testosterone production in both humans and mice
  • Testosterone deficiency and metabolic diseases such as obesity appear to inter-digitate in complex cause-and-effect relationships
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  • dietary supplementation of aged mice with the probiotic bacterium Lactobacillus reuteri makes them appear to be younger than their matched untreated sibling mice
  • These results indicate that gut microbiota induce modulation of local gastrointestinal immunity resulting in systemic effects on the immune system which activate metabolic pathways that restore tissue homeostasis and overall health
  • all these studies we consistently observed that young and aged mice consuming purified L. reuteri organisms had particularly large testes and a dominant male behavior.
  • The testes of probiotic-fed aged mice were rescued from both seminiferous tubule atrophy and interstitial Leydig cell area reduction typical of the normal aging process. Preservation of testicular architecture despite advanced age or high-fat diet coincided with remarkably high levels of circulating testosterone. The beneficial effects of probiotic consumption were recapitulated by the depletion of the pro-inflammatory cytokine Il-17.
  • feeding of L. reuteri consistently increased the gonadal weights, consumption of a non-pathogenic strain of Escherichia coli (E. coli) K12 organisms did not affect testicular weight
  • mice with dietary L. reuteri supplements were rescued from diet-induced obesity and had normal body weight and lean physique
  • Despite the comparable numbers of ST profiles, we determined that testes from L. reuteri-treated mice had increased ST cross-sectioned profiles
  • the probiotic organism induced prominent Leydig cell accumulations in the interstitial tissue between the ST's
  • The probiotic-associated increase of interstitial Leydig cell areas was sustained with advancing age at 7 (CD vs CD+LR, P = 0.0025; CD+E.coli vs CD+LR, P = 0.0251) and 12 months
  • mice eating L. reuteri had profoundly increased levels of circulating testosterone regardless of the type of diet they consumed
  • blocking pro-inflammatory Il-17 signaling entirely recapitulates the beneficial effects of probiotics
  • previous studies we found that dietary probiotics counteract obesity [19] and age-related integumentary pathology [18] at least in part by down-regulating systemic pro-inflammatory IL-17A-dependent signaling
  • Testes histomorphometry and serum androgen concentration data were both suggestive of a probiotic-associated up-regulation of spermatogenesis in mice
  • Lactobacillus reuteri we discovered that aging male animals had larger testes compared to their age-matched controls
  • xamined testes of probiotic microbe-fed mice and found that they had less testicular atrophy coinciding with higher levels of circulating testosterone compared to their age-matched controls
  • Similar testicular health benefits were produced using systemic depletion of the pro-inflammatory cytokine Il-17 alone, implicating a chronic inflammatory pathway in hypogonadism
  • One specific aspect of this paradigm is reciprocal activities of pro-inflammatory Th-17 and anti-inflammatory Treg cells
  • Feeding of L. reuteri organisms was previously shown to up-regulate IL-10 levels and reduce levels of IL-17 [19] serving to lower systemic inflammation
  • insufficient levels of IL-10 may increase the risk for autoimmunity, obesity, and other inflammatory disease syndromes
  • Westernized diets are also low in vitamin D, a nutrient that when present normally works together with IL-10 to protect against inflammatory disorders
  • Physiological feedback loops apparently exist between microbes, host hormones, and immunity
  • The hormone testosterone has been shown to act directly through androgen receptors on CD4+ cells to increase IL-10 expression
  • studies in both humans and rodents suggest that hypogonadism is due to age-related lesions in testes rather than irregular LH metabolism
  • We postulate that probiotic gut microbes function symbiotically with their mammalian hosts to impart immune homeostasis to maintain systemic and testicular health [34][35] despite suboptimal dietary conditions.
  • Dietary factors and diet-induced obesity were previously shown to increase risk for age-associated male hypogonadism, reduced spermatogenesis, and low testosterone production in both humans and mice [2][4], [8][11], [14][17], phenotypic features that in this study were inhibited by oral probiotic therapy absent milk sugars, extra protein, or vitamin D supplied in yogurt.
  • Similar beneficial effects of probiotic microbes on testosterone levels and sperm indices were reported in male mice that had been simultaneously supplemented with selenium
  • L. reuteri-associated prevention of age- and diet-related testicular atrophy correlates with increased numbers and size of Leydig cells
  • the initial changes of testicular atrophy begin to occur in mice from the age of 6 moths onwards [7] and indicates that the trophic effect of L. reuteri on Leydig cells is a key event which precedes and prevents age-related changes in the testes of mice. This effect is reminiscent of earlier studies describing Leydig cell hyperplasia and/or hypertrophy in the mouse and the rat testis that were achievable by the administration of gonadotropins, including human chorionic gonadotropin, FSH and LH
    Fascinating study on how the addition of Lactobacillus reuteri increased Testicular size, prevented testicular atrophy, increased serum Testosterone production and protected against diet-induced/obesity-induced hypogonadism.  This was a mouse model
Nathan Goodyear

Endogenous Levels of Circulating Androgens and Risk of Crohn's Disease and Ulcerative C... - 0 views

    serum Testosterone levels increasing in the normal range were found to be associated with a reduced risk of Crohn's disease in women.   No such relationship was found with ulcerative colitis, with DHEA, or with SHBG.
Nathan Goodyear

Association between endogenous sex steroid hormones and inflammatory biomarkers in US men - 0 views

  • modest statistically significant inverse associations for total and calculated free testosterone, and modest positive associations for total and calculated free estradiol with CRP concentration
  • Estradiol concentrations were also weakly positively associated with WBC count
  • SHBG was weakly inversely associated with WBC
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  • An association between testosterone and WBC count was not observed
  • These findings are consistent with the hypothesis that in men higher androgen concentration is anti-inflammatory, and higher estrogen concentration is pro-inflammatory.
  • the probability of elevated CRP concentrations (≥ 3 mg/L) decreased with higher total and calculated free testosterone concentrations, while the probability increased with higher total and calculated free estradiol concentrations
  • there is ample evidence supporting the immunosuppressive effect of androgens
  • The incidence of autoimmune diseases is higher in androgen-deficient men
  • Studies have shown that the induction of hypogonadism in older men is followed by a significant increase in IL-6 concentrations (), a potent stimulator of inflammation, and that activation of the androgen receptor exerts a direct anti-inflammatory effect
  • It has been suggested that the mechanisms for the immunosuppressive effect of androgens could be either a direct effect on the expression of inflammatory genes (; ), or an indirect effect through inhibition of nuclear factor-kB activation
  • Estradiol is the major biologically active estrogen, and about 80% is formed in adult men from the aromatization of testosterone primarily in the adipose tissue
  • estrogen can stimulate the transcription factor C/EBP-β, which is involved in CRP transcription
  • Most prior cross-sectional studies have observed inverse associations between androgen concentrations and inflammatory biomarkers
  • A recent study in Chinese men showed that lower concentrations of total and calculated free testosterone were associated with higher CRP concentration
  • Data from the Boston Area Community Health Survey also reported inverse associations between testosterone and CRP concentrations
  • Total testosterone was inversely associated with WBC count (; ; ), but calculated free testosterone was not associated with WBC
  • The first trial found a decrease in CRP, interleukin-1β (IL-1β), and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNFα) but no changes in IL-6 and IL-10 concentrations between the active treatment and placebo arms
  • the majority of studies in the literature have not observed statistically significant associations between estradiol and inflammatory biomarkers in men, although several of them observed point estimates in the positive direction
  • total testosterone and estradiol compete for binding to SHBG, and seem to have opposite effects on the concentration of inflammatory biomarkers
  • A small randomized controlled trial of estrogen replacement therapy in prostate cancer patients showed an increase in CRP in the active treatment group versus the comparator group
  • Obese men are known to have lower androgen concentrations compared to their normal-weight counterparts
  • The strongest suggestion of an interaction was the inverse association between androstanediol glucuronide and CRP concentrations in obese participants, while the association was positive in the non-obese
  • A recent Chinese cross-sectional study observed stronger inverse associations between total testosterone and CRP concentrations in individuals with a BMI of 27.5 kg/m2 or greater
  • our results suggest that total and calculated free testosterone are modestly inversely associated with CRP concentrations, and that total and calculated free estradiol are modestly positively associated with CRP and WBC
    Study results suggest that higher Testosterone and lower Estrogen levels provide anti-inflammatory effects in men.  The inflammatory biomarker assessed here was CRP.  Low total and calculated free Testosterone was associated with an increase in CRP.  In contrast, total and free Estrogen was associated with an increase in CRP.  Estradiol increased WBC count and SHBG was inversely related to WBC count in this study.
Nathan Goodyear

Testosterone regulates bone response to inflammation. - PubMed - NCBI - 0 views

    rat model finds low Testosterone is associated with increase inflammation.
Nathan Goodyear

Diet-induced obesity and low testosterone increase neuroinflammation and impair neural ... - 0 views

  • both obesity and low testosterone are also risk factors for neural dysfunction, including cognitive impairment [] and development of AD
  • Levels of obesity and testosterone are often inversely correlated
  • diet-induced obesity causes significant metabolic disturbances and impairs central and peripheral nervous systems.
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  • both obesity and low testosterone are linked with promotion of inflammatory pathways [] and exert harmful actions on the central [] and peripheral [,] nervous systems
  • In general, obesity-related changes were worsened by low testosterone and improved by testosterone treatment; however, this relationship was not statistically significant in several instances. Further, our data suggest that a common pathway that may contribute to obesity and testosterone effects is regulation of inflammation
  • fasting blood glucose levels were independently and additively increased by GDX-induced testosterone depletion and high-fat diet
  • testosterone treatment significantly reduced fasting glucose under both the normal and high-fat diets, demonstrating potential therapeutic efficacy of testosterone supplementation
  • fasting insulin, insulin resistance (HOMA index), and glucose tolerance, low testosterone tended to exacerbate and or testosterone treatment improved outcomes.
  • testosterone status did not significantly affect body weight
  • testosterone’s effects likely do not indicate an indirect result on adiposity but rather regulatory action(s) on other aspects of metabolic homeostasis
  • Prior work in rodents has shown diet-induced obesity induces insulin resistance in rat brain [] and that testosterone replacement improves insulin sensitivity in obese rats []. Our findings are consistent with the human literature, which indicates that (i) testosterone levels are inversely correlated to insulin resistance and T2D in healthy [,] as well as obese men [], and (ii) androgen therapy can improve some metabolic measures in overweight men with low testosterone
  • it has been shown that TNFα has inhibitory effects on neuron survival, differentiation, and neurite outgrowth
  • Our data demonstrate that low testosterone and obesity independently increased cerebrocortical mRNA levels of both TNFα and IL-1β
  • Testosterone status also affected metabolic and neural measures
  • many beneficial effects of testosterone, including inhibition of proinflammatory cytokine expression
  • neuroprotection [,], are dependent upon androgen receptors, the observed effects of testosterone in this study may involve androgen receptor activation
  • testosterone can be converted by the enzyme aromatase into estradiol, which is also known to exert anti-inflammatory [] and neuroprotective [] actions
  • glia are the primary sources of proinflammatory molecules in the CNS
  • poorer survival of neurons grown on glia from mice maintained on high-fat diet
  • Since testosterone can affect glial function [] and improve neuronal growth and survival [], it was unexpected that testosterone status exhibited rather modest effects on neural health indices with the only significant response being an increase in survival in the testosterone-treated, high-fat diet group
  • significantly increased expression of TNFα and IL-1β in glia cultures derived from obese mice
  • testosterone treatment significantly lowered TNFα and IL-1β expression to near basal levels even in obese mice, indicating a protective benefit of testosterone across diet conditions
  • IL-1β treatment has been shown to induce synapse loss and inhibit differentiation of neurons
  • Testosterone status and diet-induced obesity were associated with significant regulation of macrophage infiltration
  • testosterone prevented and/or restored thermal nociception in both diet groups
  • a possible mechanism by which obesity and testosterone levels may affect the health of both CNS and PNS
    Study points to obesity and low Testosterone contribution of neuroinflammation.  No effect of body weight was seen with TRT.  This animal model found similar positive effects of TRT in insulin sensitivity.  Obesity and low T increase inflammatory cytokine production: this study found an increase in TNF-alpha and IL-1beta and TRT reduced TNF-alpha and IL-1beta to near base-line.  Testosterone is neuroprotective and this study reviewed the small volume of evaded that pointed to benefit from estradiol.  Testosterone's effect on glial survival was positive but not significant.  Obesity and low T were found to be associated with increased macrophage infiltration in the PNS with increased TNF-alpha and IL-1beta.   Testosterone therapy improved peripheral neuropathy via its positive effects on nocicieption.
Nathan Goodyear

Review of health risks of low testosterone and testosterone administration - 0 views

  • Hypogonadism may be defined either as serum concentration of T (either total T, bioavailable T or free T) or as low T plus symptoms of hypogonadism
  • The Baltimore Longitudinal Study on Aging reported the incidence of total serum T < 325 ng/dL to be 20% for men in their 60s, 30% for men in their 70s and 50% for men over 80
  • The Massachusetts Aging Male Study reported that 12.3% of men aged 40 to 70 had a total serum T of < 200 ng/dL with 3 or more symptoms of hypogonadism
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  • The Boston Area Community Health Study reported that 5.6% of men aged 30 to 70 were hypogonadal, as defined by total serum T < 300 ng/dL; or, free serum T < 5 ng/dL plus 3 or more symptoms of hypogonadism
  • In a health screening project among 819 men in Taiwan, the prevalence of hypogonadism (total serum T < 300 ng/dL) ranged from 16.5% for men in their 40s, 23.0% for men in their 50s, 28.9% for men in their 60s, and 37.2% for men older than 70 years of age
  • The prevalence of hypogonadism among men in Taiwan is higher than the prevalence reported in the Massachusetts Male Aging Study
  • CAG repeat sequence, within the androgen receptor (AR). Rajender et al[] reviewed over 30 studies on the AR trinucleotide repeat and infertility
  • suggestion that CAG repeat length may determine androgen responsiveness, this issue is not clearly settled
  • reported prevalence of low T in older men range from 5.6% to 50%
  • Those in the hypogonadal group (n = 4269) had direct health care costs, that exceeded the eugonadal group (n = 4269) by an average of $7100 over the course of the observation window
  • higher economic burden and presence of co-morbidities for hypogonadism
  • minor to moderate improvements in lean mass and muscle strength
  • increased bone mineral density
  • modest enhancement in sexual function
  • reduced adiposity
  • lessening of depressive symptoms
  • Meta-analyses of clinical TRT trials as of 2010 have identified three major adverse events resulting from TRT: (1) polycythemia; (2) an increase in prostate-related events; and (3) and a slight reduction in serum high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol
  • polycythemia (> 3.5-fold increase in risk
  • TRT produced a 40% prostate enlargement in older hypogonadal male Veterans over 12 mo
  • no published analysis has reported measurable increases in prostate cancer risk or Gleason score in men undergoing TRT, or in hypogonadal men with a history of prostate cancer undergoing TRT
  • the prostate which highly expresses the type II 5α-reductase enzyme. Inhibition of this enzyme via finasteride (a type II 5α-reductase inhibitor) or dutasteride (a dual type I and II 5α-reductase inhibitor) reduces circulating DHT 50%-75% and > 90%, respectively[], and reduces prostate mass[] and prostate cancer risk
  • Normally estradiol partially regulates testosterone levels, at the hypothalamus, blunting LH and FSH release from the pituitary. As a selective estrogen receptor modulator, CC interrupts this pathway, and consequently there is a greater stimulation for the production of testosterone in Leydig cells
    • Nathan Goodyear
      this would only apply if E1 and/or E2 levels were elevated, which the authors make no mention of.
    to be read
Nathan Goodyear

Functional voice testing detects early changes in vocal pitch in women during testoster... - 0 views

    decreased pitch is associated with increased dosage of Testosterone therapy in women.
Nathan Goodyear

Association Between Viral Hepatitis and Erectile Dysfunction: A Population-Based Case-C... - 0 views

    Low Testosterone, low libido, and ED associated with prior hepatitis B and hepatitis C.  
Nathan Goodyear

Acute effects of interferon-alpha administration on testosterone concentrations in heal... - 0 views

    Interferon therapy in men with hepatitis C was found to decrease total Testosterone and Free Androgen index at the level of the gonads; this was independent of the HPA in this study.
Nathan Goodyear

Chronic hepatitis C infection and sex hormone levels: effect of disease severity and re... - 0 views

    hepatitis associated with a decline in total Testosterone.  This was a positive correlation with worsening hepatitis.  Free Testosterone was not effected.  Interesting, SHBG increased.
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