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Nathan Goodyear

Longitudinal Effects of Aging on Serum Total and Free Testosterone Levels in Healthy Me... - 0 views

  • NUMEROUS CROSS-SECTIONAL INVESTIGATIONS have demonstrated lower concentrations of circulating testosterone (T) and/or free T in older men
  • Two small-scale longitudinal investigations have observed decreases, with aging, in total T
  • T levels decline at a more or less constant rate, with age, in men, with no period of accelerated decline
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  • aging in men is associated with decreases in bone mineral density (BMD) (18, 19), lean body and muscle mass
  • strength (22, 23) and aerobic capacity (24), as well as with increases in total and abdominal body fat, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and/or low-density lipoprotein/high-density lipoprotein cholesterol ratios (25, 26, 27, 28), all of which also occur in nonelderly hypogonadal men
  • Most (1, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9), but not all (10, 11, 12), cross-sectional studies have demonstrated a decrease, with age, in total T in men
    • Nathan Goodyear
       
      FAI: 100 x total Testosterone nmol/L/SHBG nmol/L
    • Nathan Goodyear
       
      These numbers do point to an increase in ng/dl decline in Total Testosterone with increasing age (decade group)
  • total T, but not free T index, tended to decrease with greater BMI is consistent with prior studies showing that obesity is associated with decreases in both SHBG and total T, with an unchanged T-to-SHBG ratio
  • The conventional definition for T levels is statistical (values more than 2 sd below the mean), rather than functional. Such a definition does not reflect clinical realities, such as the existence of characteristic individual set points for circulating hormone levels, below which one, but not another, individual may develop metabolic changes of hormone deficiency; nor does it address the concept of reserve capacity, the possibility that persons with hormone levels 2 sd below the population mean still may have adequate hormone concentrations to meet their metabolic needs.
    • Nathan Goodyear
       
      good explanation of problems with just using a number to define low T
  • both T and free T index (a calculated value related to free or bioavailable T) decreased progressively at a rate that did not vary significantly with age, from the third to the ninth decades.
  • contrasts with other studies showing diminished free, as well as total, T in with increasing total (48) or abdominal (49) obesity in men.
  • Our analysis of date-adjusted T and free T index levels, by decade, showed that relatively high numbers of older men in this generally healthy population had at least one hypogonadal value (defined as below the 2.5th percentile for young men)
  • The issue of how properly to define hypogonadism, or indeed any hormone deficiency, remains problematic
  • The decrease in free T index was somewhat steeper than that of total T, owing to a trend for an increase in SHBG with age
  • LH for gonadal function
  • It would clearly be better to define the lower limit of normal for a hormone as: the blood level at which metabolic and/or clinical sequelae of hormone deficiency begin to appear, or the level below which definite benefits can be demonstrated for hormone supplementation for a significant proportion of the population
  • an effect of aging to lower both total and bioavailable circulating T levels at a relatively constant rate, independent of obesity, illness, medications, cigarette smoking, or alcohol intake
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    Article highlights the problems with the definition of low T.  This article finds consistent decline in Total Testosterone and FAI with increasing age groups, with a significant portion of men > 60 meeting the required levels for "low T".  This study found a decrease in total T and FAI at a consistent rate independent of variables, such as BMI.    This study did find a decrease in SHBG and total T with obesity; in contrast to other studies.
Nathan Goodyear

Evidence for Geographical and Racial Variation in Serum Sex Steroid Levels in Older Men - 0 views

  • Asian men in Hong Kong and Japan, but not in the United States, had levels of total testosterone approximately 20% higher than in other groups
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    Testosterone levels vary amongst men by geography.  Testosterone levels are higher, 20% higher, in Asian men living in Hong Kong and Japan versus those that live in the US.  This is very similar to some of the date around breast cancer in Asian women.  Both suggesting diet and environment as the variable.
Nathan Goodyear

Testosterone level in men with type 2 diabetes mellitus and related metabolic... - 0 views

  • defined by consistent symptoms and signs of androgen deficiency, and an unequivocally low serum testosterone level
  • the threshold serum testosterone level below which adverse clinical outcomes occur in the general population is not known
  • most population-based studies use the serum testosterone level corresponding to the lower limit, quoted from 8.7 to 12.7 nmol/L, of the normal range for young Caucasian men as the threshold
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  • Researchers tried to examine whether serum total or free testosterone would be a better/more reliable choice when studying the effect of testosterone. The results were mixed. Some reported significant associations of both serum total and free testosterone level with clinical parameters, whereas others reported that only serum free testosterone or only serum total testosterone showed significant associations.
  • −0.124 nmol/L/year in serum total testosterone
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    Nice review of Testosterone levels and some of the evidence linking Diabetes with low T.  However, the conclusion by the authors regarding what is causing the low T in men with Diabetes is baffling.  The literature does not point to one cause, it is clearly multifactorial--obesity, inflammation, high aromatase activity...I would suggest the authors continue their readings in the manner.
Nathan Goodyear

BMC Neuroscience | Full text | The effect of adolescent testosterone on hippocampal BDN... - 0 views

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    study finds that BDNF is more associated with cell proliferation and neurogenesis with normal circulating Testosterone levels.  
Nathan Goodyear

High Testosterone in Women Linked with Insulin Resistance and CVD - 0 views

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    High Testosterone in women associated with increased insulin resistance.
Nathan Goodyear

The Association of Obesity with Sex Hormone Binding Globulin is Str... - PubMed - NCBI - 0 views

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    Obesity is significantly associated with low SHBG.  This stands in contrast to aging association with higher SHBG.  Obesity out weighed the association compared to age.  Calculated free Testosterone did not vary between obese and non-obese men.
Nathan Goodyear

Testosterone suppresses ventricular remodeling and improves left ventricular function i... - 0 views

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    Animal model finds that Testosterone improves ventricular remodeling and function following myocardial infarction in male rats.  This similar finding has been found in human studies as well.  

    Testosterone therapy was found to lower BNP in this rat study.
Nathan Goodyear

Tremor in 48,XXYY syndrome. - ResearchGate - 0 views

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    Case study finds that Testosterone improved neuropathy in hypergonadotropin hypogonadism syndrome.
Nathan Goodyear

Therapeutic Testosterone Administration Preserves Excitatory Synaptic Transmission in t... - 0 views

  • direct androgen receptor activation is not a mutually exclusive requirement of testosterone-mediated neuroprotection.
  • Testosterone treatment after EAE induction restores synaptic transmission and corresponding synaptic protein levels within the hippocampus during EAE
  • A growing body of evidence suggests that testosterone enhances hippocampal synaptogenesis
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  • This study demonstrates that testosterone treatment either before or after EAE disease induction partially restores deficits in synaptic transmission, preserves presynaptic and postsynaptic integrity, and prevents hippocampal pathology.
  • treatment with a pregnancy estrogen, estriol, can prevent deficits in excitatory synaptic transmission in the hippocampus during EAE
  • testosterone is important to the maintenance of normal synaptic spine density in the hippocampus
  • estriol treatment was also capable of preserving levels of synaptic proteins that are known to orchestrate functional synaptic transmission within the hippocampus.
  • Estriol is a therapeutic candidate in MS because it has widespread effects on the immune system and the CNS
  • MS patients have significantly decreased relapse rates during the third trimester of pregnancy, when estriol levels are most elevated, and relapse rates rebound during the postpartum period coinciding with an abrupt decline in serum estriol levels
  • In nonpregnant MS patients, estriol treatment has been shown to significantly reduce gadolinium-enhancing lesion number and volumes measured by MRI
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    Testosterone restores/preserves nerve synapsis within the hippocampus in autoimmune demyelinating disease.  Testosterone appears to have neuroprotection.  The authors conclude that the majority of the protective effect was through aromatase activity.
Nathan Goodyear

Spectrum of metabolic dysfunction in relationship with hyperandrogenemia in obese adole... - 0 views

  • subjects with hyperandrogenemic phenotypes displayed the greatest degree of hyperinsulinemia, β-cell function, and chronic inflammation
  • The rise in serum androgens is accompanied by excess insulin secretion, suggesting that insulin directly stimulates ovarian androgen production
  • The degree of hyperinsulinemia does not seem to be directly correlated with the development of HS
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  • higher androgen and insulin levels stimulate hair growth
  • genetic and epigenetic changes may be involved in the pathogenesis of PCOS
  • HA has been identified as an important risk factor for MS and dyslipidemias in premenopausal women and adolescents
  • In our study, HA was found to be an independent risk factor for MS as previously reported by Coviello et al.
  • obesity and HA, and not insulin resistance, are the major determinants of chronic inflammation and risk of atherosclerosis in adolescents with PCOS
  • use of an inflammation marker may help identify high-risk females with PCOS
  • hyperandrogenemic PCOS phenotypes have greatest degree of hyperinsulinemia, insulin resistance, and inflammation
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    Elevated androgens are associated increasing insulin, insulin resistance, and inflammation (as measured by CRP).
Nathan Goodyear

Androgens and polycystic ovary syndrome. - PubMed - NCBI - 0 views

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    Only abstract available here. Exact complexity of the signaling involved in PCOS is yet to be determined, but increased androgens in women is proving to be a strong link between PCOS and metabolic dysfunction.
Nathan Goodyear

Association of Mean Platelet Volume With Androgens and Insulin Resistance in Nonobese P... - 0 views

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    Mean Platelet Volume (MPV) is associated with increased cardiovascular disease in some studies.  Hyperandrogenism is associated with increased CVD in women with PCOS. This study found that elevated androgen levels in non obese women with/without PCOS was associated with lower MPV values.  This stands in contrast to other studies. 
Nathan Goodyear

The Evaluation of Serum Levels of Testosterone in Type 2 Diabetic Men and Its Relation ... - 0 views

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    Small study of 2 men with type II diabetes finds fasting glucose levels negatively correlate with total and free Testosterone levels, HgbA1c negatively correlated with SHBG only, total cholesterol and LDL negatively correlated with SHBG and total testosterone.  The prevalence of type II diabetes was higher with low free Testosterone than total Testosterone, but both were statistically significant.
Nathan Goodyear

Effect of Tongkat Ali on stress hormones and psychological mood state in moderately str... - 0 views

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    Tongkat Ali, commonly known as long jack, is found to reduce stress and increase Testosterone.  Stress is one of the common causes of low T in men.  It appears that long Jack functions as an adaptogen.
Nathan Goodyear

Muscle Wasting in Hemodialysis Patients: New Therapeutic Strategies for Resolving an Ol... - 0 views

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    Low Testosterone results in increased protein degradation.
Nathan Goodyear

Effects of testosterone replacement on muscle mass and muscle protein synthesis in hypo... - 0 views

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    Testosterone therapy in men with low T is associated with an increase in protein synthesis and thus an increase in muscle mass.
Nathan Goodyear

Testosterone administration to elderly men increases skeletal muscle strength and prote... - 0 views

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    small study finds that Testosterone therapy in elderly men increased protein synthesis, muscle mass, and increase in strength.
Nathan Goodyear

Effect of testosterone on muscle mass and muscle protein synthesis | Journal of Applied... - 0 views

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    Testosterone promotes muscle mass increase through increased protein synthesis.
Nathan Goodyear

Testosterone Replacement in Hypogonadal Men With Type 2 Diabetes and/or Metabolic Syndr... - 0 views

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    Testosterone therapy in men with low Testosterone was found to improve insulin sensitivity, total cholesterol levels, LDL, Lpa, and sexual performance in men with low T, type II diabetes and/or metabolic syndrome.  There is suggestion that muscle composition was improved as well.
Nathan Goodyear

Predictors of skeletal muscle mass in elderly men and women - 0 views

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    Study of men and women finds that low free Testosterone, physical activity, and IGF1 is associated with muscle mass in men; no such relationship between sex hormone and muscle mass in women was found.
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