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Wendy Arch

Hypothesis for Education - Hypothesis - 0 views

    • Wendy Arch
       
      This could be an alternative to Diigo. It offers the same idea of providing online collaborative annotation.
Wendy Arch

Moovly l Online Video Editor and Video Maker for Business and Education - 0 views

    • Wendy Arch
       
      This site works well for giving students options to create. They can add their own images, videos, and voiceovers or use the stock characters and images provided.
rhoadsb_

Article(s): Self- and Peer-Assessment Online - 0 views

  • The instructor must explain expectations clearly to them before they begin.
    • kmolitor
       
      I think this is such an important piece of peer assessment. Students need to understand what they are doing and providing a model of it can certainly help.
    • tmolitor
       
      I couldn't agree more. It is so important that everything is laid out clearly for the students before beginning anything.
    • mschutjer
       
      I too agree. This is a process and getting middle school students to do this constructively can be challenging.
  • Students can also benefit from using rubrics or checklists to guide their assessments
    • kmolitor
       
      Providing a rubric to students is a great way to help them peer assess, but it will definitely need to be written in student friendly specific language.
    • chriskyhl
       
      I agree Kelley. This is an extremely important thing for student feedback and if done correctly will lead to better student performance
  • develop trust by forming them into small groups early in the semester and having them work in the same groups throughout the term
    • kmolitor
       
      Trust is such an important piece to giving peer feedback. Putting these groups together early and working on building those relationships prior to assessing will help the students give honest and constructive feedback.
    • mschutjer
       
      Sometimes I wonder at what age students will begin to take this seriously, and not just go through the motions.
  • ...77 more annotations...
  • In addition, students' motivation to learn increases when they have self-defined, and therefore relevant, learning goals.
    • kmolitor
       
      This makes so much sense. If we have students develop goals for their courses and have them frequently reflect on those goals it would help increase their motivation.
  • Portfolio assessment emphasizes evaluation of students' progress, processes, and performance over time.
    • kmolitor
       
      Using portfolios with students is great. Students have the opportunity to see their progress over time and can make adjustments as needed. I think adding a place where they can look at their goals in their portfolio would be beneficial too.
    • chriskyhl
       
      Think this is something I am going to try next year in classes is to have students build an online portfolio for each of my power standards to show mastery
    • mschutjer
       
      This is a great idea, but so very hard to maintain.
  • Represent a student's progress over time
    • zackkaz
       
      I like this idea of progress over time. Especially in an online learning atmosphere it encourage time management, and not procrastination.
  • • Students will have a tendency to award everyone the same mark.
    • zackkaz
       
      This is certainly a problem I run into with peer and group evals during projects. Students give everyone a 5/A in every category when it is patently false. Anyone have any solutions to solving that issue?
    • cathy84
       
      I have always had the same struggle. Feedback from each other just wasn't helpful most of the time.
  • provide quality feedback that can help students develop their writing and critical thinking skills.
    • zackkaz
       
      In terms of very high level education he may be correct, but when talking about materials we work with he is both right and wrong. I think it is important to remember that we are also learning from our students as well, and they may the a voice that is different, but fits the tone/time/assignment better than what we traditionally expect.
    • Wendy Arch
       
      The prompts also impact the feedback. If students are given extremely vague prompts, they won't be able to give accurate or usable feedback. However, if the prompts are aligned and geared to a student level, then the feedback will be more usable.
  • MOOCs that are not for credit
    • zackkaz
       
      What about grades not existing at all as Mr. Abbey has suggested?
  • own expectations.
    • zackkaz
       
      Life long learners! I never do it, but I should students's their goals in the class, unit, assignment, etc. I always think it will be a great idea but never get around to practicing it.
  • .
    • zackkaz
       
      Just curious if there is any research over non collegiate/PD courses. I would like to see the effectiveness of this with HS/MS aged students. Just curious.
  • include establishing their own assessment criteria through consultation with teaching staff
    • robertsreads
       
      I am a big fan of having students help develop their own rubrics, especially at the high school level. It helps them to be thoughtful about what they need to learn, and it gives them much more skin in the game.
  • Address improvement, effort, and achievement
    • robertsreads
       
      This is one of my favorite parts of a portfolio. It really allows students to look back and see how much they have grown over a semester/year/their high school career. It makes the hard work worth it when a student sees that it is making a big difference.
  • When learners have experience in learning and navigating within a networked setting [if the review is completed in an open and online setting].
    • robertsreads
       
      At the high school level, we work very hard with students to develop the vocabulary for giving meaningful feedback. I like to have a list of prompts they can use to start, and also a list of things they can and should look for.
  • These students reported that their ability to self-assess depended on knowing what the teacher expected
    • robertsreads
       
      It is impossible for a student to know if they have done well, if the teacher has not explained the targets the student should be hitting. They must know what is expected of them before they can be expected to assess themselves.
  • Rather than assessing whether the student learned from the assignment or not, this method seems geared to identifying any ‘slackers’ or those who sit on the side lines through the entire project, with minimal contributions.
    • robertsreads
       
      This is one of the truest things I have ever read.No matter what the level, it is frustrating when one perceives some group members as not doing their best or not participating, especially if one's grade depends on said participation.
  • One way to begin the process of introducing students to self-assessment is to create student-teacher contracts. Contracts are written agreements between students and instructors, which commonly involve determining the number and type of assignments that are required for particular grades
    • mgast40diigo
       
      I like how this focuses on the student. Having some ownership and feedback from the instructor can be powerful. Plus contracts are relevant in the real world.
    • mistermohr
       
      While I understand the premise, I struggle with classroom contracts. They are frivolous...they really mean nothing. It downplays real contracts which have implications.
  • Emphasize what students can do rather than what they cannot do
    • mgast40diigo
       
      Very important for student confidence. I have a tendency to focus on improvement with my students and not enough on what they are doing correct.
  • Group work can be more successful when students are involved in developing the assessment process.
    • mgast40diigo
       
      What a great way to involve the students and see what criteria is important to them. They would become more active in the learning process and better results should follow.
    • mistermohr
       
      No kidding! Think of all the time teachers spend outlining the essential criteria. We can put some of this in the students court, especially is it helps the success of teaching some soft skills, working as a team.
  • More often, however, students spoke of the tension between their own and the teacher’s expectations. … Over and over again, students rejected their own judgments of their work in favor of guessing how their teacher or professor would grade it.”
    • mgast40diigo
       
      How do you get students to overcome this?
  • How it works – each group member completes an evaluation on his or her team members which is then submitted to the instructor. The instructor usually takes the average of the peer evaluations, and shares this grade with each team member which serves as the student’s grade in the peer evaluation portion.
  • Forcing’ the individual student to assess their own behaviour, as opposed to others is more constructive – it supports the aim of developing collaboration skills, along with the knowledge component.
    • mgast40diigo
       
      I agree. Most students are critical of their own work. They will be honest and upfront. The thing to be careful about is to make sure they explain themselves and not just give a grade. Self reflection is the highest form of accountability.
    • Deborah Cleveland
       
      I think there is a lot of power in metacognition. Giving people the space to think about their thinking and evelaute their own choices...can lead to a lot of growth.
  • To help students develop realistic, short-term, attainable goals, instructors can use a framework like SMART goals outline shown in the popup window
    • tommuller4
       
      I think short-term goals are essential for students to track their success and stay focused on the goals. They should probably set new goals for every chapter/unit.
  • Students do not learn to monitor or assess their learning on their own; they need to be taught strategies for self monitoring and self assessment.
    • tommuller4
       
      The idea of students assessing and monitoring their own learning will be something totally new for most students. They will need help from teachers and some time to learn this process.
    • mrsmeganmorgan
       
      I agree. Assessing and monitoring learning only happens when students are explicitily taught the skills. Often it may have to be done many times and situations before students do it on their own.
    • chriskyhl
       
      This is an interesting topic and something I haven't tried with my students. I think as you both brought up would need some practice but agree it would be a powerful tool for self assessment
  • The student participates in the selection of portfolio content, the development of guidelines for selection, and the definition of criteria for judging merit
    • tommuller4
       
      I like to idea of the student determining what goes in their folders, it gives them some power over their own learner.
    • tmolitor
       
      I agree, it always seems to be best for students when they feel like they have a say in what they are doing.
  • The instructor provides a sample writing or speaking assignment. As a group, students determine what should be assessed and how criteria for successful completion of the communication task should be defined.
    • tommuller4
       
      I think its a good idea for the students to see sample work and talk about how to assess it and criteria they think is need to successfully complete the assignment.
    • mschutjer
       
      A great idea. the samples and practice we can give students the better off they will be.
  • Represent a student's range of performance in reading, writing, speaking, and listening as well as cultural understanding
    • tommuller4
       
      Think its a good idea to have variety of things in the students portfolio so we can see the range of students work and also how much progress the student has made.
    • mschutjer
       
      this too is a good idea!
  • peer or in a small group
    • sjensen21
       
      Conversations can help students solidify and internalize their thinking.
    • tmolitor
       
      Exactly, that think-pair-share strategy or anything that gets students talking with other students can be really beneficial for them.
  • peer pressure
    • sjensen21
       
      This is a very real issue. Students can feel pressure to elevate a friends grade out of a sense of loyalty.
    • alisauter
       
      I see this as being less of a problem with students who don't visit campus at all. They may not know many peers.
    • mistermohr
       
      Ali - Good point! This is a benefit of online courses vs. face to face. Most LMS's have a integrated tool that allows for peer assessment as well.
  • similar skill level
    • sjensen21
       
      This may be difficult to determine especially early in a course.
  • very clear and explicit.
    • sjensen21
       
      As in, using a rubric!
  • This is my preferred approach
    • sjensen21
       
      I agree. It seems more balanced.
  • deliberate thought about what they are learning and how they are learning it.
    • kylelehman
       
      Again, I think self-assessment is key. As we move towards SBG, I have built in self-assessing on almost everyone on of my rubrics in order to see where a student thinks they are v where I think they are.
    • mschutjer
       
      I love the idea of self assessment and once students grab onto it I know they see its effects as well.
  • Students individually assess each other's contribution using a predetermined list of criteria. Grading is based on a predetermined process, but most commonly it is an average of the marks awarded by members of the group.
    • kylelehman
       
      I always struggle with peer grading. I feel as if the students are never "hard" enough on other students the way that I would be when I am grading as a teacher. With that said, I think that if you build in norms and go over things as a class so they can see how you would do it, it may help.
    • chriskyhl
       
      I dont think I would use this exclusively but think peer evaluation is a good measuring stick of both the grader and gradee's understanding of the material
  • introduce students to the concepts and elements of assessment against specified criteria in the first weeks of class
    • kylelehman
       
      I think this is key for class and for students to be able to see what they are being assessed in. What is the secret? Don't we as educators want our students to do well? I have been in the process of making posters for each of my classes and units that I hang up when we start a new unit. These posters have the standards, main ideas, and key assessment strategies.
    • barbkfoster
       
      I think all too often we are so concerned with "covering the material" that we don't take the time to front load a unit (or the school year). If we want our students to be successful and feel good about their learning, we need to make sure students know what is required from the very beginning.
  • self-assessment as an opportunity for students to reflect on their own work
    • kylelehman
       
      Wow, I couldn't agree more. I don't want students to grade themselves because they won't grade themselves the same way that I will. However, I would direct them to self assess and use the same rubric the way that I would in order to build on the ideas that I am looking for and how they can better themselves.
  • I have mixed feelings about peer evaluations, leaning towards not using peer reviews as part of the assessment strategy. I wonder if the concept of peer evaluation is exclusive to higher education institutions
    • kylelehman
       
      I agree. I have tried full on peer assessing in high school before and it never really works the way I want them to
    • cathy84
       
      Agreed
    • cathy84
       
      I struggle with this concept. How do students know the qualities of effective persuasive writing, for instance?
  • Guided practice with assessment tools
    • cathy84
       
      Perhaps if I spent more time doing this, I would have had more success with student self and peer edits. It's interesting, though, that my daughters felt the same way about peer editing in their HS classes. They always felt they lacked any helpful input. In fact, they felt peers were marking things they completely disagreed with. I just don't know how to make peer editing of upper level writing better.
    • cathy84
       
      This has been my experience over 27 years in education as well.
  • There is strong support in constructivist theories for the peer review which is grounded in student-centered learning where students learn as much from the review process itself as from the final grade on an assignment.
    • cathy84
       
      Again, I am a skeptic with constructivist theory
  • hough at the conclusion of their research they determined that students involved in peer review perform better academically than peers graded only by their instructors
    • cathy84
       
      Well, that is good to know!
    • mistermohr
       
      I think this is an important point! It doesn't really matter how we feel about it, research shows that peer review do better so it should be case closed, we should use it. I would like to know the corroboration of this by other studies.
  •   Learners have a developed set of communication skills.
    • cathy84
       
      makes sense
  • Use a Rubric
    • cathy84
       
      This was successful for me when grading group projects...especially performance-based projects like one-act play performance.
  • Such self assessment encourages students to become independent learners and can increase their motivation.
    • mpercy
       
      This is a great accomplishment for any teacher!
    • mistermohr
       
      no joke, I feel that this can happen when students see them working towards a goal that isn't "just for the teacher"
  • Students may be reluctant to make judgements regarding their peers.
    • mpercy
       
      This would go back to the culture in the classroom. Students would need to feel safe about expressing their thoughts about others' work and also receiving feedback about their own work.
  • students assess their own contribution
    • mpercy
       
      Is there any risk of privacy laws when allowing peer assessment? I don't share the grade of one student with any other student. Would peer assessment violate this? If it does, self-assessment would be a better option.
    • chriskyhl
       
      Interesting question never thought of it that way......would be interesting to look at research
  • it requires a specific set of learning conditions to be present in order for it to work as intended.
    • mpercy
       
      How often would we see these learning conditions be present in our classrooms and peer grading considered effective?
  • the learner will benefit far more by completing a self evaluation
    • mpercy
       
      I like the use of self evaluation if you can get students to take it seriously. I am a little wary of peer evaluation because I don't think all students will use constructive criticism.
  • it helps them control the classroom better by reinforcing their power and expertise,
    • Wendy Arch
       
      Or is it because it allows them to know whether or not students are getting the material? Yes, some teachers are power hungry and on constant power trips with grades, but if we aren't readily and regularly assessing and providing feedback, how do we know for ourselves whether or not students are learning?
  • Every time I did get a comment, no peer ever wrote more than three sentences. And why should they? Comments were anonymous so the hardest part of the evaluative obligation lacked adequate incentive and accountabilit
    • Wendy Arch
       
      Using different online tools such as Turnitin.com allows students to remain anonymous to peers but teachers can see who reviewed whom and what kind of feedback they left. This could provide more incentive to provide better quality feedback. If students know teachers will look back through what they wrote, then they might be more conscientious about it.
  • Students that fell into this group were physically and cognitively lazy, not contributing to the process as required. This phenomenon was referenced in several other research studies within the paper.
    • Wendy Arch
       
      This isn't just a feedback issue though -- this is a systemic issue throughout education. The "loafers and others" will do the bare minimum on any assignment, so to use that as a reason to not use peer feedback is a moot point.
  • help reduce the ‘free rider’ problem
    • mrsmeganmorgan
       
      I think the more we can do to decrease the free rider situation the better.
    • chriskyhl
       
      Totally agree! Find this is true even with adults in other classes I have taken in the past
  • 4) When learners are mature, self-directed and motivated.
    • mrsmeganmorgan
       
      This is an interesting statement when we start to think about this in K-12 situation. Can we describe the typical student in those terms?
  • They also recommend that teachers share expectations for assignments and define quality. Showing students examples of effective and ineffective pieces of work can help to make those definitions real and relevant.
    • mrsmeganmorgan
       
      This especially important when it is linked with the findings in paragraph five. Student need this information.
    • Deborah Cleveland
       
      I agree. This aligns nicely with what was said in the previous article..."Why and When Peer Grading is Effective for Online Learning"...It can also be very effective in small, closed online classes where students are at similar skill level and receive instruction and guidance in how to grade within the process.
    • barbkfoster
       
      This also ties in closely with our lesson on modeling. For many students it helps them to understand what a teacher is looking for and what "great work" looks like. Likewise, it is also helpful to show students examples of work that doesn't meet the requirements.
  • 3 main grading strategie
    • mrsmeganmorgan
       
      I am really frustrated with the following section. It's like they equate grades with learning. This completely ignores the learning process.
  • hen students are involved in developing the assessment process.
    • nealjulie
       
      I agree with this statement. The power is in students evaluating their own work.
  • strive for a more advanced and deeper understanding of the subject matter, skills and processes
    • nealjulie
       
      This is what teachers really want to strive for, a deeper understanding of the subject matter.
  • passive learner to active leaner
    • nealjulie
       
      I like this statement too, we want students to be active learners.
  • inst if students ‘gang up’ against one group member
    • nealjulie
       
      Yikes! I hope a teacher could control this!
  • Self evaluation has a risk of being perceived as a process of presenting inflated grades and being unreliable
    • nealjulie
       
      I could see this happening. That's why things need to be laid out and other uses of evaluation should be in place as well.
  • Encourages student involvement and responsibility.
    • alisauter
       
      If this isn't "required" I don't see many students wanting to do this. It is a struggle in F2F classes. Maybe in an online setting it would be better for some?
  • Students may have little exposure to different forms of assessment and so may lack the necessary skills and judgements to effectively manage self and peer assessments
    • alisauter
       
      This is such a mountain to climb, but if more F2F classes do this, then perhaps it will be easier in online classes and vice versa.
  • Students must feel comfortable and trust one another in order to provide honest and constructive feedback.
    • Deborah Cleveland
       
      Climate and culture is important when asking students to engage in peer assessment.
  • here may also be a perception amongst students that the academic is ‘shirking’ their responsibilities by having students undertaking peer assessments.
    • alisauter
       
      We have had this perception with Blended and Flipped learning with some of our students and parents. We quickly learned that educating the stakeholders is important.
    • barbkfoster
       
      You're absolutely right! Students and parents alike feel that it is the teacher's job to deliver the content and the teacher's job to assess student work. Helping both parties understand the WHY is so important!
  • practice session
    • Deborah Cleveland
       
      Modeling and practicing feedback is critical. Otherwise it is very easy for people to provide very surface level feedback that doesn't give the learner much to go on in regards to improving. The learner gets frustrated because the information isn't usefule and the person providing the feedback because they don't see any changes.
  • When operating successfully can reduce a lecturer's marking load.
    • alisauter
       
      It does, but obviously from the Disadvantages below, it doesn't. What is the balance?
  • It can also be very effective in small, closed online classes where students are at similar skill level and receive instruction and guidance in how to grade within the process.
    • Deborah Cleveland
       
      I think that providing instruction and guidance in how to peer grade is key to ensuring that peer grading has meaning to the person receiving the grade.
  • rubric not only helps the facilitator score the assignment but it and can greatly increase the quality and effort put into assignments by giving students a clear expectations with knowledge that must be demonstrated.
    • Deborah Cleveland
       
      Rubrics can set expectations for assignments and define quality.
  • informs the teacher about students' thoughts on their progress,
    • tmolitor
       
      I think this piece is also really important. As a teacher it's easy to look at only the stuff student's submit, without knowing what they think about their own progress.
  • Allow for assessment of process and product
    • tmolitor
       
      I think the process is almost more important than the final product in everything that you do. I like that this mentions the process, and the product.
    • mschutjer
       
      All are great ideas and good practice
  • be aware of their learning
    • mistermohr
       
      Monitoring your own learning is the most important skill that we can help students learn.
  • goal of learning more
    • barbkfoster
       
      I feel we need to change our culture from that of earning good grades to one of learning. We will spend our whole lives learning, unlearning, and relearning. To be successful at anything we need to learn the skill of self-assessment - am I doing what I need to be doing? The world is ever-changing and we need to figure out how to make it (and ourselves) better. We can help young people do this by helping them learn to self-assess in school.
  • assessing their progress towards those goals
    • barbkfoster
       
      We have talked about using a portfolio to conduct student-led conferences with parents and teachers. Our current PT conference protocol is out-dated in this day of emails and online gradebooks. I think it would be awesome for students to choose student work that shows their progress toward course goals.
  • the lack of necessary skills
    • barbkfoster
       
      Is this a valid concern? How can my struggling students provide feedback to peers if they lack the necessary skills? How can a struggling writer give useful feedback to a peer who is a better writer?-- Just playing devil's advocate ;) Still a good question to think about in order to justify the use of peer assessment.
  • One of the ways in which students internalize the characteristics of quality work is by evaluating the work of their peers.
    • rhoadsb_
       
      Peer evaluation is a great way for students to cognitively grasp the material.
  • Goal setting is essential because students can evaluate their progress more clearly when they have targets against which to measure their performance.
    • rhoadsb_
       
      Goal setting is one our standards and greatly enhances student motivation to achieve on the fitness tests.
  • Portfolios are purposeful, organized, systematic collections of student work that tell the story of a student's efforts, progress, and achievement in specific areas.
    • rhoadsb_
       
      We are currently having our PE students create an ePortfolio in Canvas that will follow them K-12 and serve as a final artifact for them as a senior.
  • Engage students in establishing ongoing learning goals
    • rhoadsb_
       
      This is one of the main objectives with the ePortfolio, as it will guide our students down a path of personalized learning to achieve their goals.
rhoadsb_

ollie-afe-2019: Article: Attributes from Effective Formative Assessment (CCSSO) - 0 views

  • Because the formative assessment process helps students achieve intended learning outcomes based on explicit learning progressions, teachers must first identify and then communicate the instructional goal to students.
    • alisauter
       
      The reason Learning Targets are so important to establish and communicate.
    • kmolitor
       
      Articulating goals in student friendly language is important so students know what the target is.
    • barbkfoster
       
      As our district moves forward to standards-based learning/grading, we need to change our mindset. Students need to see learning as more important that "getting a good grade'. We can help this process by sharing the learning targets with them.
    • jennham
       
      In order for the students to see that the learning is more important than the grade, educators also need to make that shift in thinking. As my son starts applying to colleges, it seems to be ALL about his grades. I know many of my sons' teachers also feel that getting a good grade is the end result. I think students as a whole would be more receptive to how much they have learned if their teachers modeled that as well.
    • annott
       
      This is where the rubric comes into play. Students need to know or see what they will be evaluated on for the final product. I really like the idea of having students create their own rubric.
  • Effective formative assessment involves collecting evidence about how student learning is progressing during the course of instruction so that necessary instructional adjustments can be made to close the gap between students’ current understanding and the desired goals. Formative assessment is not an adjunct to teaching but, rather, integrated into instruction and learning with teachers and students receiving frequent feedback.
    • alisauter
       
      People think this can be "scripted" but it really can't. Formative assessment CHANGES the teaching and learning processes to meet the needs of the learners. It is fluid.
    • mistermohr
       
      and I think it is difficult to say that formative assessment can close the gap. Imagine if classrooms waited for everyone to get something before moving on. Formative assessment is more beneficial, in my opinion, in small groups. If 90% of kids get an exit ticket correct, the class will likely move on. Even though we know that 10% don't get it.
    • jennham
       
      In an ideal situation you would move on, but the 10% would receive additional instruction in order to learn and understand what they didn't before. The trick is to find the time to do that. Every time we find time in order to make this happen it seems to get snatched up by something else that we need to do.
    • mschutjer
       
      This is something we can been discussing a great deal and whether we should include it in our grade books...with or without points and we do not give credit for formative assessments.
  • In self-assessment, students reflect on and monitor their learning using clearly explicated criteria for success.
    • alisauter
       
      I think this is harder for some kids to do than others.
    • kmolitor
       
      I agree but if we did it more and across the curriculum we could help them all become better at it.
    • Wendy Arch
       
      I find that kids are often more critical of themselves than I would be. Maybe it's false modesty, but when I've had students do a post-writing reflection or log, most of the time they think their writing is crap and they struggled more than I say in class. That is often eye opening since we think we know what happens in our classrooms, but it shouldn't be a surprise that students - like teachers - are experts at hiding their struggles.
  • ...51 more annotations...
  • Creating such a culture requires teachers to model these behaviors during interactions with students, to actively teach the classroom norms, and to build the students’ skills in constructive self- and peer-assessment. In this type of classroom culture, students will more likely feel they are collaborators with their teacher and peers in the learning process.
    • alisauter
       
      This reminds me of the routines you have to build with elementary students each fall for things like centers, bell ringers, daily 5, etc. Even blended and flipped learning needs routines visited and revisited at the beginning.
    • mgast40diigo
       
      This is why I love the math curriculum I am using. The main focus is collaboration. Everyday students are expected to come up and share their work on how they solved the problem. Students enjoy learning from their classmates.
    • mrsmeganmorgan
       
      It's interesting to me that in elementary we spend the time to create a culture, but many teachers ignore this in the secondary classroom.
  • Increasing numbers of educators regard formative assessment as a way not only to improve student learning, but also to increase student scores on significant achievement examinations.
    • robertsreads
       
      It is worrisome to me that the focus seems to be more on increasing student standardized test scores than increasing student learning/understanding. Which is better for the student in the long run?
    • chriskyhl
       
      an agreed concern.....so much focus on standardized scores has changed focus to results instead of learning
    • rhoadsb_
       
      Do standardized tests provide value to our students, really? Cant say they do. Formative assessment is for guiding the teacher and student to learn, not take a test.
  • From a learning progression teachers have the big picture of what students need to learn, as well as sufficient detail for planning instruction to meet short-term goals.
    • robertsreads
       
      This is why it is important to begin each assignment with the end in mind. What do we want students to learn, how will we measure that learning, and how to we get there?
    • mistermohr
       
      Agreed. From a person interested in the content and the learning of their students this makes sense. From a practical perspective, I think a large portion of students would not find any value in this. I would guess over 50% would not read it and would not use it. Now, as a teacher, I can say you should have read this to know how to improve, that isn't a practical solution though. I think that has to come from application and purposeful relevancy.
    • tmolitor
       
      I also agree. As a teacher you need to know the end goal, and work backwards
    • mschutjer
       
      This is a great idea. I would love to get some of these set up. A great tool to use with students.
  • Descriptive feedback should be about the particular qualities of student learning with discussion or suggestions about what the student can do to improve. It should avoid comparisons with other pupils. Specific, timely feedback should be based on the learning goal and criteria for success. It should help the student answer three basic questions: Where am I going? Where am I now? How can I close the gap?
    • robertsreads
       
      It is of the utmost importance to make sure that students are only comparing their work to their prior efforts, as opposed to comparing their work to that of other students.
    • mgast40diigo
       
      I like the last 3 questions of the paragraph. Great questions for me to ask. It would be a nice way to have the students reflect after a test as well.
    • kmolitor
       
      I agree Matt, these questions can help students reflect on their learning, and it would be great to have all teachers use them so it becomes second nature to students.
    • barbkfoster
       
      I notice the word "timely". This is SO important but also so hard to do with teachers' workloads. Does anyone have something that works for both the teacher and student?
    • mrsmeganmorgan
       
      I love this idea from Caitlin Tucker: https://catlintucker.com/2019/02/ask-yourself-why-am-i-grading-this/ So much of what we grade does not require a grade. Maybe if we make this adjustment, our work load would decrease.
    • annott
       
      This is something that I have to continue to improve.
  • Alternatively, feedback could be given using a format such as “two stars and a wish,” which provides a structure for a student to identify two aspects of the work that are particularly strong (stars) and one aspect the peer might improve (a wish).
    • robertsreads
       
      I really like this idea, as it focuses on what students are doing well. It is much easier to take constructive criticism when it is couched with praise.
    • jennham
       
      I really like this idea as well! Phrasing it as "a wish" will be easier for the creator of the project to hear, but will also be easier for the evaluator to give. I know I have students who constantly say,"You don't need to change anything," not because they think that is true, but because they do not want to bruise anyone's feelings.
  • Formative assessment is a process used by teachers and students during instruction that provides feedback to adjust ongoing teaching and learning to improve students’ achievement of intended instructional outcomes.
    • sjensen21
       
      Notice the definition does not say that formative assessments can't be graded. I am a proponent of grading formative assessments, but I have heard others say it should not be.
    • mpercy
       
      I think Evan mentioned this in one of his video chats. He talked about the value of not grading the formative assessment but using it to enhance classroom discussion. Would this work in a math classroom?
    • cathy84
       
      This is an excellent point. My first reaction was No! Don't grade it! But then I thought about the chapter reading quizzes I would give. In some ways these were formative because I wanted to see if students understood the chapter in the novel. In others, it was summative in that I wanted to hold students accountable for the reading. I did grade them. Hmmm...Interesting
    • tmolitor
       
      I think it is so interesting to consider not grading formative assessments. I feel like every time I give an assignment to students the first question they ask is "Will this go on my grade?"
    • annott
       
      I think many times we ask students during a lesson, to give a number of fingers as to whether you understand what we just shared. And I had done that for many years, but never knew it was called formative assessment until a few years ago.
    • chriskyhl
       
      I really enjoy that formative assessment can be done in so many different ways (verbally, a quiz, practice problems, exit tickets, review games, etc.....) I do get where Trevor is coming from though......very much a grade centric focus instead of a learning focus
    • rhoadsb_
       
      Exactly we need to get away from grading everything as we may not have taught the content in way that ll can learn. Use FA to guide instruction and improve student learning.
  • five attributes
    • sjensen21
       
      1. Learning Progressions 2. Learning Goals 3. Descriptive Feedback 4. Self- and Peer-Assessment 5. Collaboration
  • Descriptive Feedback:
    • sjensen21
       
      This is by far the most important part of formative assessment for students. Teachers need to provide timely, informative feedback, so that students can learn from their mistakes.
    • tmolitor
       
      Agreed! The feedback piece is the most important by far, and you mentioned how important it is to have it in a timely manner!
  • Self- and Peer-Assessment
    • sjensen21
       
      Peer assessment is the most difficult for all parties involved. It is difficult for students to critique each other's work appropriately and it is difficult for students to receive feedback from peers. It is also difficult for teachers to model appropriate behaviors for peer assessment.
    • tmolitor
       
      I agree. It is always hard to get students to do this the right way. The idea behind it is awesome though, if you could somehow get students to appropriately evaluate their classmates work.
  • The students must be actively involved in the systematic process intended to improve their learning. The process requires the teacher to share learning goals with students and provide opportunities for students to monitor their ongoing progress.
    • mgast40diigo
       
      I like this idea about students having an active process. This would be very valuable for both the student and teacher. If the student has more of an active process by setting goals and monitoring them I feel they would have sense of ownership in the process. Very powerful when they feel this way.
    • Deborah Cleveland
       
      I agree. I think it would increase student ownership of the learning process.
    • chriskyhl
       
      Totally agree! Student choice and voice is an important piece that I think we miss out on frequently in education
    • rhoadsb_
       
      If students are not involved in the process they will see it as a check box.
  • To support both self- and peer-assessment, the teacher must provide structure and support so students learn to be reflective of their own work and that of their peers, allowing them to provide meaningful and constructive feedback.
    • mgast40diigo
       
      This is something that I need to do a better job of. I've thought about using math journals where students could reflect on on their own work and that of their peers when peer evaluating. The lack of time is the excuse.
    • cathy84
       
      It's not an excuse; it's a reality. When you have over 100 students, it's impossible to give them as much attention as you would like.
  • This will provide students with a reasonably clear idea of the analytic skills they are to develop and also provide them with the tools required to assess their own written analyses.
    • zackkaz
       
      Hopefully being careful that students are not just regurgitating information. Sometimes I think we get wrapped up in getting content and skills across we don't notice ourselves spoon feeding.
  • This involves moving from the early stages of reasoning based on simple observation to the more complex stages based on indirect observation and the synthesis of multiple sources of information.
    • zackkaz
       
      Which happens at different times for different students. Some may have already accomplished it while others need more scaffolding to achieve it.
    • kimgrissom
       
      True! I think these kinds of complex skills are exactly the ones that might be worth the time for formal formative feedback so students and teachers see who has it and who doesn't.
  • A classroom culture in which teachers and students are partners in learning should be established.
    • zackkaz
       
      Honestly, I forget this part the most of the 5 categories. I am not the CEO, but more a manager.
    • mistermohr
       
      I like this one the most. It is all about relationships!!!
    • tmolitor
       
      I agree! However that quote goes "Students don't care how much you know, until they know how much you care."
    • annott
       
      This may be the most important attribute.
    • tommuller4
       
      I think this might be most important attribute of all. Culture and climate are so important. Kids will work hard for you even if they don't want to do the project if you have a good relationship with them.
  • without dissent:
    • zackkaz
       
      Amazing to me that no one disagreed. Worries me about groupthink occurring at that meeting. I'm not saying I disagree with the definition, but that really amazes me there was no dissent.
    • Wendy Arch
       
      I imagine if people were at a meeting about formative assessment, they would all be on the same page to begin with. I imagine this was merely a wordsmithing session and less of deliberate one.
  • is to provide evidence that is used by teachers
    • Wendy Arch
       
      depending on what I'm looking for, formative assessment can sometimes be more effective for just me. Often my students don't really know (or care) where they are in the grand scheme of things, but I need to know so I can determine our course.
    • cathy84
       
      I did have students use their comprehension quizzes as a formative assessment. If they did not get 8/10, I had them write a note on the quiz as to why. Did they just not do the reading? Did the read it while multi-tasking? Did they read it but just not get it? I was hoping to make them aware of their learning and why it was not where it should be when considering reading comprehension of a novel. But then, maybe I should not have graded it??
  • a process rather than a particular kind of assessment.
    • Wendy Arch
       
      This is where it gets difficult for me sometimes. The recursive aspect is difficult when dealing with a common course that is supposed to stay on track with other sections led by other teachers. Having the ability to be flexible with instruction is essential, but when "aligned" with other teachers, that flexibility can be constrained.
  • informal observations and conversations to purposefully planned instructionally embedded techniques designed to elicit evidence of student learning
    • kimgrissom
       
      Many teachers do a lot of formative assessment in the way of observation, listening, even questioning. In an online setting, this is the part that harder. But as standards move more to skills and concepts rather than just knowledge, those "embedded techniques" might be a piece that's missing. Many times when students "miss the mark" on the test, it's because there was a disconnect in what they thought they were supposed to know or lack of feedback on what they were supposed to do.
  • offers enough substantive information to allow the student an opportunity to identify ways to move learning forward.
    • kimgrissom
       
      The use of models here is the key though. Sometimes this info isn't enough if they have seen or heard many speeches that do this (and most kids haven't).
    • cathy84
       
      As a former writing teacher, I never doubted the power of the feedback. The problem was finding the time. I could not read 100+ papers twice: once formative and second summative. It was a struggle to provide the feedback they needed and survive the job.
    • tmolitor
       
      I teach Math so I can't imagine what it is like trying to provide timely feedback for writing assignments. I think it's hard enough to do it with math homework when the student is missing a piece of the equation or something.
  • they can take an active role in planning, monitoring, and evaluating their own progress.
    • kimgrissom
       
      I've always felt that one of the biggest benefits of peer-assessment has nothing to do with the feedback--it has to do with perspective. When a student sees how another student approached a writing prompt or a problem or a process, it allows them to look differently at their own work. If the only thing students ever see is the the teacher's thinking and their own, it can limit their understanding.
  • supporting students as they monitor and take responsibility for their own learning
    • kimgrissom
       
      This is something almost all teachers would like more of, but it's hard for students to do that if we don't give them the success criteria, vocabulary, and feedback to help them be more independent in reaching our expectations.
  • a formative tes
    • Deborah Cleveland
       
      I always wonder about this when I hear teachers saying that they are using plc time to develop "common formative assessments".
    • annott
       
      You have a valid point Deborah. Should we have common formative assessments or not? According to this article it's an ongoing process throughout a lesson and should be adaptive to each teacher.
    • mschutjer
       
      I think it is one more item in education we do not have time to create...common formative assessments.
  • teachers and students
    • Deborah Cleveland
       
      Shouldn't all teaching and learning involve educators and students? lol.
    • barbkfoster
       
      I feel that all too often teachers think of weekly quizzes as formative assessment. Unfortunately, those weekly quizzes are often not used to adjust teaching. This definition says it is a PROCESS. I don't think many teachers think of it that way.
    • annott
       
      I agree Barb, I know I don't think of it as a process. I need to work on that.
  • meta-cognitively
    • Deborah Cleveland
       
      Asking students to think metacognatively about learning will hopefully make them more efficient learners in the future.
  • Learning Goals and Criteria for Success: Learning goals and criteria for success should be clearly identified and communicated to students.
    • Deborah Cleveland
       
      While I am not in classrooms very often, almost all of them do this. I feel like this is something that teachers have made a real effort to do.
    • mistermohr
       
      Agreed. However, in my experience, most students don't care. It is kind of like showing them standards. Even in kid friendly language, they largely don't care. I think this article brings up lots of good information, but the reality of practice is much different than the reality of the folks coming up with these things.
    • nealjulie
       
      Formative assessments gives teachers the checkpoints of learning with their students. It informs their instruction of what to do next.
    • nealjulie
       
      I like how this clarifies that there are many different types of formative assessments.
  • and show the trajectory of learning along which students are expected to progress
    • annott
       
      As I learn more about scaffolding, I think that is a good way to cover learning progression.
    • nealjulie
       
      Progressions give teachers and students a pathway of learning.
  • evidence-based feedback
    • mistermohr
       
      ha ha ha...again a reality of practice. You can't reliably do this for 150 kids and every formative assessment. What about the informal formative assessments? Technology can help with this, but again it has to be setup to do so.
    • mrsmeganmorgan
       
      I think you bring up a valid point. We really need to spend the time giving feedback, but I am wondering what is the difference between informal vs formal feedback. I have seen teachers use an "autopsy" after certain assignments so major issues are address large group. Often students tend to make similar mistakes.
    • tommuller4
       
      Giving feed back to every student is all most impossible to do in a timely matter if you 100+ students. I like the idea of addressing major mistakes as a large group because like Megan said most times multiple students make the same mistake or have the same problem.
    • nealjulie
       
      Students should also be given descriptive feedback.
  • involving students in decisions about how to move learning forward are illustrations of students and teachers working together in the teaching and learning process.
    • nealjulie
       
      I like this idea of student feedback. This is a very powerful tool.
  • teachers and students
    • mpercy
       
      It is really important to get students to take ownership of their learning.
  • In addition to communicating the nature of the instructional goal, teachers must provide the criteria by which learning will be assessed so that students will know whether they are successfully progressing toward the goal. This information should be communicated using language readily understood by students, and may be accompanied by realistic examples of those that meet and do not meet the criteria.
    • mpercy
       
      How is this best accomplished? Does using an "I can" statement at the start of a math lesson accomplish this goal? I tend to think my students are not really interested in these statements. This also seems to feel like a time consuming requirement for a teacher. I feel a time crunch with just getting the lesson taught and giving kids a little work time in class.
    • cathy84
       
      And I am wondering, does this apply to adult learners in a PD setting?
    • rhoadsb_
       
      We are going down this road in more detail in our district now with SBG and rubrics are essential to learning and the communication to students.
  • Helping students think meta-cognitively about their own learning fosters the idea that learning is their responsibility
    • mpercy
       
      I need to include more opportunities for this as I think it is really important for students to take ownership of their learning.
    • barbkfoster
       
      I've always tried to do this as I teach high school math. I love that math has a right answer but there are multiple ways to get it. I always tell students that we are filling their "toolbox" as we learn strategies to solving problems. Ultimately, though, it is up to them to make sense of what "tool" works best for them.
  • However, for students to be actively and successfully involved in their own learning, they must feel that they are bona fide partners in the learning process.
    • mpercy
       
      I think this sounds right but is it attainable with all students? Or more importantly how is it attainable. Several of my students come to mind that really don't express a desire to learn Algebra or Geometry and I have not been successful in changing that attitude!
    • cathy84
       
      This is very doable, I think, when working with adult learners in a PD environment.
    • jennham
       
      I feel that is is doable, but I also feel it will be an uphill battle all the way with some students. It is very hard to overcome, in one week or month or year, the baggage some kids bring with them. However, this isn't a new struggle to us or to them. Anything and everything that helps them to succeed is what we will do!
    • mrsmeganmorgan
       
      Jen, YES! It takes time for our students to trust us to build a partnership. We need to realize that trust is built one small moment at a time.
    • cathy84
       
      Interesting...I have never heard of this group nor heard of this initiative. Education is a complex world
  • short-term goals to keep track of how well their students’ learning is moving forward.
    • kmolitor
       
      Learning progressions are a great way to scaffold and have those checkpoints to see where students are at and help identify where students need assistance.
    • whsfieldbio
       
      I agree that checkpoints or formative assessments during a learning progression are extremely important. Without, a student could easily go through the motions and when it came to the summative assessment they would completely fail.
  • inform instruction and learning
    • mistermohr
       
      I think there are constant examples of assessment informing instruction in classrooms. I find it interesting the formal formative assessment argument seems to hold water but informal or on the fly decisions in a classroom are not typically seen as quality modifications due to formative assessment since they are not done with hard data, but rather subjective data.
  • A teacher needs to have modeled good feedback with students and talked about what acceptable and unacceptable comments look like in order to have created a safe learning environment.
    • Wendy Arch
       
      Modeling is, of course, always the most effective, but how do we move students beyond just copying the model? I find most of my upper level, grade-grubbing, high-achieving students will stop taking intellectual risks the more I model. They don't want to be "wrong" so they play it safe.
  • Sharing learning goals and criteria for success with students
    • mrsmeganmorgan
       
      We need to spend more time sharing goals with our students.
  • The teacher might first offer students a paraphrased version of that goal such as, “You will be able to judge the strengths and weaknesses of arguments in the editorials you find in our daily newspapers.” The teacher would discuss the criteria for evaluating arguments and then provide several examples of critiques of political essays
    • tommuller4
       
      I think its a good idea to show students some sort of example of what you are expecting from them. Especially if its the first time you try something in your class.
  • Both self- and peer-assessment are important
    • tommuller4
       
      I think both self and peer assessment are a great idea. It's always good for student to self reflect on their work but its also good for them to hear feedback from classmates instead of just the teacher all the time.
    • chriskyhl
       
      Peer reflection and peer learning to me is almost as valuable as teacher reflection. I think students learn better from peers than teachers in lots of situations because students can explain in their own language
  • inform and adjust instruction
    • whsfieldbio
       
      I see a disconnect in utilization of formative assessment data to adjust instruction in elementary compared to secondary classrooms. K-5 teachers seem to be more knowledgable and willing to change instruction where secondary teachers struggle. Perhaps it's the number of students or race against the curriculum map, but I have observed that formative assessment data may come back showing poor understanding, but teachers keep moving forward.
  • The success criterion that the teacher gives them is, “Include any properties or rules that may apply in your explanation.”
    • whsfieldbio
       
      As I read this example I think about how this activity could be put online. You could easily to a screencast or Flipgrid "think-a-loud" to explain thinking and meet the criteria of the teacher. This could be done individually or in a small group.
  • Students then need time to reflect on the feedback they have received to make changes or improvements.
    • whsfieldbio
       
      I think this is a missed opportunity in classes. It is important to build in time to reflect, becuase students may not review this on their own. I thinking it's equally important to model what self reflection looks like and how it can be used to improve outcomes. It's just another layer of scaffolding.
  • investigate the past from a range of sources of information,
    • kylelehman
       
      This is how I get my students excited about inquiries. They get to play detective and have fun with the information that they are diving into.
  • in increasingly sophisticated ways
    • kylelehman
       
      This is where I allow my students to work on their own and really challenge themselves. This idea that a student can progress on their own gives them a sense of ownership and ability to make their own path.
  • provide an explanation
    • kylelehman
       
      I love this! I do something similar when it comes to quick writes in my class. The first quick write that we do, I take a great, a good, and a needs work. I post all three of them (without names) and then go over why we think as a class each got the score they did. Great way to build skills.
  • self-reflective b
    • kylelehman
       
      Self-reflection is huge! Now that we are moving towards SBG, I have tried working in more and more self-reflection into my rubrics. I want them thinking about what they did. On all my essays, they go through the rubric first and determine their score and add comments as to why they think they should get that score and then I go in after and grade and we can sort of compare.
mschutjer

ollie-afe-2019: Building a Better Mousetrap - 0 views

  • Rubrics can be used either for “filtering”—as they are used in placement testing—or for “latticing,” or “scaffolding”—if they are shared with students prior to the completion of any given assignment.
    • alisauter
       
      I think communicating the rubric ahead of time makes them easier to score. I have had to conduct technology camp entrance interviews using a rubric that is "blind" and they are more challenging because the students come into the interviews completely blind to any of the questions or criteria.
    • zackkaz
       
      Ali, I agree I feel like giving the rubric for the assessment with the directions at the beginning helps students understand what the assessment is assessing. I just hope it doesn't lead to students formula writing like suggested late in the article. Or possibly killing creativity.
    • tmolitor
       
      I can easily see both sides of the coin here. On one hand it's tough to give students an assignment and not tell them how its being graded. On the other if a student knows exactly what they need to do to get the score, then it does kill creativity.
    • barbkfoster
       
      I can see where sharing the rubric might "kill creativity" but I think sharing the rubric is a great way to let students know what you are looking for and what is important. I know of many teachers who share the rubric at the very beginning of a paper/project/assessment, but I don't know of many who use it somewhere in the middle. I think we get too caught up in the completion that we forget to take time in the middle to help students self-evaluate their work. I think this is a great way to teach students to be owners of their own learning, and thus success.
    • rhoadsb_
       
      I really like this for pre-assessment. Students can self assess and start where there are with their learning. The teacher will need to have the classroom set-up to meet all the needs of the students accordingly.
  • habits of mind practiced in the act of self-assessment.
    • alisauter
       
      THIS! I think developing the right mindset in our students when it comes to grading and rubrics is so important, although sometimes challenging.
    • Wendy Arch
       
      I agree, but we will need to put more of an emphasis on student self-assessment and justification as well as post-assignment reflection. Much of the time students and teachers see final assessment as a "post mortem" evaluation of where they were with nothing to be done about where they can go.
    • Deborah Cleveland
       
      Here is an interesting critical thinking rubric https://educate.intel.com/download/K12/elements/pba_lessons/resources/24_Critical_Thinking_Rubric.pdf This rubric could be used throughout a project to help the learner think about their thinking.
  • others worry that doing so will encourage formulaic writing
    • alisauter
       
      I think that this depends on how the rubric is written.
    • Wendy Arch
       
      I've found it also depends on the student. Ironically, I've found that the higher achieving students will tend more strongly toward formulaic writing because they are worried about "missing points." If the grade on the assessment puts their GPA at risk, they are not willing to do any intellectual risk taking.
    • sjensen21
       
      Seems to me that if a student meets the criteria, then that is what is expected. (Coming from a person who is not inherently creative.)
    • cathy84
       
      LOL. I just wrote this very thing "students create their paper too closely like the model" in last paragraph. The problem with following it so closely is that I wasn't sure they really understood the concept if they couldn't recreate it in an independent way.
  • ...89 more annotations...
  • Rubrics that are prescriptive rather than descriptive will promote thoughtless and perfunctory writing; such rubrics are as limiting to the development of rhetorical mastery as the five-paragraph essay.
    • annott
       
      This is hard for me to do. I am a concrete thinker, and writing prescriptive rubrics is something I need to work on.
  • adopt a rubric
    • alisauter
       
      Rubistar and https://rubric-maker.com have different academic content area rubrics and grade levels.
    • kmolitor
       
      rubistar is helpful...sites like this can help build your skills as you create your own rubrics on that site as well.
  • While the fundamental focus of assessment is always to promote learning, there are other reasons why we engage in assessment: curriculum reform, placement, promotion, diagnosis, accountability, and so on (Critical Issue).
    • alisauter
       
      Establishing your purpose is so vital.
  • well-designed rubrics help instructors in all disciplines meaningfully assess the outcomes of the more complicated assignments that are the basis of the problem-solving, inquiry-based, student-centered pedagogy replacing the traditional lecture-based, teacher-centered approach in tertiary education
    • robertsreads
       
      Well-designed and meaningful - I think these are the keys to a good rubric. If it doesn't measure what it aims to measure, then a rubric is completely useless.
    • mgast40diigo
       
      I agree as well. It is important that students see what his or her expectations are before they right instead of getting the information from teachers at the end.
    • annott
       
      When I started many moons ago, in the classroom, almost every period was lecture. Student based learning is so much more effective.
    • kimgrissom
       
      This is interesting that they're using rubrics at the post-secondary level. I agree that the best use of rubrics is for complicated assignments that ask students to problem-solve, show conceptual understanding, or even just write extended explanations. Rubrics are too time-consuming to write to use for simple tasks.
    • tmolitor
       
      It's important to have something to objectively assess outcomes of these types of assignments.
  • Rick Stiggins, of the Assessment Training Institute, contends that we ought to illicit student input when constructing rubrics
    • robertsreads
       
      While I assume the author means 'elicit' and not 'illicit', I do agree that getting student input is essential, especially at the high school and college level where we are seeking to have students think meaningfully and critically about their work.
    • cathy84
       
      I struggle with this a bit, for how do students know exactly what is quality of a product they do not have extensive knowledge of?
  • Moreover, some teachers have noticed how students who were good writers become wooden when writing under the influence of a rubric
    • robertsreads
       
      This does not surprise me at all. My six year old was docked for not using the word "next" in one of her writings. I read the work, and her transition was much more advanced than that (something I would have encouraged as a high school teacher).
    • annott
       
      I could see how students would get stagnant in their writing.
    • mschutjer
       
      Maybe I do not make rubrics correctly...because I really do not see this happening!
  • Look at some actual examples of student work to see if you have omitted any important dimensions.
    • robertsreads
       
      This is a great idea! It's similar to requesting student input without the students feeling pressured to contribute.
    • Wendy Arch
       
      Often this recalibration happens the year after in my experience. As an English teacher, we rubricate everything - for good or bad. I've found that once we ask students to go through a task and use the rubric to assess it, we see where the task, our teaching, and the rubric fail.
    • zackkaz
       
      Student feedback can be just as useful to us to Wendy.
  • a set of standards and/or directions for assessing student outcomes and guiding student learning
    • Wendy Arch
       
      I see the confusion stemming from a linguistic debate about whether "directions" refers to the task requirements (e.g. write a persuasive essay using 5 sources) or the assessment criteria (cites strong and thorough textual evidence). Many times students ask to see the "rubric" when they really just mean the specific task requirements.
  • “performance benchmarks” for the “behavioral objectives” appropriate to each year in the program. E
    • Wendy Arch
       
      I find this interesting that they are assessing "behavioral objectives." Much of what our discussions around grading versus assessing have focused on is the need to grade/assess the demonstrated learning and NOT the behavior which lead to the demonstrated learning.
  • study on student-generated rubrics, they tend to “think more deeply about their learning.”
    • Wendy Arch
       
      I tried having students create their own rubrics for an independent learning project. They were all high achieving seniors near the end of their secondary academic career. And across the board, NONE of them said they enjoyed the process, calling it one of the hardest parts of the project as a whole. ALL said it was very eye opening. Ironically, these high-achieving, point grubbing seniors found it MORE difficult to define for themselves what a "perfect" project would be, then to just rise to standards already set by someone else (me). Having to set the bar themselves made them far more nervous about meeting it than if I had set a goal for them to meet. It does make sense, however. By setting their own standards, they would potentially be letting themselves down if they did not rise to their own challenges. Whereas, if they did not fully meet the criteria on a teacher generated rubric, it did not necessarily reflect badly on themselves.
    • cathy84
       
      Fascinating and insightful!
    • kimgrissom
       
      Wow. Good points!
  • writing a 1000 word essay that “cites x number of sources and supports its thesis with at least three arguments”
    • Wendy Arch
       
      See, these seem more like task requirements rather than assessable rubric criteria
    • annott
       
      Yes Wendy, I agree. This would be an assignment, but not in the rubric.
    • kimgrissom
       
      Yes, and if that's all you want to grade, you could just make it a checklist and save yourself a lot of prep time!
    • tmolitor
       
      I think that a checklist instead of a rubric in that case is a great idea.
  • Of course, a teacher could have the best of both worlds here, by designing a rubric on a PC that allows for the easy insertion of assignment specific traits.
    • Wendy Arch
       
      Is there anyone who DOESN'T do this?
    • annott
       
      Most of mine are the same but then I change the content part for the details of the assignment.
  • A holistic rubric is more efficient and the best choice when criteria overlap and cannot be adequately separated; an analytical rubric, however, will yield more detailed information about student performance and, therefore, will provide the student with more specific feedback.
    • Wendy Arch
       
      Interestingly, until the 2019-2020 school year, the College Board and AP programs have always used holistic rubrics to score the written essay portions of the exams (at least the English Language and Literature exams). These were used because, especially for the third free-response question, students could choose to respond to any aspect of the passage they chose. With the third free-response question, students had a choice about what text to use to respond to a very vague thematic prompt. Holistic rubrics were necessary to meet the needs of all these different approaches. Beginning next year, during the 2019-2020 school year, the College Board and AP program are replacing all holistic rubrics with analytic ones to "more specific feedback on your Instructional Planning Reports about your students' performance." Interestingly, this feedback is not to the students - students never see their rubrics - but to the teachers so the teachers can adjust their teaching. https://apcentral.collegeboard.org/courses/ap-english-literature-and-composition/course/updates-2019-20
    • kimgrissom
       
      That's interesting! The College Board switched to an analytical rubric for social studies a few years ago. It will be interesting to compare those.
    • kimgrissom
       
      In the case of social studies, it gives the student and teacher more specific guidance in what should be included rather than feedback.
  • In addition to these basic directions, you should consider your purpose and audience.
    • Wendy Arch
       
      I mentioned this above, but the College Board and the AP program are changing their use of rubrics from holistic to analytic to provide TEACHERS with a better understanding of student performance and comprehension. It's interesting that the audience for these new rubrics will not be the students who are being assessed, but the teachers who taught them. Who is really being assessed here?
    • cathy84
       
      Great point!
  • we need a meta-rubric to assess our rubric.
    • Wendy Arch
       
      While this makes complete sense and would be a great use of PLCs, my instinctual response was "Oh Geez. Yet another thing..."
  • will lead students to perceive writing as a kind of “paint-by-number” endeavor (Mathews).
    • mgast40diigo
       
      There are some rubrics that I have used that remind of this. Students basically being programmed on what to do to get an A without any deep learning taking place. However, I still see the need for rubrics like this.
    • barbkfoster
       
      I agree. Unfortunately, many times students use rubrics to get the grade they want without focusing on the learning. Maybe it's not the rubrics themselves but how we are using them in the classroom?
    • mschutjer
       
      I feel students are programed to give us what we want and not explore their own learning. So often when I give a writing assignment I hear first, how long does it have to be? How do we get away from that?
  • advocates of rubrics at all educational levels have argued that rubrics provide students with clear and specific qualities to strive for in those assignments that “are open-ended, aligned more closely to real-life learning situations and the nature of learning”
  • Indeed, since rubrics allow for widespread assessment of higher-level thinking skills, performance-based assessment is replacing or complementing more traditional modes of testing; this in turn means that teachers are changing their instructional modes to prepare their students for these tests
    • mgast40diigo
       
      Obviously a good thing with standardized tests focusing more on state standards.
  • Share the rubric with your students and their parents.
    • mgast40diigo
       
      Great for students to know expectations and criteria. Have never thought about sharing a rubric with parents. See the benefits of that as well.
  • “rubrics promote ‘mechanical instruction in writing’ that bypasses ‘the human act of composing and the human gesture of response’” (
  • More conceptually, critics claim that rubrics, in effect, dehumanize the act of writing. According to Thomas Newkirk, an English professor at the University of New Hampshire,
    • mgast40diigo
       
      Curious to know what methods of grading are popular among the critics of rubrics.
  • You can adapt a rubric—
    • zackkaz
       
      Honestly, I feel like this is what I do the most. I adopt a lot of rubrics and tweak them to fit what I want. I feel like in education there is a lot of resources available to me and people way smarter/better than me at their jobs. No point in reinventing the wheel, so why not adopt and tweak to fit the need that I have for my assessment.
  • “The Effects of Rubrics on Learning to Write,” has found that, while rubrics increased her students’ knowledge of the grading criteria and helped most of her students (especially the young male students) do well on the state writing test, many of the young female students, who had been more expressive in previous writing assignments, wrote poorly when writing, as we might say, to the rubric.
    • zackkaz
       
      That's always been a fear of mine with rubrics when writing an opinion or free write. Does this stifle the creativity of some students. It's really interesting to also look at who was seeing the bias as the article states girls/boys. Does it also bias ethnicities?
  • The issue of weighting may be another area in which you can enlist the help of students. At the beginning of the process, you could ask a student to select to select which aspect she values the most in her writing and weight that aspect when you assess her paper.
    • zackkaz
       
      +1 for student choice. Hopefully this would develop lifelong learning.
    • barbkfoster
       
      I think by enlisting the help of students in creating the rubric, it will promote ownership of learning. It should also help students keep in mind what is most important while they are creating their product.
  • “Is the assessment responsive to what we know about how [students] learn?” and “Does the assessment help students become the kinds of [citizens] we want them to be?”
    • zackkaz
       
      As a SS teacher that second part hits home. Will they be a responsible democratic citizen.
    • cathy84
       
      To me, this gets to the content of the assignment...not conventions.
  • rubrics should be used in conjunction with other strategies,
    • mpercy
       
      Rubrics are a great tool but not necessarily the way to go all the time. Students need to be exposed to other strategies as well.
    • kmolitor
       
      I agree multiple strategies should be used as that will help our students grow as learners.
  • Perhaps the greatest potential value of classroom assessment is realized when we open the assessment process up and welcome students into that process as full partners”
    • mpercy
       
      When students are part of the process there will likely be more enthusiasm and buy in from the students.
    • annott
       
      I have to admit, I have not gone this far yet. But it makes total sense, that if students are a part of creating the rubric they would have a better understanding of the expectations.
    • jennham
       
      I agree. It will give them a sense of ownership in their own learning. Even my elementary students would be more than able to help with this. I plan on rolling it out to my colleagues to try with an upcoming paper.
    • whsfieldbio
       
      I have seen this done with second graders. They were not creating criteria based on standards, but rather criteria for quality. The students decided what the quality of presentation and speaking were. They actually were pretty tough on eachother and set the bar high. This is a great process, but can also be a challenge if you have multiple classes and want to have some consensus with evaluating.
  • Revise the rubric and try it out again
    • mpercy
       
      Would this be the point to gather student input? I would want to make sure my objectives were being met and then allow students to input.
  • Each score category should be defined using description of the work rather than judgments about the work.”
    • mpercy
       
      Does this really make a difference to the student?
    • barbkfoster
       
      I like using rubrics so that it takes the teacher out of the grading. I like that communication is clear without bias.
  • When instructors plan on grading
    • Deborah Cleveland
       
      By giving students the langugage to talk about thinking we open the door to them reflecting on their thinking and eventually refining it.
  • , rubrics cannot be the sole response to a student’s paper; sound pedagogy would dictate that
    • Deborah Cleveland
       
      A writing assignment that is part of an authentic learning opportunity that the student chose to participate in might decrease the emphasis on simply meeting the criteria of a rubruc.
  • sions differently if you feel that one dimension is more important than another. There are two ways in which you can express this value judgment: 1. You may give a dimension more weight by multiplying the point by a number greater than one. For example, if you have four dimensions (content, organization, support, conventions) each rated on a six-point scale, and you wish to emphasis the importance of adequate support, you could multiply the support score by two. 2.
    • Deborah Cleveland
       
      I tend to use the "multiply a dimension by 2" method of weighting grades. In writing a particularly like this because it allows you to address things like conventions, but at the same time emphasize orther aspects of writing.
    • annott
       
      I use weight dimensions in History class. I'm not as worried about the writing style, sentence structure etc.... But I'm more concerned with the what they know and if there research is thorough. I still include those things on my rubric, it's just worth less points.
  • The instructor’s comments on papers and tests are done after rather than before the writing, so they cannot serve as guidelines, compromising the value of writing comments at all.”
    • tommuller4
       
      This is very important thing to think about. A student can't make changes to something they are doing after it is already turned in. They may think they are following all things on the rubric correctly but teacher may think differently
  • In any case, withholding assessment tools (whether they are rubrics or more nebulous modes of evaluation) from students is not only unfair and makes self-assessment more difficult
    • tommuller4
       
      Seems kind of stupid to not give the students the rubric for the assignment when they are working on it. You expect them to turn in something worth while without knowing what you want from them.
  • hose students who had been natural writers, those students who had “stylistic voices full of humor and surprises, produced less interesting essays when they followed the rules [as outlined in a rubric]
    • tommuller4
       
      I can see this being true across the board. Lots of time when I start a project the first thing some of the students ask is "what do I need to do to get an A." They don't care about learning the content. They just make their project geared to meet all requirements on the rubric and don't care about anything else.
    • jennham
       
      I hear that comment often. Until our system changes to not be so focused on the grade itself, I totally side with the students. We put so much pressure on kids to achieve and achieve well so that they can apply and receive scholarships, be inducted into NHS, make it into the college of their dreams...I feel we leave them absolutely no room to worry about the learning. Teachers are just as guilty. I can't count the times I have heard, "I don't know why he has a B; there isn't any reason why he shouldn't be getting an A in my class." (This is without me asking why my child has a B instead of an A.) To me that makes the focus on the grade. They never mention what my child is actually learning or not.
  • clear understanding of how rubrics operate can help educators of all levels design rubrics that facilitate, rather than obviate, student learning and teacher improvement.
    • kmolitor
       
      This is so true. Rubrics should be designed to help teachers facilitate learning so it's more student driven which will improve both student learning and allow teachers to improve.
  • Doing so, many educators argue, increases the likelihood of a quality product.
    • tommuller4
       
      I agree you can get a quality product by giving students the rubric up front but I don't think you will get a great product because students tend to not go above and beyond the rubric. They just do enough to meet the criteria for the grade they want. No more and no less.
  • evaluate your rubric
    • kmolitor
       
      I think it is important to continually evaluate your rubrics or any assessments for that matter. It is important to consider if you are assessing what you want/need to and get feedback from students.
    • sjensen21
       
      Stultifying: stunts creativity so that students achieve only what is required. Empowering: clarifies for students and teachers what is expected.
  • no longer appropriate
    • sjensen21
       
      "no longer appropriate" is a bit over-stated. Students in Introductory Statistics still need to know these skills. I agree that we do need to focus more on developing statistical thinking, so more performance tasks (and assessment rubrics) are necessary.
  • features known to the student
    • sjensen21
       
      Sharing the rubric with students at the beginning of the task holds students accountable and gives transparency to the task expectations.
    • cathy84
       
      That, for me, was the primary purpose of the rubric. I wished for students to know clearly what this project should show me of their knowledge and skill. It did always frustrate me that they didn't use it more as a resource as they edited and revised their papers.
    • jennham
       
      I agree as well. I found them useful as student so that I knew exactly what my teacher/instructor expected. I love them as a teacher as they give the students specific talking points before they start their assignment.
  • ull partners
    • sjensen21
       
      This seems like a big time-waster to me.
  • Build a metarubric
    • sjensen21
       
      This is a great checklist for evaluating our own rubrics that we have created.
  • a system which some educators see as stultifying and others see as empowering.
    • cathy84
       
      Not sure why it would be stultifying (which I looked up to be sure I knew what that meant). I mean, how much enthusiasm would a student have toward an assignment?
    • kimgrissom
       
      In some cases, a rubric can be a little too prescriptive and actually curb creativity for students. A more open assignment--for some students--allows for more interpretation or flexibility. I think it really depends on how "tight" the teacher writes the rubric.
    • rhoadsb_
       
      Rubrics can be empowering yes, but not everything needs a rubric in my opinion.
  • gineering programs
  • Closer to home, our own successful Allied Health programs depend on rubrics to both assess and encourage student learning.
  • rubrics can help the student with self-assessment
    • cathy84
       
      This was a big goal of mine as a writing teacher
    • mistermohr
       
      I think this is the biggest benefit of rubrics
  • “In short, explicit performance criteria, along with supporting models of work, make it possible for students to use the attributes of exemplary work to monitor their own performance.
    • cathy84
       
      I found the models to be very helpful for my students. My only problem is often students create something very close to the model. It often was a conundrum for me.
  • Is the description of criteria judgemental
    • cathy84
       
      That's a rule I have violated...and I probably knew best practice, but getting so specific in the criteria makes correcting so laborious
    • jennham
       
      You are so correct. Now that I have read this information, I know that when I would say "good", I meant, "following current conventions." Most 10-year-olds understand "good". Not so much for the other!
  • rubrics should be non-judgmental:
    • annott
       
      I have a hard time keeping judgement out of rubrics.
    • mistermohr
       
      this could be a place where submission into an LMS using blind grading can be a huge benefit! I love blind grading...rarely do I need to know who produced the artifact.
  • rubrics are now used similarly by post-secondary educators in all disciplines to assess outcomes in learning situations
    • annott
       
      As we are to assess the pros and cons of rubrics, I would say this is a con to using them. We need colleges to get on board and use them as well, and some are switching over.