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Matti Narkia

n-3 Fatty acids and cardiovascular disease -- Breslow 83 (6): S1477 -- American Journal... - 0 views

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    n-3 fatty acids and cardiovascular disease.
    Breslow JL.
    Am J Clin Nutr. 2006 Jun;83(6 Suppl):1477S-1482S. Review.
    PMID: 16841857

    The results of prospective cohort studies indicate that consuming fish or fish oil containing the n-3 fatty acids eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) is associated with decreased cardiovascular death, whereas consumption of the vegetable oil-derived n-3 fatty acid {alpha}-linolenic acid is not as effective. Randomized control trials (RCTs) in the context of secondary prevention also indicate that the consumption of EPA plus DHA is protective at doses <1 g />3 g/d, EPA plus DHA can improve cardiovascular disease risk factors, including decreasing plasma triacylglycerols, blood pressure, platelet aggregation, and inflammation, while improving vascular reactivity. Mainly on the basis of the results of RCTs, the American Heart Association recommends that everyone eat oily fish twice per week and that those with coronary heart disease eat 1 g/d of EPA plus DHA from oily fish or supplements. Directions for future research include 1) RCTs to confirm the initial trials showing that EPA plus DHA decreases cardiovascular death and additional studies to determine whether this effect is due to EPA, DHA, or the combination; the dosage of the effective components; and whether the mechanism of action in humans is prevention of fatal arrhythmias. 2) Clinical studies to determine whether the reduction in cardiovascular disease risk factors is due to EPA, DHA, or the combination and the dosage of the effective components. 3) Clinical studies to determine whether vegetable oil-derived {alpha}-linolenic acid added to a diet enriched in n-6 fatty acids can effectively substitute for fish oil-derived EPA plus DHA.
Matti Narkia

Effect of Fish Oil on Heart Rate in Humans: A Meta-Analysis of Randomized Controlled Tr... - 0 views

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    Effect of fish oil on heart rate in humans: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials.
    Mozaffarian D, Geelen A, Brouwer IA, Geleijnse JM, Zock PL, Katan MB.
    Circulation. 2005 Sep 27;112(13):1945-52. Epub 2005 Sep 19.
    PMID: 16172267
    doi: 10.1161/CIRCULATIONAHA.105.556886

    Conclusions- In randomized controlled trials in humans, fish oil reduces HR, particularly in those with higher baseline HR or longer treatment duration. These findings provide firm evidence that fish oil consumption directly or indirectly affects cardiac electrophysiology in humans. Potential mechanisms such as effects on the sinus node, ventricular efficiency, or autonomic function deserve further investigation.
Matti Narkia

A Diet Rich in Coconut Oil Reduces Diurnal Postprandial Variations in Circula... - 0 views

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    A diet rich in coconut oil reduces diurnal postprandial variations in circulating tissue plasminogen activator antigen and fasting lipoprotein (a) compared with a diet rich in unsaturated fat in women.
    Müller H, Lindman AS, Blomfeldt A, Seljeflot I, Pedersen JI.
    J Nutr. 2003 Nov;133(11):3422-7.
    PMID: 14608053

    In conclusion, our results indicate that a coconut oil-based diet (HSAFA-diet) lowers postprandial t-PA antigen concentration, and this may favorably affect the fibrinolytic system and the Lp(a) concentration compared with the HUFA-diet. The proportions of dietary saturated fatty acids more than the percentage of saturated fat energy seem to have a beneficial influence on Lp(a) levels.

    The connection between Lp(a) and atherosclerosis is not entirely understood. Different studies have provided strong evidence that Lp(a) level is an independent risk factor for developing coronary artery disease in men (47,48), but the question of causality continues to be debated. Recent data suggest that Lp(a) might be atherogenic (49), in particular when combined with other risk factors. High levels of Lp(a) combined with other risk factors such as the ratio of plasma total/HDL cholesterol have been shown to increase the risk for coronary heart diseases (50). It has also been reported that when substantial LDL cholesterol reductions were obtained in men with coronary heart disease, persistent elevations of Lp(a) were no longer atherogenic or clinically threatening (51).

    In conclusion, the present results show that the HSAFA-diet lowered postprandial t-PA antigen and thus potentially improved fibrinolysis compared with the HUFA-diet. Diets with either high or low levels of saturated fatty acids from coconut oil beneficially decrease Lp(a) compared with a HUFA-diet. The proportions of dietary saturated fatty acids more than the percentage of saturated fat energy may be of importance if the goal is to decrease Lp(a).
Matti Narkia

Use of cod liver oil during the first year of life is associated with lower risk of chi... - 0 views

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    Use of cod liver oil during the first year of life is associated with lower risk of childhood-onset type 1 diabetes: a large, population-based, case-control study.
    Stene LC, Joner G; Norwegian Childhood Diabetes Study Group.
    Am J Clin Nutr. 2003 Dec;78(6):1128-34.
    PMID: 14668274

    Conclusion: Cod liver oil may reduce the risk of type 1 diabetes, perhaps through the antiinflammatory effects of long-chain n-3 fatty acids.
Matti Narkia

Nutritional intervention with omega-3 Fatty acids in a case of malignant fibrous histio... - 0 views

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    Nutritional intervention with omega-3 Fatty acids in a case of\nmalignant fibrous histiocytoma of the lungs.
    Pardini RS, Wilson D, Schiff S, Bajo SA, Pierce R.
    Nutr Cancer. 2005;52(2):121-9.
    PMID: 16201843
Matti Narkia

Comparison of the effects of linseed oil and different doses of fish oil on mononuclear... - 0 views

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    Comparison of the effects of linseed oil and different doses of fish oil on mononuclear cell function in healthy human subjects.
    Wallace FA, Miles EA, Calder PC.
    Br J Nutr. 2003 May;89(5):679-89.
    PMID: 12720588

Matti Narkia

The postprandial effect of components of the Mediterranean diet on endothelial function... - 0 views

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    The postprandial effect of components of the Mediterranean diet on endothelial function.
    Vogel RA, Corretti MC, Plotnick GD.
    J Am Coll Cardiol. 2000 Nov 1;36(5):1455-60.
    PMID: 11079642
Matti Narkia

Nutritional intervention with omega-3 Fatty acids in a case of malignant fibrous histio... - 0 views

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    Nutritional intervention with omega-3 Fatty acids in a case of
    malignant fibrous histiocytoma of the lungs.
    Pardini RS, Wilson D, Schiff S, Bajo SA, Pierce R.
    Nutr Cancer. 2005;52(2):121-9.
    PMID: 16201843
Matti Narkia

n-3 fatty acid dietary recommendations and food sources to achieve essentiality and car... - 0 views

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    n-3 fatty acid dietary recommendations and food sources to achieve essentiality and cardiovascular benefits.
    Gebauer SK, Psota TL, Harris WS, Kris-Etherton PM.
    Am J Clin Nutr. 2006 Jun;83(6 Suppl):1526S-1535S. Review.
    PMID: 16841863

    Dietary recommendations have been made for n-3 fatty acids, including {alpha}-linolenic acid (ALA), eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) to achieve nutrient adequacy and to prevent and treat cardiovascular disease. These recommendations are based on a large body of evidence from epidemiologic and controlled clinical studies. The n-3 fatty acid recommendation to achieve nutritional adequacy, defined as the amount necessary to prevent deficiency symptoms, is 0.6-1.2% of energy for ALA; up to 10% of this can be provided by EPA or DHA. To achieve recommended ALA intakes, food sources including flaxseed and flaxseed oil, walnuts and walnut oil, and canola oil are recommended. The evidence base supports a dietary recommendation of {approx}500 mg/d of EPA and DHA for cardiovascular disease risk reduction. For treatment of existing cardiovascular disease, 1 g/d is recommended. These recommendations have been embraced by many health agencies worldwide. A dietary strategy for achieving the 500-mg/d recommendation is to consume 2 fish meals per week (preferably fatty fish). Foods enriched with EPA and DHA or fish oil supplements are a suitable alternate to achieve recommended intakes and may be necessary to achieve intakes of 1 g/d.
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