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Matti Narkia

Meta-analysis of prospective cohort studies evaluating the association of saturated fat... - 2 views

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    Meta-analysis of prospective cohort studies evaluating the association of saturated fat with cardiovascular disease.
    Siri-Tarino PW, Sun Q, Hu FB, Krauss RM.
    Am J Clin Nutr. 2010 Jan 13. [Epub ahead of print]
    PMID: 20071648
    doi:10.3945/ajcn.2009.27725

    Conclusions: A meta-analysis of prospective epidemiologic studies showed that there is no significant evidence for concluding that dietary saturated fat is associated with an increased risk of CHD or CVD. More data are needed to elucidate whether CVD risks are likely to be influenced by the specific nutrients used to replace saturated fat.
Matti Narkia

The hypoglycemic effect of fat and protein is not attenuated by insulin resistance -- L... - 0 views

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    The hypoglycemic effect of fat and protein is not attenuated by insulin resistance.
    Lan-Pidhainy X, Wolever TM.
    Am J Clin Nutr. 2009 Nov 18. [Epub ahead of print]
    PMID: 19923374
    doi:10.3945/ajcn.2009.28125

    Conclusions: The hypoglycemic effect of fat and protein was not blunted by insulin resistance. Protein increased insulin but had no effect on C-peptide or the insulin secretion rate, which suggests decreased hepatic insulin extraction or increased C-peptide clearance.
Matti Narkia

Cardiovascular disease risk of dietary stearic acid compared with trans, other saturate... - 0 views

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    Cardiovascular disease risk of dietary stearic acid compared with trans, other saturated, and unsaturated fatty acids: a systematic review1,3.
    Hunter JE, Zhang J, Kris-Etherton PM.
    Am J Clin Nutr. 2009 Nov 25. [Epub ahead of print]
    PMID: 19939984
    doi:10.3945/ajcn.2009.27661

    Conclusions: TFA intake should be reduced as much as possible because of its adverse effects on lipids and lipoproteins. The replacement of TFA with STA compared with other saturated fatty acids in foods that require solid fats beneficially affects LDL cholesterol, the primary target for CVD risk reduction; unsaturated fats are preferred for liquid fat applications. Research is needed to evaluate the effects of STA on emerging CVD risk markers such as fibrinogen and to understand the responses in different populations.
Matti Narkia

n-3 Fatty acids and cardiovascular disease -- Breslow 83 (6): S1477 -- American Journal... - 0 views

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    n-3 fatty acids and cardiovascular disease.
    Breslow JL.
    Am J Clin Nutr. 2006 Jun;83(6 Suppl):1477S-1482S. Review.
    PMID: 16841857

    The results of prospective cohort studies indicate that consuming fish or fish oil containing the n-3 fatty acids eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) is associated with decreased cardiovascular death, whereas consumption of the vegetable oil-derived n-3 fatty acid {alpha}-linolenic acid is not as effective. Randomized control trials (RCTs) in the context of secondary prevention also indicate that the consumption of EPA plus DHA is protective at doses <1 g />3 g/d, EPA plus DHA can improve cardiovascular disease risk factors, including decreasing plasma triacylglycerols, blood pressure, platelet aggregation, and inflammation, while improving vascular reactivity. Mainly on the basis of the results of RCTs, the American Heart Association recommends that everyone eat oily fish twice per week and that those with coronary heart disease eat 1 g/d of EPA plus DHA from oily fish or supplements. Directions for future research include 1) RCTs to confirm the initial trials showing that EPA plus DHA decreases cardiovascular death and additional studies to determine whether this effect is due to EPA, DHA, or the combination; the dosage of the effective components; and whether the mechanism of action in humans is prevention of fatal arrhythmias. 2) Clinical studies to determine whether the reduction in cardiovascular disease risk factors is due to EPA, DHA, or the combination and the dosage of the effective components. 3) Clinical studies to determine whether vegetable oil-derived {alpha}-linolenic acid added to a diet enriched in n-6 fatty acids can effectively substitute for fish oil-derived EPA plus DHA.
Matti Narkia

High dietary methionine intake increases the risk of acute coronary events in middle-ag... - 0 views

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    High dietary methionine intake increases the risk of acute coronary events in middle-aged men.
    Virtanen JK, Voutilainen S, Rissanen TH, Happonen P, Mursu J, Laukkanen JA, Poulsen H, Lakka TA, Salonen JT.
    Nutr Metab Cardiovasc Dis. 2006 Mar;16(2):113-20. Epub 2005 Nov 2.
    PMID: 16487911
    doi:10.1016/j.numecd.2005.05.005

    Conclusions
    The main finding of this study is that long-term, moderately high dietary methionine intake may increase the risk of acute coronary events in middle-aged Finnish men free of prior CHD. More prospective research is needed to confirm the role of dietary methionine in the development of CVD, and whether its effects are independent of homocysteine.
Matti Narkia

Seasonality of UV-radiation and vitamin D status at 69 degrees north. - Photochem Photo... - 1 views

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    Seasonality of UV-radiation and vitamin D status at 69 degrees north.
    Brustad M, Edvardsen K, Wilsgaard T, Engelsen O, Aksnes L, Lund E.
    Photochem Photobiol Sci. 2007 Aug;6(8):903-8. Epub 2007 Jun 27.
    PMID: 17668121

    The generally high dietary intakes of vitamin D, especially in winter, mask largely the effect of seasonal variation in UV-exposure, causing an atypical seasonal variation in vitamin D status. The UV-hour variable significantly predicted 25(OH)D levels in blood when adjusted for intakes and artificial UV-radiation exposure and sun holidays abroad.
Matti Narkia

Age and Dietary Form of Vitamin K Affect Menaquinone-4 Concentrations in Male Fischer 3... - 0 views

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    Age and dietary form of vitamin K affect menaquinone-4 concentrations in male Fischer 344 rats.
    Booth SL, Peterson JW, Smith D, Shea MK, Chamberland J, Crivello N.
    J Nutr. 2008 Mar;138(3):492-6.
    PMID: 18287355

    These data suggest that dihydrophylloquinone, which differs from phylloquinone in its side phytyl chain, is absorbed but its intake results in less MK-4 in certain tissues. Dihydrophylloquinone may be used in models for the study of tissue-specific vitamin K deficiency
Matti Narkia

Conversion of Dietary Phylloquinone to Tissue Menaquinone-4 in Rats is Not Dependent on... - 0 views

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    Conversion of dietary phylloquinone to tissue menaquinone-4 in rats is not dependent on gut bacteria.
    Davidson RT, Foley AL, Engelke JA, Suttie JW.
    J Nutr. 1998 Feb;128(2):220-3.
    PMID: 9446847

    These data offer conclusive proof that the tissue-specific formation of MK-4 from K is a metabolic transformation that does not require bacterial transformation to menadione as an intermediate in the process
Matti Narkia

Types of Dietary Fat and Risk of Coronary Heart Disease: A Critical Review -- Hu et al.... - 0 views

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    Types of dietary fat and risk of coronary heart disease: a critical review.
    Hu FB, Manson JE, Willett WC.
    J Am Coll Nutr. 2001 Feb;20(1):5-19. Review.
    PMID: 11293467
Matti Narkia

A Systematic Review of the Evidence Supporting a Causal Link Between Dietary Factors an... - 0 views

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    A systematic review of the evidence supporting a causal link between dietary factors and coronary heart disease.
    Mente A, de Koning L, Shannon HS, Anand SS.
    Arch Intern Med. 2009 Apr 13;169(7):659-69. Review.
    PMID: 19364995

    Conclusions The evidence supports a valid association of a limited number of dietary factors and dietary patterns with CHD. Future evaluation of dietary patterns, including their nutrient and food components, in cohort studies and randomized trials is recommended
Matti Narkia

Egg consumption and endothelial function: a randomized controlled crossover trial - 0 views

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    Egg consumption and endothelial function: a randomized controlled crossover trial.
    Katz DL, Evans MA, Nawaz H, Njike VY, Chan W, Comerford BP, Hoxley ML.
    Int J Cardiol. 2005 Mar 10;99(1):65-70.
    PMID: 15721501

    Conclusion: Short-term egg consumption does not adversely affect endothelial function in healthy adults, supporting the view that dietary cholesterol may be less detrimental to cardiovascular health than previously thought
Matti Narkia

Single food focus dietary guidance: lessons learned from an economic analysis of egg co... - 0 views

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    Single food focus dietary guidance: lessons learned from an economic analysis of egg consumption.
    Schmier JK, Barraj LM, Tran NL.
    Cost Eff Resour Alloc. 2009 Apr 14;7:7.
    PMID: 19366457

    Methods
    A risk apportionment model estimated the increased risk for coronary heart disease (CHD) attributable to egg cholesterol content, the decreased risk for other conditions (age-related macular degeneration (AMD), cataract, neural tube defects, and sarcopenia) associated with egg consumption, and a literature search identified the cost of illness of each condition. The base 795 case scenario calculated the costs or savings of each condition attributable to egg cholesterol or nutrient content.

    Results
    Given the costs associated with CHD and the benefits associated with the other conditions, the most likely scenario associated with eating an egg a day is savings of $2.82 billion annually with uncertainty ranging from a net cost of $756 million to net savings up to $8.50 billion.

    Conclusion
    This study evaluating the economic impact of egg consumption suggests that public health campaigns promoting limiting egg consumption as a means to reduce CHD risk would not be cost-effective from a societal perspective when other benefits are considered. Public health intervention that focuses on a single dietary constituent, and foods that are high in that constituent, may lead to unintended consequences of removing other beneficial constituents and the net effect may not be in its totality a desirable public health outcome. As newer data become available, the model should be updated.
Matti Narkia

Dietary cholesterol and the risk of cardiovascular disease in patients: a review of the... - 0 views

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    Dietary cholesterol and the risk of cardiovascular disease in patients: a review of the Harvard Egg Study and other data.
    Jones PJ.
    Int J Clin Pract Suppl. 2009 Oct;(163):1-8, 28-36. English, French.
    PMID: 19751443

    For many years, both the medical community and the general public have incorrectly associated eggs with high serum cholesterol and being deleterious to health, even though cholesterol is an essential component of cells and organisms. It is now acknowledged that the original studies purporting to show a linear relation between cholesterol intake and coronary heart disease (CHD) may have contained fundamental study design flaws, including conflated cholesterol and saturated fat consumption rates and inaccurately assessed actual dietary intake of fats by study subjects. Newer and more accurate trials, such as that conducted by Frank B. Hu of the Harvard School of Public Health (1999), have shown that consumption of up to seven eggs per week is harmonious with a healthful diet, except in male patients with diabetes for whom an association in higher egg intake and CHD was shown. The degree to which serum cholesterol is increased by dietary cholesterol depends upon whether the individual's cholesterol synthesis is stimulated or down-regulated by such increased intake, and the extent to which each of these phenomena occurs varies from person to person. Several recent studies have shed additional light on the specific interplay between dietary cholesterol and cardiovascular health risk. It is evident that the dynamics of cholesterol homeostasis, and of development of CHD, are extremely complex and multifactorial. In summary, the earlier purported adverse relationship between dietary cholesterol and heart disease risk was likely largely over-exaggerated.
Matti Narkia

n-3 Fatty acids and cardiovascular disease evidence explained and mechanisms explored. ... - 0 views

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    n-3 Fatty acids and cardiovascular disease: evidence explained and mechanisms explored.
    Calder PC.
    Clin Sci (Lond). 2004 Jul;107(1):1-11. Review.
    PMID: 15132735

    DIETARY RECOMMENDATIONS FOR INTAKE OF LONG-CHAIN n-3 PUFAS

    It is clear from the forgoing discussion that long-chain n-3 fatty acids have been proven to be effective in secondary prevention of MI, with a particularly marked effect on sudden death. Thus it would be prudent to advise post-MI patients to increase long-chain n-3 PUFA consumption. Epidemiological studies, studies investigating effects on classic and emerging risk factors and mechanistic studies indicate that long-chain n-3 fatty acids also play a key role in primary prevention. This is supported by studies in animal models, including monkeys. Thus long-chain n-3 fatty acid consumption should be promoted for all individuals especially those at risk of developing cardiovascular disease. This is the reason why a number of organizations have now made recommendations relating to the intake of fatty fish (for example [3]) and of long-chain n-3 PUFAs (Table 6). It is clear that there is a wide gap between current intakes of long-chain n-3 PUFAs and many of these recommendations (Table 6). To meet these recommendations strategies other than increased consumption of fatty fish may be required.
Matti Narkia

Dietary protein and bone health: a systematic review and meta-analysis -- Darling et al... - 0 views

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    Dietary protein and bone health: a systematic review and meta-analysis.
    Darling AL, Millward DJ, Torgerson DJ, Hewitt CE, Lanham-New SA.
    Am J Clin Nutr. 2009 Nov 4. [Epub ahead of print]
    PMID: 19889822
Matti Narkia

The carnivore connection: dietary carbohydrate in the evolution of NIDDM. - [Diabetolog... - 0 views

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    The carnivore connection: dietary carbohydrate in the evolution of NIDDM.
    Miller JC, Colagiuri S.
    Diabetologia. 1994 Dec;37(12):1280-6.
    PMID: 7895958
Matti Narkia

Cholesterol, coconuts, and diet on Polynesian atolls: a natural experiment: the Pukapuk... - 0 views

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    Cholesterol, coconuts, and diet on Polynesian atolls: a natural experiment: the Pukapuka and Tokelau island studies.
    Prior IA, Davidson F, Salmond CE, Czochanska Z.
    Am J Clin Nutr. 1981 Aug;34(8):1552-61.
    PMID: 7270479

    Two populations of Polynesians living on atolls near the equator provide an opportunity to investigate the relative effects of saturated fat and dietary cholesterol in determining serum cholesterol levels. The habitual diets of the toll dwellers from both Pukapuka and Tokelau are high in saturated fat but low in dietary cholesterol and sucrose. Coconut is the chief source of energy for both groups. Tokelauans obtain a much higher percentage of energy from coconut than the Pukapukans, 63% compared with 34%, so their intake of saturated fat is higher. The serum cholesterol levels are 35 to 40 mg higher in Tokelauans than in Pukapukans. These major differences in serum cholesterol levels are considered to be due to the higher saturated fat intake of the Tokelauans. Analysis of a variety of food samples, and human fat biopsies show a high lauric (12:0) and myristic (14:0) content. Vascular disease is uncommon in both populations and there is no evidence of the high saturated fat intake having a harmful effect in these populations.
Matti Narkia

Review of fat and fatty acid requirements and criteria for developing dietary guideline... - 0 views

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    Review of fat and fatty acid requirements and criteria for developing dietary guidelines.
    Smit LA, Mozaffarian D, Willett W.
    Ann Nutr Metab. 2009;55(1-3):44-55. Epub 2009 Sep 15.
    PMID: 19752535
    DOI: 10.1159/000228995
Matti Narkia

Dietary Mono- and Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids Similarly Affect LDL Size in Healthy Men ... - 0 views

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    Dietary mono- and polyunsaturated fatty acids similarly affect LDL size in healthy men and women.
    Kratz M, Gülbahçe E, von Eckardstein A, Cullen P, Cignarella A, Assmann G, Wahrburg U.
    J Nutr. 2002 Apr;132(4):715-8.
    PMID: 11925466

    In conclusion, our data indicate that dietary unsaturated fat similarly reduces LDL size relative to saturated fat. However, the small magnitude of this reduction also suggests that the composition of dietary fat is not a major factor affecting LDL size.
Matti Narkia

Vitamin D intake is inversely associated with rheumatoid arthritis: results from the Io... - 0 views

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    Vitamin D intake is inversely associated with rheumatoid arthritis: results from the Iowa Women's Health Study.
    Merlino LA, Curtis J, Mikuls TR, Cerhan JR, Criswell LA, Saag KG; Iowa Women's Health Study.
    Arthritis Rheum. 2004 Jan;50(1):72-7.
    PMID: 14730601
    DOI: 10.1002/art.11434

    CONCLUSION: Greater intake of vitamin D may be associated with a lower risk of RA in older women, although this finding is hypothesis generating.
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